How to Write a Lab Report

Lab Reports Describe Your Experiment

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Lab reports are an essential part of all laboratory courses and usually a significant part of your grade. If your instructor gives you an outline for how to write a lab report, use that. Some instructors require a lab report to be included in a lab notebook , while others will request a separate report. Here's a format for a lab report you can use if you aren't sure what to write or need an explanation of what to include in the different parts of the report.

A lab report is how you explain what you did in ​your experiment, what you learned, and what the results meant.

Lab Report Essentials

Not all lab reports have title pages, but if your instructor wants one, it would be a single page that states:​

The title says what you did. It should be brief (aim for ten words or less) and describe the main point of the experiment or investigation. An example of a title would be: "Effects of Ultraviolet Light on Borax Crystal Growth Rate". If you can, begin your title using a keyword rather than an article like "The" or "A".

Introduction or Purpose

Usually, the introduction is one paragraph that explains the objectives or purpose of the lab. In one sentence, state the hypothesis. Sometimes an introduction may contain background information, briefly summarize how the experiment was performed, state the findings of the experiment, and list the conclusions of the investigation. Even if you don't write a whole introduction, you need to state the purpose of the experiment, or why you did it. This would be where you state your hypothesis .

List everything needed to complete your experiment.

Describe the steps you completed during your investigation. This is your procedure. Be sufficiently detailed that anyone could read this section and duplicate your experiment. Write it as if you were giving direction for someone else to do the lab. It may be helpful to provide a figure to diagram your experimental setup.

Numerical data obtained from your procedure usually presented as a table. Data encompasses what you recorded when you conducted the experiment. It's just the facts, not any interpretation of what they mean.

Describe in words what the data means. Sometimes the Results section is combined with the Discussion.

Discussion or Analysis

The Data section contains numbers; the Analysis section contains any calculations you made based on those numbers. This is where you interpret the data and determine whether or not a hypothesis was accepted. This is also where you would discuss any mistakes you might have made while conducting the investigation. You may wish to describe ways the study might have been improved.


Most of the time the conclusion is a single paragraph that sums up what happened in the experiment, whether your hypothesis was accepted or rejected, and what this means.

Figures and Graphs

Graphs and figures must both be labeled with a descriptive title. Label the axes on a graph, being sure to include units of measurement. The independent variable is on the X-axis, the dependent variable (the one you are measuring) is on the Y-axis. Be sure to refer to figures and graphs in the text of your report: the first figure is Figure 1, the second figure is Figure 2, etc.

If your research was based on someone else's work or if you cited facts that require documentation, then you should list these references.

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How to Write a Report

Teaching your class how to write reports in three steps.

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How to Write a Book Report: Top Tips for Success

What Is a Book Report?

What elements should a book report include, steps of writing a book report, pre-writing steps, put your notes into actions, writing a college level book report.

Wondering how to write a book report that can demonstrate your understanding of the author’s major ideas, impress your teacher, classmate, get you a high grade?

Writing an effective book report can be a challenging assignment for many students because it requires that you should analyze a large amount of information in comparatively small space, discuss the writer’s main themes, the plot of the story, and characters from an objective stance. But don’t get discouraged!

In this guide, we will describe in details how to write a book report college level; we will provide you with top tips on how to successfully organize the paper writing process. Keep reading to learn about the basic steps needed for completing college book report projects.

A book report is an informative piece of writing. Book reports are similar to book reviews but there are some important differences. Let’s compare reports and reviews.

A book review is a critical account of a fiction or non-fiction book where you have to give a summary of the content, assess the value of the book, and express your personal opinion whether you recommend or don’t recommend it to other potential readers. Typically, book reviews are college assignments. They can be also written by professionals; book reviews are published in newspapers, magazines, academic or scientific journals. Usually the authors of those attend specific training providers.

Book report projects focus mostly on giving a summary of a literary work than an evaluation of it. Teachers assign them to middle and high school students. These academic papers can take different forms, ranging from 250 to 500 words and include different elements according to their grade level.  

Why do students have to write book analysis? Writing book reports helps any student improve analytical and communication skills and practice expressing their thoughts and opinions about different aspects of the books they have read.

Middle grade-level book reports, as well as projects for students of higher grades, may be of three types:

No matter what type of paper you are going to write, make sure to include certain basic points that can help you explain to your reader why this book was interesting. You can find them on the following list.

Any good book report example should contain these elements.

Looking for advice on how to start a book report? Before we start discussing how to write a book report college level, let’s briefly outline what you should do at the pre-writing stage.

Now it’s time to share your opinion - inform your friends and teacher why this book is worth their attention. How to do a book report that will make a powerful impression on your audience? It’s easier than you might be thinking - figure out connections between elements and try to discover their hidden meaning. Besides, you should stay creative.

Book reports are common tasks for college students that help to assess their writing, analytical, and critical thinking skills. They are more complicated assignments than high school papers. How to write a book report college level?

The steps in writing this type of assignment for college are actually the same as when creating a paper for high school. But college-level papers require that you should write a book summary and provide critical analysis or evaluation of the text. And don’t forget about formatting. You should use one of the appropriate academic styles to organize the citations and bibliographical information: MLA paper format , APA, Chicago, etc.

Your academic work should include:

When writing your summary of a book, you should keep in mind that it has to follow the author’s order. Include the key ideas that develop the author’s argument.  Present the book’s summary with the analysis of the structure. If you would like to share your report as well as thoughts about the book to other students all over the world, you may start your own blog and create your website. There you will be able to share your personal opinions and support your writing and reading. However you should not forget that all the websites should be hosted so it is important to take care of this.

Book reports and book reviews help students learn to summarize, analyze, compare and contrast, provide a clear, logical and effective argument, paying attention to every detail. You will need these skills throughout your entire life.  We hope that these easy tips on how to write a book report from experienced writers will help you succeed in completing your own projects.

Do you feel too tired with coursework overload? Have no idea how to start a book report? You can easily get professional help if you buy an essay paper online  at our custom paper writing service. It will be written strictly according to your specific requirements, be perfect in grammar, style, and format and can serve you as a great template you can follow to become a better writer.

When reading a work of literature in your classes, teachers ask you to write a literary analysis to prove your skills and knowledge. To analyze any book or short story, you need to break it down into small parts and examine how they all work. This is when a literary analysis outline will come in han...

“Although many people consider the character of Darth Vader from “Star Wars” a villain, I have got some arguments that prove the role of his alter-ego, Anakin Skywalker, had all reasons to turn to the dark side. He remained more humanistic than many other characters of the saga.”That is how a studen...

An assignment to complete a rhetorical analysis essay may seem pretty difficult for students who never completed such tasks before. Believe it or not, such a point is valid. The main goal of this essay differs from other types like persuasive or argumentative. Here the students don't need to work wi...


How to Write an Incident Report

Last Updated: May 20, 2023 References Approved

This article was co-authored by Clinton M. Sandvick, JD, PhD . Clinton M. Sandvick worked as a civil litigator in California for over 7 years. He received his JD from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1998 and his PhD in American History from the University of Oregon in 2013. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article received 19 testimonials and 80% of readers who voted found it helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 1,179,461 times.

If you're a security guard or police officer deployed to the scene of an incident, writing up a detailed and accurate report is an important part of doing your job correctly. A good incident report gives a thorough account of what happened without glossing over unsavory information or leaving out important facts. It's crucial to follow the appropriate protocol, describe the incident clearly, and submit a polished report.

Things You Should Know

Incident Report Template and Example

how to write a report steps

Following Protocol

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Tip: If possible, do your write up using word processing software. It will look neater, and you'll be able to use spell check to polish it when you're finished. If you write your report by hand, print clearly instead of using cursive. Don't leave people guessing whether your 7s are actually 1s.

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Describing What Happened

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Polishing the Report

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About This Article

Clinton M. Sandvick, JD, PhD

If you need to write an incident report, start writing down the basic facts you need to remember as soon as possible, so you don’t start to forget details. Include the time, date, and location of the incident, as well as your name and work ID number and the names of anyone else who was present. Start by describing the general nature of the incident, then write out a detailed, first-person account of what happened. Include as many details as you can. Keep reading for tips on editing and polishing your report. Did this summary help you? Yes No

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