Home » Research Report – Example, Writing Guide and Types
Research Report – Example, Writing Guide and Types
Table of Contents
Research Report is a written document that presents the results of a research project or study, including the research question, methodology, results, and conclusions, in a clear and objective manner.
The purpose of a research report is to communicate the findings of the research to the intended audience, which could be other researchers, stakeholders, or the general public.
Components of Research Report
Components of Research Report are as follows:
The introduction sets the stage for the research report and provides a brief overview of the research question or problem being investigated. It should include a clear statement of the purpose of the study and its significance or relevance to the field of research. It may also provide background information or a literature review to help contextualize the research.
The literature review provides a critical analysis and synthesis of the existing research and scholarship relevant to the research question or problem. It should identify the gaps, inconsistencies, and contradictions in the literature and show how the current study addresses these issues. The literature review also establishes the theoretical framework or conceptual model that guides the research.
The methodology section describes the research design, methods, and procedures used to collect and analyze data. It should include information on the sample or participants, data collection instruments, data collection procedures, and data analysis techniques. The methodology should be clear and detailed enough to allow other researchers to replicate the study.
The results section presents the findings of the study in a clear and objective manner. It should provide a detailed description of the data and statistics used to answer the research question or test the hypothesis. Tables, graphs, and figures may be included to help visualize the data and illustrate the key findings.
The discussion section interprets the results of the study and explains their significance or relevance to the research question or problem. It should also compare the current findings with those of previous studies and identify the implications for future research or practice. The discussion should be based on the results presented in the previous section and should avoid speculation or unfounded conclusions.
The conclusion summarizes the key findings of the study and restates the main argument or thesis presented in the introduction. It should also provide a brief overview of the contributions of the study to the field of research and the implications for practice or policy.
The references section lists all the sources cited in the research report, following a specific citation style, such as APA or MLA.
The appendices section includes any additional material, such as data tables, figures, or instruments used in the study, that could not be included in the main text due to space limitations.
Types of Research Report
Types of Research Report are as follows:
Thesis is a type of research report. A thesis is a long-form research document that presents the findings and conclusions of an original research study conducted by a student as part of a graduate or postgraduate program. It is typically written by a student pursuing a higher degree, such as a Master’s or Doctoral degree, although it can also be written by researchers or scholars in other fields.
Research paper is a type of research report. A research paper is a document that presents the results of a research study or investigation. Research papers can be written in a variety of fields, including science, social science, humanities, and business. They typically follow a standard format that includes an introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion sections.
A technical report is a detailed report that provides information about a specific technical or scientific problem or project. Technical reports are often used in engineering, science, and other technical fields to document research and development work.
A progress report provides an update on the progress of a research project or program over a specific period of time. Progress reports are typically used to communicate the status of a project to stakeholders, funders, or project managers.
A feasibility report assesses the feasibility of a proposed project or plan, providing an analysis of the potential risks, benefits, and costs associated with the project. Feasibility reports are often used in business, engineering, and other fields to determine the viability of a project before it is undertaken.
A field report documents observations and findings from fieldwork, which is research conducted in the natural environment or setting. Field reports are often used in anthropology, ecology, and other social and natural sciences.
An experimental report documents the results of a scientific experiment, including the hypothesis, methods, results, and conclusions. Experimental reports are often used in biology, chemistry, and other sciences to communicate the results of laboratory experiments.
Case Study Report
A case study report provides an in-depth analysis of a specific case or situation, often used in psychology, social work, and other fields to document and understand complex cases or phenomena.
Literature Review Report
A literature review report synthesizes and summarizes existing research on a specific topic, providing an overview of the current state of knowledge on the subject. Literature review reports are often used in social sciences, education, and other fields to identify gaps in the literature and guide future research.
Research Report Example
Following is a Research Report Example sample for Students:
Title: The Impact of Social Media on Academic Performance among High School Students
This study aims to investigate the relationship between social media use and academic performance among high school students. The study utilized a quantitative research design, which involved a survey questionnaire administered to a sample of 200 high school students. The findings indicate that there is a negative correlation between social media use and academic performance, suggesting that excessive social media use can lead to poor academic performance among high school students. The results of this study have important implications for educators, parents, and policymakers, as they highlight the need for strategies that can help students balance their social media use and academic responsibilities.
Social media has become an integral part of the lives of high school students. With the widespread use of social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat, students can connect with friends, share photos and videos, and engage in discussions on a range of topics. While social media offers many benefits, concerns have been raised about its impact on academic performance. Many studies have found a negative correlation between social media use and academic performance among high school students (Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010; Paul, Baker, & Cochran, 2012).
Given the growing importance of social media in the lives of high school students, it is important to investigate its impact on academic performance. This study aims to address this gap by examining the relationship between social media use and academic performance among high school students.
The study utilized a quantitative research design, which involved a survey questionnaire administered to a sample of 200 high school students. The questionnaire was developed based on previous studies and was designed to measure the frequency and duration of social media use, as well as academic performance.
The participants were selected using a convenience sampling technique, and the survey questionnaire was distributed in the classroom during regular school hours. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation analysis.
The findings indicate that the majority of high school students use social media platforms on a daily basis, with Facebook being the most popular platform. The results also show a negative correlation between social media use and academic performance, suggesting that excessive social media use can lead to poor academic performance among high school students.
The results of this study have important implications for educators, parents, and policymakers. The negative correlation between social media use and academic performance suggests that strategies should be put in place to help students balance their social media use and academic responsibilities. For example, educators could incorporate social media into their teaching strategies to engage students and enhance learning. Parents could limit their children’s social media use and encourage them to prioritize their academic responsibilities. Policymakers could develop guidelines and policies to regulate social media use among high school students.
In conclusion, this study provides evidence of the negative impact of social media on academic performance among high school students. The findings highlight the need for strategies that can help students balance their social media use and academic responsibilities. Further research is needed to explore the specific mechanisms by which social media use affects academic performance and to develop effective strategies for addressing this issue.
One limitation of this study is the use of convenience sampling, which limits the generalizability of the findings to other populations. Future studies should use random sampling techniques to increase the representativeness of the sample. Another limitation is the use of self-reported measures, which may be subject to social desirability bias. Future studies could use objective measures of social media use and academic performance, such as tracking software and school records.
The findings of this study have important implications for educators, parents, and policymakers. Educators could incorporate social media into their teaching strategies to engage students and enhance learning. For example, teachers could use social media platforms to share relevant educational resources and facilitate online discussions. Parents could limit their children’s social media use and encourage them to prioritize their academic responsibilities. They could also engage in open communication with their children to understand their social media use and its impact on their academic performance. Policymakers could develop guidelines and policies to regulate social media use among high school students. For example, schools could implement social media policies that restrict access during class time and encourage responsible use.
- Kirschner, P. A., & Karpinski, A. C. (2010). Facebook® and academic performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 1237-1245.
- Paul, J. A., Baker, H. M., & Cochran, J. D. (2012). Effect of online social networking on student academic performance. Journal of the Research Center for Educational Technology, 8(1), 1-19.
- Pantic, I. (2014). Online social networking and mental health. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17(10), 652-657.
- Rosen, L. D., Carrier, L. M., & Cheever, N. A. (2013). Facebook and texting made me do it: Media-induced task-switching while studying. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 948-958.
Note*: Above mention, Example is just a sample for the students’ guide. Do not directly copy and paste as your College or University assignment. Kindly do some research and Write your own.
Applications of Research Report
Research reports have many applications, including:
- Communicating research findings: The primary application of a research report is to communicate the results of a study to other researchers, stakeholders, or the general public. The report serves as a way to share new knowledge, insights, and discoveries with others in the field.
- Informing policy and practice : Research reports can inform policy and practice by providing evidence-based recommendations for decision-makers. For example, a research report on the effectiveness of a new drug could inform regulatory agencies in their decision-making process.
- Supporting further research: Research reports can provide a foundation for further research in a particular area. Other researchers may use the findings and methodology of a report to develop new research questions or to build on existing research.
- Evaluating programs and interventions : Research reports can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of programs and interventions in achieving their intended outcomes. For example, a research report on a new educational program could provide evidence of its impact on student performance.
- Demonstrating impact : Research reports can be used to demonstrate the impact of research funding or to evaluate the success of research projects. By presenting the findings and outcomes of a study, research reports can show the value of research to funders and stakeholders.
- Enhancing professional development : Research reports can be used to enhance professional development by providing a source of information and learning for researchers and practitioners in a particular field. For example, a research report on a new teaching methodology could provide insights and ideas for educators to incorporate into their own practice.
How to write Research Report
Here are some steps you can follow to write a research report:
- Identify the research question: The first step in writing a research report is to identify your research question. This will help you focus your research and organize your findings.
- Conduct research : Once you have identified your research question, you will need to conduct research to gather relevant data and information. This can involve conducting experiments, reviewing literature, or analyzing data.
- Organize your findings: Once you have gathered all of your data, you will need to organize your findings in a way that is clear and understandable. This can involve creating tables, graphs, or charts to illustrate your results.
- Write the report: Once you have organized your findings, you can begin writing the report. Start with an introduction that provides background information and explains the purpose of your research. Next, provide a detailed description of your research methods and findings. Finally, summarize your results and draw conclusions based on your findings.
- Proofread and edit: After you have written your report, be sure to proofread and edit it carefully. Check for grammar and spelling errors, and make sure that your report is well-organized and easy to read.
- Include a reference list: Be sure to include a list of references that you used in your research. This will give credit to your sources and allow readers to further explore the topic if they choose.
- Format your report: Finally, format your report according to the guidelines provided by your instructor or organization. This may include formatting requirements for headings, margins, fonts, and spacing.
Purpose of Research Report
The purpose of a research report is to communicate the results of a research study to a specific audience, such as peers in the same field, stakeholders, or the general public. The report provides a detailed description of the research methods, findings, and conclusions.
Some common purposes of a research report include:
- Sharing knowledge: A research report allows researchers to share their findings and knowledge with others in their field. This helps to advance the field and improve the understanding of a particular topic.
- Identifying trends: A research report can identify trends and patterns in data, which can help guide future research and inform decision-making.
- Addressing problems: A research report can provide insights into problems or issues and suggest solutions or recommendations for addressing them.
- Evaluating programs or interventions : A research report can evaluate the effectiveness of programs or interventions, which can inform decision-making about whether to continue, modify, or discontinue them.
- Meeting regulatory requirements: In some fields, research reports are required to meet regulatory requirements, such as in the case of drug trials or environmental impact studies.
When to Write Research Report
A research report should be written after completing the research study. This includes collecting data, analyzing the results, and drawing conclusions based on the findings. Once the research is complete, the report should be written in a timely manner while the information is still fresh in the researcher’s mind.
In academic settings, research reports are often required as part of coursework or as part of a thesis or dissertation. In this case, the report should be written according to the guidelines provided by the instructor or institution.
In other settings, such as in industry or government, research reports may be required to inform decision-making or to comply with regulatory requirements. In these cases, the report should be written as soon as possible after the research is completed in order to inform decision-making in a timely manner.
Overall, the timing of when to write a research report depends on the purpose of the research, the expectations of the audience, and any regulatory requirements that need to be met. However, it is important to complete the report in a timely manner while the information is still fresh in the researcher’s mind.
Characteristics of Research Report
There are several characteristics of a research report that distinguish it from other types of writing. These characteristics include:
- Objective: A research report should be written in an objective and unbiased manner. It should present the facts and findings of the research study without any personal opinions or biases.
- Systematic: A research report should be written in a systematic manner. It should follow a clear and logical structure, and the information should be presented in a way that is easy to understand and follow.
- Detailed: A research report should be detailed and comprehensive. It should provide a thorough description of the research methods, results, and conclusions.
- Accurate : A research report should be accurate and based on sound research methods. The findings and conclusions should be supported by data and evidence.
- Organized: A research report should be well-organized. It should include headings and subheadings to help the reader navigate the report and understand the main points.
- Clear and concise: A research report should be written in clear and concise language. The information should be presented in a way that is easy to understand, and unnecessary jargon should be avoided.
- Citations and references: A research report should include citations and references to support the findings and conclusions. This helps to give credit to other researchers and to provide readers with the opportunity to further explore the topic.
Advantages of Research Report
Research reports have several advantages, including:
- Communicating research findings: Research reports allow researchers to communicate their findings to a wider audience, including other researchers, stakeholders, and the general public. This helps to disseminate knowledge and advance the understanding of a particular topic.
- Providing evidence for decision-making : Research reports can provide evidence to inform decision-making, such as in the case of policy-making, program planning, or product development. The findings and conclusions can help guide decisions and improve outcomes.
- Supporting further research: Research reports can provide a foundation for further research on a particular topic. Other researchers can build on the findings and conclusions of the report, which can lead to further discoveries and advancements in the field.
- Demonstrating expertise: Research reports can demonstrate the expertise of the researchers and their ability to conduct rigorous and high-quality research. This can be important for securing funding, promotions, and other professional opportunities.
- Meeting regulatory requirements: In some fields, research reports are required to meet regulatory requirements, such as in the case of drug trials or environmental impact studies. Producing a high-quality research report can help ensure compliance with these requirements.
Limitations of Research Report
Despite their advantages, research reports also have some limitations, including:
- Time-consuming: Conducting research and writing a report can be a time-consuming process, particularly for large-scale studies. This can limit the frequency and speed of producing research reports.
- Expensive: Conducting research and producing a report can be expensive, particularly for studies that require specialized equipment, personnel, or data. This can limit the scope and feasibility of some research studies.
- Limited generalizability: Research studies often focus on a specific population or context, which can limit the generalizability of the findings to other populations or contexts.
- Potential bias : Researchers may have biases or conflicts of interest that can influence the findings and conclusions of the research study. Additionally, participants may also have biases or may not be representative of the larger population, which can limit the validity and reliability of the findings.
- Accessibility: Research reports may be written in technical or academic language, which can limit their accessibility to a wider audience. Additionally, some research may be behind paywalls or require specialized access, which can limit the ability of others to read and use the findings.
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- Knowledge Base
- How to Write a Results Section | Tips & Examples
How to Write a Results Section | Tips & Examples
Published on August 30, 2022 by Tegan George . Revised on November 11, 2022.
A results section is where you report the main findings of the data collection and analysis you conducted for your thesis or dissertation . You should report all relevant results concisely and objectively, in a logical order. Don’t include subjective interpretations of why you found these results or what they mean—any evaluation should be saved for the discussion section .
Table of contents
How to write a results section, reporting quantitative research results, reporting qualitative research results, results vs. discussion vs. conclusion, checklist: research results, frequently asked questions about results sections.
When conducting research, it’s important to report the results of your study prior to discussing your interpretations of it. This gives your reader a clear idea of exactly what you found and keeps the data itself separate from your subjective analysis.
Here are a few best practices:
- Your results should always be written in the past tense.
- While the length of this section depends on how much data you collected and analyzed, it should be written as concisely as possible.
- Only include results that are directly relevant to answering your research questions . Avoid speculative or interpretative words like “appears” or “implies.”
- If you have other results you’d like to include, consider adding them to an appendix or footnotes.
- Always start out with your broadest results first, and then flow into your more granular (but still relevant) ones. Think of it like a shoe store: first discuss the shoes as a whole, then the sneakers, boots, sandals, etc.
If you conducted quantitative research , you’ll likely be working with the results of some sort of statistical analysis .
Your results section should report the results of any statistical tests you used to compare groups or assess relationships between variables . It should also state whether or not each hypothesis was supported.
The most logical way to structure quantitative results is to frame them around your research questions or hypotheses. For each question or hypothesis, share:
- A reminder of the type of analysis you used (e.g., a two-sample t test or simple linear regression ). A more detailed description of your analysis should go in your methodology section.
- A concise summary of each relevant result, both positive and negative. This can include any relevant descriptive statistics (e.g., means and standard deviations ) as well as inferential statistics (e.g., t scores, degrees of freedom , and p values ). Remember, these numbers are often placed in parentheses.
- A brief statement of how each result relates to the question, or whether the hypothesis was supported. You can briefly mention any results that didn’t fit with your expectations and assumptions, but save any speculation on their meaning or consequences for your discussion and conclusion.
A note on tables and figures
In quantitative research, it’s often helpful to include visual elements such as graphs, charts, and tables , but only if they are directly relevant to your results. Give these elements clear, descriptive titles and labels so that your reader can easily understand what is being shown. If you want to include any other visual elements that are more tangential in nature, consider adding a figure and table list .
As a rule of thumb:
- Tables are used to communicate exact values, giving a concise overview of various results
- Graphs and charts are used to visualize trends and relationships, giving an at-a-glance illustration of key findings
Don’t forget to also mention any tables and figures you used within the text of your results section. Summarize or elaborate on specific aspects you think your reader should know about rather than merely restating the same numbers already shown.
Figure 1: Intention to donate to environmental organizations based on social distance from impact of environmental damage.
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In qualitative research , your results might not all be directly related to specific hypotheses. In this case, you can structure your results section around key themes or topics that emerged from your analysis of the data.
For each theme, start with general observations about what the data showed. You can mention:
- Recurring points of agreement or disagreement
- Patterns and trends
- Particularly significant snippets from individual responses
Next, clarify and support these points with direct quotations. Be sure to report any relevant demographic information about participants. Further information (such as full transcripts , if appropriate) can be included in an appendix .
“I think that in role-playing games, there’s more attention to character design, to world design, because the whole story is important and more attention is paid to certain game elements […] so that perhaps you do need bigger teams of creative experts than in an average shooter or something.”
Responses suggest that video game consumers consider some types of games to have more artistic potential than others.
Your results section should objectively report your findings, presenting only brief observations in relation to each question, hypothesis, or theme.
It should not speculate about the meaning of the results or attempt to answer your main research question . Detailed interpretation of your results is more suitable for your discussion section , while synthesis of your results into an overall answer to your main research question is best left for your conclusion .
I have completed my data collection and analyzed the results.
I have included all results that are relevant to my research questions.
I have concisely and objectively reported each result, including relevant descriptive statistics and inferential statistics .
I have stated whether each hypothesis was supported or refuted.
I have used tables and figures to illustrate my results where appropriate.
All tables and figures are correctly labelled and referred to in the text.
There is no subjective interpretation or speculation on the meaning of the results.
You've finished writing up your results! Use the other checklists to further improve your thesis.
The results chapter of a thesis or dissertation presents your research results concisely and objectively.
In quantitative research , for each question or hypothesis , state:
- The type of analysis used
- Relevant results in the form of descriptive and inferential statistics
- Whether or not the alternative hypothesis was supported
In qualitative research , for each question or theme, describe:
- Recurring patterns
- Significant or representative individual responses
- Relevant quotations from the data
Don’t interpret or speculate in the results chapter.
Results are usually written in the past tense , because they are describing the outcome of completed actions.
The results chapter or section simply and objectively reports what you found, without speculating on why you found these results. The discussion interprets the meaning of the results, puts them in context, and explains why they matter.
In qualitative research , results and discussion are sometimes combined. But in quantitative research , it’s considered important to separate the objective results from your interpretation of them.
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- Report writing
This quick guide will help you identify the common elements and basic format of a research report.
Research reports generally follow a similar structure and have common elements, each with a particular purpose. Learn more about each of these elements below.
Common elements of reports
Your title should be brief, topic-specific, and informative, clearly indicating the purpose and scope of your study. Include key words in your title so that search engines can easily access your work. For example: Measurement of water around Station Pier.
An abstract is a concise summarythat helps readers to quickly assess the content and direction of your paper. It should be brief, written in a single paragraph and cover: the scope and purpose of your report; an overview of methodology; a summary of the main findings or results; principal conclusions or significance of the findings; and recommendations made.
The information in the abstract must be presented in the same order as it is in your report. The abstract is usually written last when you have developed your arguments and synthesised the results.
The introduction creates the context for your research. It should provide sufficient background to allow the reader to understand and evaluate your study without needing to refer to previous publications. After reading the introduction your reader should understand exactly what your research is about, what you plan to do, why you are undertaking this research and which methods you have used. Introductions generally include:
- The rationale for the present study. Why are you interested in this topic? Why is this topic worth investigating?
- Key terms and definitions.
- An outline of the research questions and hypotheses; the assumptions or propositions that your research will test.
Not all research reports have a separate literature review section. In shorter research reports, the review is usually part of the Introduction.
A literature review is a critical survey of recent relevant research in a particular field. The review should be a selection of carefully organised, focused and relevant literature that develops a narrative ‘story’ about your topic. Your review should answer key questions about the literature:
- What is the current state of knowledge on the topic?
- What differences in approaches / methodologies are there?
- Where are the strengths and weaknesses of the research?
- What further research is needed? The review may identify a gap in the literature which provides a rationale for your study and supports your research questions and methodology.
The review is not just a summary of all you have read. Rather, it must develop an argument or a point of view that supports your chosen methodology and research questions.
The purpose of this section is to detail how you conducted your research so that others can understand and replicate your approach.
You need to briefly describe the subjects (if appropriate), any equipment or materials used and the approach taken. If the research method or method of data analysis is commonly used within your field of study, then simply reference the procedure. If, however, your methods are new or controversial then you need to describe them in more detail and provide a rationale for your approach. The methodology is written in the past tense and should be as concise as possible.
This section is a concise, factual summary of your findings, listed under headings appropriate to your research questions. It’s common to use tables and graphics. Raw data or details about the method of statistical analysis used should be included in the Appendices.
Present your results in a consistent manner. For example, if you present the first group of results as percentages, it will be confusing for the reader and difficult to make comparisons of data if later results are presented as fractions or as decimal values.
In general, you won’t discuss your results here. Any analysis of your results usually occurs in the Discussion section.
Notes on visual data representation:
- Graphs and tables may be used to reveal trends in your data, but they must be explained and referred to in adjacent accompanying text.
- Figures and tables do not simply repeat information given in the text: they summarise, amplify or complement it.
- Graphs are always referred to as ‘Figures’, and both axes must be clearly labelled.
- Tables must be numbered, and they must be able to stand-alone or make sense without your reader needing to read all of the accompanying text.
The Discussion responds to the hypothesis or research question. This section is where you interpret your results, account for your findings and explain their significance within the context of other research. Consider the adequacy of your sampling techniques, the scope and long-term implications of your study, any problems with data collection or analysis and any assumptions on which your study was based. This is also the place to discuss any disappointing results and address limitations.
Checklist for the discussion
- To what extent was each hypothesis supported?
- To what extent are your findings validated or supported by other research?
- Were there unexpected variables that affected your results?
- On reflection, was your research method appropriate?
- Can you account for any differences between your results and other studies?
Conclusions in research reports are generally fairly short and should follow on naturally from points raised in the Discussion. In this section you should discuss the significance of your findings. To what extent and in what ways are your findings useful or conclusive? Is further research required? If so, based on your research experience, what suggestions could you make about improvements to the scope or methodology of future studies?
Also, consider the practical implications of your results and any recommendations you could make. For example, if your research is on reading strategies in the primary school classroom, what are the implications of your results for the classroom teacher? What recommendations could you make for teachers?
A Reference List contains all the resources you have cited in your work, while a Bibliography is a wider list containing all the resources you have consulted (but not necessarily cited) in the preparation of your work. It is important to check which of these is required, and the preferred format, style of references and presentation requirements of your own department.
Appendices (singular ‘Appendix’) provide supporting material to your project. Examples of such materials include:
- Relevant letters to participants and organisations (e.g. regarding the ethics or conduct of the project).
- Background reports.
- Detailed calculations.
Different types of data are presented in separate appendices. Each appendix must be titled, labelled with a number or letter, and referred to in the body of the report.
Appendices are placed at the end of a report, and the contents are generally not included in the word count.
Fi nal ti p
While there are many common elements to research reports, it’s always best to double check the exact requirements for your task. You may find that you don’t need some sections, can combine others or have specific requirements about referencing, formatting or word limits.
Explore all resources
Analysing, interpreting and presenting data
5 top tips to help you engage critically with data.
Writing an abstract
This page explains what an abstract is, its purpose, structure and what to include.
Writing a literature review
Literature reviews determine what is known on a topic, how well this knowledge is established, and where future research might be directed. This page explains how to write literature reviews.
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Home Market Research
Research Reports: Definition and How to Write Them
Reports are usually spread across a vast horizon of topics but are focused on communicating information about a particular topic and a niche target market. The primary motive of research reports is to convey integral details about a study for marketers to consider while designing new strategies.
Certain events, facts, and other information based on incidents need to be relayed to the people in charge, and creating research reports is the most effective communication tool. Ideal research reports are extremely accurate in the offered information with a clear objective and conclusion. These reports should have a clean and structured format to relay information effectively.
What are Research Reports?
Research reports are recorded data prepared by researchers or statisticians after analyzing the information gathered by conducting organized research, typically in the form of surveys or qualitative methods .
A research report is a reliable source to recount details about a conducted research. It is most often considered to be a true testimony of all the work done to garner specificities of research.
The various sections of a research report are:
- Implemented Methods
- Results based on Analysis
Learn more: Quantitative Research
Components of Research Reports
Research is imperative for launching a new product/service or a new feature. The markets today are extremely volatile and competitive due to new entrants every day who may or may not provide effective products. An organization needs to make the right decisions at the right time to be relevant in such a market with updated products that suffice customer demands.
The details of a research report may change with the purpose of research but the main components of a report will remain constant. The research approach of the market researcher also influences the style of writing reports. Here are seven main components of a productive research report:
- Research Report Summary: The entire objective along with the overview of research are to be included in a summary which is a couple of paragraphs in length. All the multiple components of the research are explained in brief under the report summary. It should be interesting enough to capture all the key elements of the report.
- Research Introduction: There always is a primary goal that the researcher is trying to achieve through a report. In the introduction section, he/she can cover answers related to this goal and establish a thesis which will be included to strive and answer it in detail. This section should answer an integral question: “What is the current situation of the goal?”. After the research design was conducted, did the organization conclude the goal successfully or they are still a work in progress – provide such details in the introduction part of the research report.
- Research Methodology: This is the most important section of the report where all the important information lies. The readers can gain data for the topic along with analyzing the quality of provided content and the research can also be approved by other market researchers . Thus, this section needs to be highly informative with each aspect of research discussed in detail. Information needs to be expressed in chronological order according to its priority and importance. Researchers should include references in case they gained information from existing techniques.
- Research Results: A short description of the results along with calculations conducted to achieve the goal will form this section of results. Usually, the exposition after data analysis is carried out in the discussion part of the report.
Learn more: Quantitative Data
- Research Discussion: The results are discussed in extreme detail in this section along with a comparative analysis of reports that could probably exist in the same domain. Any abnormality uncovered during research will be deliberated in the discussion section. While writing research reports, the researcher will have to connect the dots on how the results will be applicable in the real world.
- Research References and Conclusion: Conclude all the research findings along with mentioning each and every author, article or any content piece from where references were taken.
Learn more: Qualitative Observation
15 Tips for Writing Research Reports
Writing research reports in the manner can lead to all the efforts going down the drain. Here are 15 tips for writing impactful research reports:
- Prepare the context before starting to write and start from the basics: This was always taught to us in school – be well-prepared before taking a plunge into new topics. The order of survey questions might not be the ideal or most effective order for writing research reports. The idea is to start with a broader topic and work towards a more specific one and focus on a conclusion or support, which a research should support with the facts. The most difficult thing to do in reporting, without a doubt is to start. Start with the title, the introduction, then document the first discoveries and continue from that. Once the marketers have the information well documented, they can write a general conclusion.
- Keep the target audience in mind while selecting a format that is clear, logical and obvious to them: Will the research reports be presented to decision makers or other researchers? What are the general perceptions around that topic? This requires more care and diligence. A researcher will need a significant amount of information to start writing the research report. Be consistent with the wording, the numbering of the annexes and so on. Follow the approved format of the company for the delivery of research reports and demonstrate the integrity of the project with the objectives of the company.
- Have a clear research objective: A researcher should read the entire proposal again, and make sure that the data they provide contributes to the objectives that were raised from the beginning. Remember that speculations are for conversations, not for research reports, if a researcher speculates, they directly question their own research.
- Establish a working model: Each study must have an internal logic, which will have to be established in the report and in the evidence. The researchers’ worst nightmare is to be required to write research reports and realize that key questions were not included.
Learn more: Quantitative Observation
- Gather all the information about the research topic. Who are the competitors of our customers? Talk to other researchers who have studied the subject of research, know the language of the industry. Misuse of the terms can discourage the readers of research reports from reading further.
- Read aloud while writing. While reading the report, if the researcher hears something inappropriate, for example, if they stumble over the words when reading them, surely the reader will too. If the researcher can’t put an idea in a single sentence, then it is very long and they must change it so that the idea is clear to everyone.
- Check grammar and spelling. Without a doubt, good practices help to understand the report. Use verbs in the present tense. Consider using the present tense, which makes the results sound more immediate. Find new words and other ways of saying things. Have fun with the language whenever possible.
- Discuss only the discoveries that are significant. If some data are not really significant, do not mention them. Remember that not everything is truly important or essential within research reports.
Learn more: Qualitative Data
- Try and stick to the survey questions. For example, do not say that the people surveyed “were worried” about an research issue , when there are different degrees of concern.
- The graphs must be clear enough so that they understand themselves. Do not let graphs lead the reader to make mistakes: give them a title, include the indications, the size of the sample, and the correct wording of the question.
- Be clear with messages. A researcher should always write every section of the report with an accuracy of details and language.
- Be creative with titles – Particularly in segmentation studies choose names “that give life to research”. Such names can survive for a long time after the initial investigation.
- Create an effective conclusion: The conclusion in the research reports is the most difficult to write, but it is an incredible opportunity to excel. Make a precise summary. Sometimes it helps to start the conclusion with something specific, then it describes the most important part of the study, and finally, it provides the implications of the conclusions.
- Get a couple more pair of eyes to read the report. Writers have trouble detecting their own mistakes. But they are responsible for what is presented. Ensure it has been approved by colleagues or friends before sending the find draft out.
Learn more: Market Research and Analysis
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Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives: By Organization
In spring 2021, the national library of medicine (nlm) pubmed® special query on this page will no longer be curated by nlm. if you have questions, please contact nlm customer support at https://support.nlm.nih.gov/.
This chart lists the major biomedical research reporting guidelines that provide advice for reporting research methods and findings. They usually "specify a minimum set of items required for a clear and transparent account of what was done and what was found in a research study, reflecting, in particular, issues that might introduce bias into the research" (Adapted from the EQUATOR Network Resource Centre ). The chart also includes editorial style guides for writing research reports or other publications.
See the details of the search strategy. More research reporting guidelines are at the EQUATOR Network Resource Centre .
Last Reviewed: April 14, 2023
- Research Report: Definition, Types + [Writing Guide]
One of the reasons for carrying out research is to add to the existing body of knowledge. Therefore, when conducting research, you need to document your processes and findings in a research report.
With a research report, it is easy to outline the findings of your systematic investigation and any gaps needing further inquiry. Knowing how to create a detailed research report will prove useful when you need to conduct research.
What is a Research Report?
A research report is a well-crafted document that outlines the processes, data, and findings of a systematic investigation. It is an important document that serves as a first-hand account of the research process, and it is typically considered an objective and accurate source of information.
In many ways, a research report can be considered as a summary of the research process that clearly highlights findings, recommendations, and other important details. Reading a well-written research report should provide you with all the information you need about the core areas of the research process.
Features of a Research Report
So how do you recognize a research report when you see one? Here are some of the basic features that define a research report.
- It is a detailed presentation of research processes and findings, and it usually includes tables and graphs.
- It is written in a formal language.
- A research report is usually written in the third person.
- It is informative and based on first-hand verifiable information.
- It is formally structured with headings, sections, and bullet points.
- It always includes recommendations for future actions.
Types of Research Report
The research report is classified based on two things; nature of research and target audience.
Nature of Research
- Qualitative Research Report
This is the type of report written for qualitative research . It outlines the methods, processes, and findings of a qualitative method of systematic investigation. In educational research, a qualitative research report provides an opportunity for one to apply his or her knowledge and develop skills in planning and executing qualitative research projects.
A qualitative research report is usually descriptive in nature. Hence, in addition to presenting details of the research process, you must also create a descriptive narrative of the information.
- Quantitative Research Report
A quantitative research report is a type of research report that is written for quantitative research. Quantitative research is a type of systematic investigation that pays attention to numerical or statistical values in a bid to find answers to research questions.
In this type of research report, the researcher presents quantitative data to support the research process and findings. Unlike a qualitative research report that is mainly descriptive, a quantitative research report works with numbers; that is, it is numerical in nature.
Also, a research report can be said to be technical or popular based on the target audience. If you’re dealing with a general audience, you would need to present a popular research report, and if you’re dealing with a specialized audience, you would submit a technical report.
- Technical Research Report
A technical research report is a detailed document that you present after carrying out industry-based research. This report is highly specialized because it provides information for a technical audience; that is, individuals with above-average knowledge in the field of study.
In a technical research report, the researcher is expected to provide specific information about the research process, including statistical analyses and sampling methods. Also, the use of language is highly specialized and filled with jargon.
Examples of technical research reports include legal and medical research reports.
- Popular Research Report
A popular research report is one for a general audience; that is, for individuals who do not necessarily have any knowledge in the field of study. A popular research report aims to make information accessible to everyone.
It is written in very simple language, which makes it easy to understand the findings and recommendations. Examples of popular research reports are the information contained in newspapers and magazines.
Importance of a Research Report
- Knowledge Transfer: As already stated above, one of the reasons for carrying out research is to contribute to the existing body of knowledge, and this is made possible with a research report. A research report serves as a means to effectively communicate the findings of a systematic investigation to all and sundry.
- Identification of Knowledge Gaps: With a research report, you’d be able to identify knowledge gaps for further inquiry. A research report shows what has been done while hinting at other areas needing systematic investigation.
- In market research, a research report would help you understand the market needs and peculiarities at a glance.
- A research report allows you to present information in a precise and concise manner.
- It is time-efficient and practical because, in a research report, you do not have to spend time detailing the findings of your research work in person. You can easily send out the report via email and have stakeholders look at it.
Guide to Writing a Research Report
A lot of detail goes into writing a research report, and getting familiar with the different requirements would help you create the ideal research report. A research report is usually broken down into multiple sections, which allows for a concise presentation of information.
Structure and Example of a Research Report
This is the title of your systematic investigation. Your title should be concise and point to the aims, objectives, and findings of a research report.
- Table of Contents
This is like a compass that makes it easier for readers to navigate the research report.
An abstract is an overview that highlights all important aspects of the research including the research method, data collection process, and research findings. Think of an abstract as a summary of your research report that presents pertinent information in a concise manner.
An abstract is always brief; typically 100-150 words and goes straight to the point. The focus of your research abstract should be the 5Ws and 1H format – What, Where, Why, When, Who and How.
Here, the researcher highlights the aims and objectives of the systematic investigation as well as the problem which the systematic investigation sets out to solve. When writing the report introduction, it is also essential to indicate whether the purposes of the research were achieved or would require more work.
In the introduction section, the researcher specifies the research problem and also outlines the significance of the systematic investigation. Also, the researcher is expected to outline any jargons and terminologies that are contained in the research.
- Literature Review
A literature review is a written survey of existing knowledge in the field of study. In other words, it is the section where you provide an overview and analysis of different research works that are relevant to your systematic investigation.
It highlights existing research knowledge and areas needing further investigation, which your research has sought to fill. At this stage, you can also hint at your research hypothesis and its possible implications for the existing body of knowledge in your field of study.
- An Account of Investigation
This is a detailed account of the research process, including the methodology, sample, and research subjects. Here, you are expected to provide in-depth information on the research process including the data collection and analysis procedures.
In a quantitative research report, you’d need to provide information surveys, questionnaires and other quantitative data collection methods used in your research. In a qualitative research report, you are expected to describe the qualitative data collection methods used in your research including interviews and focus groups.
In this section, you are expected to present the results of the systematic investigation.
This section further explains the findings of the research, earlier outlined. Here, you are expected to present a justification for each outcome and show whether the results are in line with your hypotheses or if other research studies have come up with similar results.
This is a summary of all the information in the report. It also outlines the significance of the entire study.
- References and Appendices
This section contains a list of all the primary and secondary research sources.
Tips for Writing a Research Report
- Define the Context for the Report
As is obtainable when writing an essay, defining the context for your research report would help you create a detailed yet concise document. This is why you need to create an outline before writing so that you do not miss out on anything.
- Define your Audience
Writing with your audience in mind is essential as it determines the tone of the report. If you’re writing for a general audience, you would want to present the information in a simple and relatable manner. For a specialized audience, you would need to make use of technical and field-specific terms.
- Include Significant Findings
The idea of a research report is to present some sort of abridged version of your systematic investigation. In your report, you should exclude irrelevant information while highlighting only important data and findings.
- Include Illustrations
Your research report should include illustrations and other visual representations of your data. Graphs, pie charts, and relevant images lend additional credibility to your systematic investigation.
- Choose the Right Title
A good research report title is brief, precise, and contains keywords from your research. It should provide a clear idea of your systematic investigation so that readers can grasp the entire focus of your research from the title.
- Proofread the Report
Before publishing the document, ensure that you give it a second look to authenticate the information. If you can, get someone else to go through the report, too, and you can also run it through proofreading and editing software.
How to Gather Research Data for Your Report
- Understand the Problem
Every research aims at solving a specific problem or set of problems, and this should be at the back of your mind when writing your research report. Understanding the problem would help you to filter the information you have and include only important data in your report.
- Know what your report seeks to achieve
This is somewhat similar to the point above because, in some way, the aim of your research report is intertwined with the objectives of your systematic investigation. Identifying the primary purpose of writing a research report would help you to identify and present the required information accordingly.
- Identify your audience
Knowing your target audience plays a crucial role in data collection for a research report. If your research report is specifically for an organization, you would want to present industry-specific information or show how the research findings are relevant to the work that the company does.
- Create Surveys/Questionnaires
A survey is a research method that is used to gather data from a specific group of people through a set of questions. It can be either quantitative or qualitative.
A survey is usually made up of structured questions, and it can be administered online or offline. However, an online survey is a more effective method of research data collection because it helps you save time and gather data with ease.
You can seamlessly create an online questionnaire for your research on Formplus . With the multiple sharing options available in the builder, you would be able to administer your survey to respondents in little or no time.
Formplus also has a report summary too l that you can use to create custom visual reports for your research.
Step-by-step guide on how to create an online questionnaire using Formplus
- Sign into Formplus
In the Formplus builder, you can easily create different online questionnaires for your research by dragging and dropping preferred fields into your form. To access the Formplus builder, you will need to create an account on Formplus.
Once you do this, sign in to your account and click on Create new form to begin.
- Edit Form Title : Click on the field provided to input your form title, for example, “Research Questionnaire.”
- Edit Form : Click on the edit icon to edit the form.
- Add Fields : Drag and drop preferred form fields into your form in the Formplus builder inputs column. There are several field input options for questionnaires in the Formplus builder.
- Edit fields
- Click on “Save”
- Form Customization: With the form customization options in the form builder, you can easily change the outlook of your form and make it more unique and personalized. Formplus allows you to change your form theme, add background images, and even change the font according to your needs.
- Multiple Sharing Options: Formplus offers various form-sharing options, which enables you to share your questionnaire with respondents easily. You can use the direct social media sharing buttons to share your form link to your organization’s social media pages. You can also send out your survey form as email invitations to your research subjects too. If you wish, you can share your form’s QR code or embed it on your organization’s website for easy access.
Always remember that a research report is just as important as the actual systematic investigation because it plays a vital role in communicating research findings to everyone else. This is why you must take care to create a concise document summarizing the process of conducting any research.
In this article, we’ve outlined essential tips to help you create a research report. When writing your report, you should always have the audience at the back of your mind, as this would set the tone for the document.
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How u.s. adults on twitter use the site in the elon musk era.
Just over a year ago – on April 14, 2022 – Elon Musk announced his intention to buy Twitter . With Musk now at the helm, here are four facts about how adult Twitter users in the United States are using the site.
Pew Research Center conducted this analysis to better understand the on-site behaviors of U.S. adults on Twitter since Elon Musk acquired the platform. Data in this report is drawn from the American Trends Panel (ATP) Wave 119 conducted from Dec. 12 to Dec. 18, 2022. The sample is composed of panelists who indicated on the survey that they use Twitter and agreed to share a Twitter handle for research purposes. After the survey was fielded, researchers reviewed each account individually and removed any accounts that were suspended, invalid, or that belonged to institutions, products or international entities.
This final sample of 1,002 U.S. adult Twitter users with valid, active handles was weighted using an iterative technique that matches gender, age, race, years lived in the U.S., education, region, party identification, volunteerism, voter registration, metropolitan area, frequency of internet use and religious affiliation to American Trends Panel December 2022 (Wave 119) survey respondents who indicated in that survey that they use Twitter, using the Wave 119 weight as the base weight. The margin of error for the full sample is plus or minus 4.8 percentage points. For more details, read the Wave 119 methodology .
The findings in this report that examine users’ patterns of posting are based on tweets produced by respondents whose accounts were set to public during the period from Jan. 1, 2022, to April 10, 2023. All tweets posted by these public accounts during this timeframe were collected using the Twitter API, resulting in a total of 620,116 original tweets, replies, quote tweets and retweets from 639 users with public accounts who tweeted at least once during that time period. Center researchers also identified any tweets from these users that mentioned the name or Twitter handle of Elon Musk using case-insensitive regular expressions.
Musk himself has become a far more common subject of discussion on Twitter since acquiring the platform. On average, adult Twitter users in the U.S. mentioned Musk in a tweet just once between Jan. 1 and April 13, 2022, before he announced his intention to acquire the platform. Since then, however, references to Musk have become much more common on the site. These users tweeted about him an average of three times between April 14 and Oct. 26, 2022 – while Musk was in the process of acquiring the platform – and an average of six times in the months after the sale was finalized.
When looking at adult Twitter users individually, roughly four-in-ten have mentioned Musk in a tweet since early 2022. These mentions are especially common among Republicans and Republican-leaning independents who use the platform.
As was the case before Musk’s takeover , tweeting activity continues to be highly concentrated among a relatively small share of the site’s users. A minority of adult Twitter users in the U.S. continue to produce the bulk of the content. Since Musk’s acquisition, 20% of U.S. adults on the site have produced 98% of all tweets by this group.
As in the past, Democrats and Democratic leaners account for a majority – 61% – of these highly active tweeters.
The majority of highly active Twitter users continue to use the site following Musk’s takeover but are posting less frequently on average. Six-in-ten U.S. adults who have used Twitter in the past year say they have taken a break from the platform recently . And a quarter of these users say they are not likely to use Twitter a year from now, according to a recent Pew Research Center survey.
The Center’s new analysis of actual behavior on the site finds that the most active users before Musk’s acquisition – defined as the top 20% by tweet volume – have seen a noticeable posting decline in the months after. These users’ average number of tweets per month declined by around 25% following the acquisition.
Despite this, eight-in-ten of the most active adult Twitter users between Jan. 1 and April 14, 2022, have remained among the most active users in the months after Musk formally acquired the site in October 2022. The same general pattern holds when narrowing the focus to the most active 10% of Twitter users before and after the sale. Around three-quarters of these users have remained among at least the top 20% of tweeters since the acquisition.
Retweets are more common among Democratic Twitter users, while replies are more common among Republicans. Since Musk’s acquisition of Twitter, three-quarters of tweets from all U.S. adults on the site have been either retweets (35%) or replies to other users (40%). The rest are either original tweets (15%) or quote tweets (9%). But certain groups post an especially large share of certain types of tweets.
Notably, there are partisan differences in the types of tweets users post. Retweets are the most common type of tweet from Democrats and Democratic leaners, accounting for half of all tweets from this group. By contrast, replies are the most common type of tweet by Republicans and Republican leaners, accounting for 61% of tweets from this group.
Note: For more details, read the Wave 119 methodology .
Read more about Americans’ views and habits on Twitter:
- After Musk’s takeover, big shifts in how Republican and Democratic Twitter users view the platform
- Majority of U.S. Twitter users say they’ve taken a break from the platform in the past year
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About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts .
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Stamford, conn., may 24, 2023, gartner forecasts worldwide government it spending to grow 8% in 2023, governments are increasing digital investments in response to global turmoil.
Worldwide government IT spending is forecast to total $589.8 billion in 2023, an increase of 7.6% from 2022, according to Gartner, Inc.
“Global challenges like inflation and workforce scarcity and their local repercussions are testing the abilities of government CIOs to respond with appropriate service delivery mechanisms and organizational accountability,” said Apeksha Kaushik , Principal Analyst at Gartner. “In addition, the “great resignation” and the competing demand from the commercial sector have forced governments to re-examine their approaches to counterbalance internal talent scarcity.”
In 2023, government organizations will sustain commitment to investing in digital programs. “Governments are increasingly spending their IT budgets to replace legacy applications. Gartner’s 2023 CIO and Technology Executive Survey showed that 57% of government CIOs plan to increase funding for application modernization in 2023, up from 42% in 2022,” said Kaushik.
This year, they will also ensure their digital projects endure mission impact. An increasing number of government institutions are already putting in place at least one digital metric linked directly to outcomes associated with their organization’s public purpose or mission. By 2026, Gartner foresees over 75% of governments will gauge digital transformation success by measuring the enduring mission impact.
Software to Remain Highest Spending Segment in 2023
In 2023, software will continue to be the highest growing segment in 2023 (see Table 1). Application modernization investments will increase supported by more software-as-a service-based solution offerings. The use of low-code application platforms (LCAPs) is also on the rise and will further accelerate legacy modernization efforts.
Table 1. Worldwide Government IT Spending Forecast (Millions of U.S. Dollars)
Source: Gartner (May 2023)
Government spending on IT services will continue unabatedly in 2023. “Compensation constraints and limited resources to attract and retain IT talent is becoming an even bigger challenge today as many governments are facing IT talent shortage ,” said Kaushik.
To continue modernizing and innovating critical IT infrastructure and applications, some government organizations will embrace a multisourced workforce strategy by optimizing the use of internal IT talent and investing in employee experience tools to empower and spark innovation, as well as partnering with external IT service providers to speed time to value.
Throughout 2023, government organizations will continue to invest in initiatives that improve access to digital services as constituents increasingly demand experiences that are equivalent to online customers.
While digital transformation remains a top priority for governments, some government CIOs have indicated they are falling short in realizing maximum benefits from their digital investments. “Government CIOs who are moving beyond scaling digital solutions across their critical services are ensuring that further investment in digital solutions can directly impact how they achieve the mission or public purpose of their organization,” said Kaushik.
Gartner clients can read more in “Predicts 2023: Governments Heighten Focus on Mission Impact Amid Global Uncertainties” and “Forecast: Enterprise IT Spending for the Government and Education Markets, Worldwide, 2020-2026, 1Q23 Update.”
Learn how key government trends will drive strategic impact in 2023 and beyond in the complimentary Gartner ebook Top Technology Trends 2023: Government.
About Gartner for Information Technology Executives Gartner for Information Technology Executives provides actionable, objective insight to CIOs and IT leaders to help them drive their organizations through digital transformation and lead business growth. Additional information is available at www.gartner.com/en/information-technology .
Follow news and updates from Gartner for IT Executives on Twitter and LinkedIn using #GartnerIT. Visit the IT Newsroom for more information and insights.
Laurence Goasduff Gartner [email protected]
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May 24 2023
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In this report, the publisher examines the business environment and trends that are going to shape the biopharmaceutical industry in 2023. The report highlights the most impactful emerging technologies, industry trends, regulatory trends, and microeconomic factors that are going to impact and dominate the industry throughout 2023.
- The pharmaceutical industry is set to face new challenges such as inflation in a post-COVID-19 world.
- Genomics, RWE, and IO will dominate as the most impactful trends in the biopharmaceutical industry next year.
- Among the most impactful trends, genomics will be the key focus in 2023.
- Inflation and drug pricing pressures will be the top hindrances for pharmaceutical sector growth.
- Vertical integration, patent expiry of biologics, mega M&As, and ESG factors are anticipated to have the greatest positive impact on the pharmaceutical industry.
- Big data and AI will continue to dominate as transformational forces in the healthcare sector in 2023.
- Across the entire value chain, supply chains and manufacturing will be impacted the most by inflation in 2023.
- The biopharmaceutical industry is less optimistic about industry growth in the next 12 months compared to previous years.
- The pharmaceutical industry will continue to pursue its efforts to become more sustainable, with more companies committing to ESG strategies.
- Oncology, CNS, and infectious diseases will be the dominant areas for clinical trials initiated in 2023.
- Despite political rhetoric, COVID-19-induced pharmaceutical onshoring may not happen.
- While already met with skepticism by pharma, the Inflation Reduction Act will have to show if it can live up to its name.
- In 2023, economies and industries will continue to deal with inflationary pressures.
- Inflation will disrupt pharmaceutical manufacturing and supply chains.
- Genomics is the trend that will continue to have the greatest impact on the pharmaceutical industry in 2023.
- Inflation together with drug pricing and reimbursement-related concerns will be the leading impediment to industry growth.
- Vertical integration, patent expiry of biologics, mega M&As, and ESG factors will have the most positive impacts on industry.
- While less than in previous years, the biopharmaceutical industry is still optimistic about its growth in 2023.
- Benchmark the impact of major themes on the biopharmaceutical industry in 2023, including: emerging technologies, regulatory trends, macroeconomic trends, industry trends.
- Identify themes that will have the greatest positive or negative impact in 2023.
- Capture opinions on these themes from industry respondents.
- Assess the impact of COVID-19 on the biopharmaceutical sector.
- Explore how inflation will affect the pharmaceutical industry in 2023.
Reasons to Buy
- Stay up to date with the major emerging technologies, regulatory, macroeconomic, and industry trends that will impact the pharmaceutical industry in 2023.
- Explore how the biopharmaceutical landscape has changed.
- Identify the most impactful anticipated regulatory approvals and drug launches in the industry in 2023.
- Gain insight into the regulatory and microeconomics trends that will have positive and negative effects on the biopharmaceutical industry.
- Identify emerging industry trends and innovations to gain a competitive advantage.
A selection of companies mentioned in this report includes
- Acceleron Pharma
- Atara Biotherapeutics
- Beta Pharma
- BioMarin Pharmaceutical
- Bio-Thera Solutions
- Boehringer Ingelheim
- Bristol-Myers Squibb
- Celerity Pharmaceuticals
- Coherus BioSciences
- CSL Behring
- CStone Pharmaceuticals
- CVS Health Corp
- Ferring Pharmaceuticals
- Fuji Pharma
- Insud Pharma
- Johnson & Johnson
- Johnson Matthey
- Legend Biotech
- Loxo Oncology
- Medicaid Health Plans of America
- Merck & Co
- Metrics Contract Services
- Midas Pharma
- Mirati Therapeutics
- National Institute for Health and Care Excellence
- Nippon Kayaku
- Ono Pharmaceutical
- OS Therapies
- PTC Therapeutics
- Regeneron Pharmaceuticals
- Samsung Bioepis
- Sarepta Therapeutics
- Shanghai Junshi Bioscience
- Sino Biopharmaceutical
- Stada Arzneimittel
- Stelis Biopharma
- Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma Oncology
- Teva Pharmaceutical Industries
- TRACON Pharmaceuticals
- UnitedHealth Group
- Xbrane Biopharma
For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/fix73o
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- Post category: Research Methodology
What is Research Report?
Research reporting is the oral or written presentation of the findings in such detail and form as to be readily understood and assessed by the society, economy or particularly by the researchers.
As earlier said that it is the final stage of the research process and its purpose is to convey to interested persons the whole result of the study. Report writing is common to both academic and managerial situations. In academics, a research report is prepared for comprehensive and application-oriented learning. In businesses or organisations, reports are used for the basis of decision making.
Table of Content
- 1 What is Research Report?
- 2 Research Report Definition
- 3.1 Preliminary Part
- 3.2 Introduction of the Report
- 3.3 Review of Literature
- 3.4 The Research Methodology
- 3.5 Results
- 3.6 Concluding Remarks
- 3.7 Bibliography
- 4 Significance of Report Writing
- 5 Qualities of Good Report
- 6.1 Analysis of the subject matter
- 6.2 Research outline
- 6.3 Preparation of rough draft
- 6.4 Rewriting and polishing
- 6.5 Writing the final draft
- 7 Precautions for Writing Research Reports
- 8.1.1 Technical Report
- 8.1.2 Popular Report
- 8.2.1 Written Report
- 8.2.2 Oral Report
Research Report Definition
According to C. A. Brown , “A report is a communication from someone who has information to someone who wants to use that information.”
According to Goode and Hatt , “The preparation of report is the final stage of research, and it’s purpose is to convey to the interested persons the whole result of the study, in sufficient detail and so arranged as to enable each reader to comprehend the data and to determine for himself the validity of the conclusions.”
It is clear from the above definitions of a research report, it is a brief account of the problem of investigation, the justification of its selection and the procedure of analysis and interpretation. It is only a summary of the entire research proceedings.
In other words, it can be defined as written documents, which presents information in a specialized and concise manner.
Contents of Research Report
Although no hard and fast rules can be laid down, the report must contain the following points.
- Table of contents
- List of tables
- List of graphs
- Background of the research study
- Statement of the problem
- Brief outline of the chapters
- Books review
- Review of articles published in books, journals, periodicals, etc
- Review of articles published in leading newspapers
- Working papers / discusssion paper / study reports
- Articles on authorised websites
- A broad conclusion and indications for further research
- The theoretical framework (variables)
- Model / hypothesis
- Instruments for data collection
- Data collection
- Pilot study
- Processing of data
- Hypothesis / model testing
- Data analysis and interpretation
- Tables and figures
- Suggestions to the problems
- Direction for further research
The preliminary part may have seven major components – cover, title, preface, acknowledgement, table of contents, list of tables, list of graphs. Long reports presented in book form have a cover made up of a card sheet. The cover contains title of the research report, the authority to whom the report is submitted, name of the author, etc.
The preface introduces the report to the readers. It gives a very brief introduction of the report. In the acknowledgements author mention names of persons and organisations that have extended co-operation and helped in the various stages of research. Table of contents is essential. It gives the title and page number of each chapter.
Introduction of the Report
The introduction of the research report should clearly and logically bring out the background of the problem addressed in the research. The purpose of the introduction is to introduce the research project to the readers. A clear statement of the problem with specific questions to be answered is presented in the introduction. It contains a brief outline of the chapters.
Review of Literature
The third section reviews the important literature related to the study. A comprehensive review of the research literature referred to must be made. Previous research studies and the important writings in the area under study should be reviewed. Review of literature is helpful to provide a background for the development of the present study.
The researcher may review concerned books, articles published in edited books, journals and periodicals. Researcher may also take review of articles published in leading newspapers. A researcher should study working papers/discussion papers/study reports. It is essential for a broad conclusion and indications for further research.
The Research Methodology
Research methodology is an integral part of the research. It should clearly indicate the universe and the selection of samples, techniques of data collection, analysis and interpretation, statistical techniques, etc.
Results contain pilot study, processing of data, hypothesis/model testing, data analysis and interpretation, tables and figures, etc. This is the heart of the research report. If a pilot study is planned to be used, it’s purpose should be given in the research methodology.
The collected data and the information should be edited, coded, tabulated and analysed with a view to arriving at a valid and authentic conclusion. Tables and figures are used to clarify the significant relationship. The results obtained through tables, graphs should be critically interpreted.
The concluding remarks should discuss the results obtained in the earlier sections, as well as their usefulness and implications. It contains findings, conclusions, shortcomings, suggestions to the problem and direction for future research. Findings are statements of factual information based upon the data analysis.
Conclusions must clearly explain whether the hypothesis have been established and rejected. This part requires great expertise and preciseness. A report should also refer to the limitations of the applicability of the research inferences. It is essential to suggest the theoretical, practical and policy implications of the research. The suggestions should be supported by scientific and logical arguments. The future direction of research based on the work completed should also be outlined.
The bibliography is an alphabetic list of books, journal articles, reports, etc, published or unpublished, read, referred to, examined by the researcher in preparing the report. The bibliography should follow standard formats for books, journal articles, research reports.
The end of the research report may consist of appendices, listed in respect of all technical data. Appendices are for the purpose of providing detailed data or information that would be too cumbersome within the main body of the research report.
Significance of Report Writing
Report writing is an important communication medium in organisations. The most crucial findings might have come out through a research report. Report is common to academics and managers also. Reports are used for comprehensive and application oriented learning in academics. In organisations, reports are used for the basis of decision making. The importance of report writing can be discussed as under.
Through research reports, a manager or an executive can quickly get an idea of a current scenario which improves his information base for making sound decisions affecting future operations of the company or enterprise. The research report acts as a means of communication of various research findings to the interested parties, organisations and general public.
Good report writing play, a significant role of conveying unknown facts about the phenomenon to the concerned parties. This may provide new insights and new opportunities to the people. Research report plays a key role in making effective decisions in marketing, production, banking, materials, human resource development and government also. Good report writing is used for economic planning and optimum utilisation of resources for the development of a nation.
Report writing facilitates the validation of generalisation. A research report is an end product of research. As earlier said that report writing provides useful information in arriving at rational decisions that may reform the business and society. The findings, conclusions, suggestions and recommendations are useful to academicians, scholars and policymakers. Report writing provides reference material for further research in the same or similar areas of research to the concerned parties.
While preparing a research report, a researcher should take some proper precautions. Report writing should be simple, lucid and systematic. Report writing should be written speedily without interrupting the continuity of thought. The report writing should sustain the interest of readers.
Qualities of Good Report
Report writing is a highly skilled job. It is a process of analysing, understanding and consolidating the findings and projecting a meaningful view of the phenomenon studied. A good report writing is essential for effective communication.
Following are the essential qualities of good report:
- A research report is essentially a scientific documentation. It should have a suggestive title, headings and sub-headings, paragraphs arranged in a logical sequence.
- Good research report should include everything that is relevant and exclude everything that is irrelevant. It means that it should contain the facts rather than opinion.
- The language of the report should be simple and unambiguous. It means that it should be free from biases of the researchers derived from the past experience. Confusion, pretentiousness and pomposity should be carefully guarded against. It means that the language of the report should be simple, employing appropriate words, idioms and expressions.
- The report must be free from grammatical mistakes. It must be grammatically accurate. Faulty construction of sentences makes the meaning of the narrative obscure and ambiguous.
- The report has to take into consideration two facts. Firstly, for whom the report is meant and secondly, what is his level of knowledge. The report has to look to the subject matter of the report and the fact as to the level of knowledge of the person for whom it is meant. Because all reports are not meant for research scholars.
Steps in Writing Research Report
Report writing is a time consuming and expensive exercise. Therefore, reports have to be very sharply focused in purpose content and readership. There is no single universally acceptable method of writing a research report.
Following are the general steps in writing a research report:
Analysis of the subject matter
Research outline, preparation of rough draft, rewriting and polishing, writing the final draft.
This is the first and important step in writing a research report. It is concerned with the development of a subject. Subject matter should be written in a clear, logical and concise manner. The style adopted should be open, straightforward and dignified and folk style language should be avoided.
The data, the reliability and validity of the results of the statistical analysis should be in the form of tables, figures and equations. All redundancy in the data or results presented should be eliminated.
The research outline is an organisational framework prepared by the researcher well in advance. It is an aid to logical organisation of material and a reminder of the points to be stressed in the report. In the process of writing, if need be, outline may be revised accordingly.
Time and place of the study, scope and limitations of the study, study design, summary of pilot study, methods of data collection, analysis interpretation, etc., may be included in a research outline.
Having prepared the primary and secondary data, the researcher has to prepare a rough draft. While preparing the rough draft, the researcher should keep the objectives of the research in mind, and focus on one objective at a time. The researcher should make a checklist of the important points that are necessary to be covered in the manuscript. A researcher should use dictionary and relevant reference materials as and when required.
This is an important step in writing a research report. It takes more time than a rough draft. While rewriting and polishing, a researcher should check the report for weakness in logical development or presentation. He should take breaks in between rewriting and polishing since this gives the time to incubate the ideas.
The last and important step is writing the final draft. The language of the report should be simple, employing appropriate words and expressions and should avoid vague expressions such as ‘it seems’ and ‘there may be’ etc.
It should not used personal pronouns, such as I, We, My, Us, etc and should substitute these by such expressions as a researcher, investigator, etc. Before the final drafting of the report, it is advisable that the researcher should prepare a first draft for critical considerations and possible improvements. It will be helpful in writing the final draft. Finally, the report should be logically outlined with the future directions of the research based on the work completed.
Precautions for Writing Research Reports
A research report is a means of conveying the research study to a specific target audience. The following precautions should be taken while preparing a research report:
- Its hould belong enough to cover the subject and short enough to preserve interest.
- It should not be dull and complicated.
- It should be simple, without the usage of abstract terms and technical jargons.
- It should offer ready availability of findings with the help of charts, tables and graphs, as readers prefer quick knowledge of main findings.
- The layout of the report should be in accordance with the objectives of the research study.
- There should be no grammatical errors and writing should adhere to the techniques of report writing in case of quotations, footnotes and documentations.
- It should be original, intellectual and contribute to the solution of a problem or add knowledge to the concerned field.
- Appendices should been listed with respect to all the technical data in the report.
- It should be attractive, neat and clean, whether handwritten or typed.
- The report writer should refrain from confusing the possessive form of the word ‘it’ is with ‘it’s.’ The accurate possessive form of ‘it is’ is ‘its.’ The use of ‘it’s’ is the contractive form of ‘it is.
- A report should not have contractions. Examples are ‘didn’t’ or ‘it’s.’ In report writing, it is best to use the non-contractive form. Therefore, the examples would be replaced by ‘did not’ and ‘it is.’ Using ‘Figure’ instead of ‘Fig.’ and ‘Table’ instead of ‘Tab.’ will spare the reader of having to translate the abbreviations, while reading. If abbreviations are used, use them consistently throughout the report. For example, do not switch among ‘versus,’ and ‘vs’.
- It is advisable to avoid using the word ‘very’ and other such words that try to embellish a description. They do not add any extra meaning and, therefore, should be dropped.
- Repetition hampers lucidity. Report writers must avoid repeating the same word more than once within a sentence.
- When you use the word ‘this’ or ‘these’ make sure you indicate to what you are referring. This reduces the ambiguity in your writing and helps to tie sentences together.
- Do not use the word ‘they’ to refer to a singular person. You can either rewrite the sentence to avoid needing such a reference or use the singular ‘he or she.’
Types of Research Report
Research reports are designed in order to convey and record the information that will be of practical use to the reader. It is organized into distinct units of specific and highly visible information. The kind of audience addressed in the research report decides the type of report.
Research reports can be categorized on the following basis:
Classification on the Basis of Information
Classification on the basis of representation.
Following are the ways through which the results of the research report can be presented on the basis of information contained:
A technical report is written for other researchers. In writing the technical reports, the importance is mainly given to the methods that have been used to collect the information and data, the presumptions that are made and finally, the various presentation techniques that are used to present the findings and data.
Following are main features of a technical report:
- Summary: It covers a brief analysis of the findings of the research in a very few pages.
- Nature: It contains the reasons for which the research is undertaken, the analysis and the data that is required in order to prepare a report.
- Methods employed: It contains a description of the methods that were employed in order to collect the data.
- Data: It covers a brief analysis of the various sources from which the data has been collected with their features and drawbacks
- Analysis of data and presentation of the findings: It contains the various forms through which the data that has been analysed can be presented.
- Conclusions: It contains a brief explanation of findings of the research.
- Bibliography: It contains a detailed analysis of the various bibliographies that have been used in order to conduct a research.
- Technical appendices: It contains the appendices for the technical matters and for questionnaires and mathematical derivations.
- Index: The index of the technical report must be provided at the end of the report.
A popular report is formulated when there is a need to draw conclusions of the findings of the research report. One of the main points of consideration that should be kept in mind while formulating a research report is that it must be simple and attractive. It must be written in a very simple manner that is understandable to all. It must also be made attractive by using large prints, various sub-headings and by giving cartoons occasionally.
Following are the main points that must be kept in mind while preparing a popular report:
- Findings and their implications : While preparing a popular report, main importance is given to the findings of the information and the conclusions that can be drawn out of these findings.
- Recommendations for action : If there are any deviations in the report then recommendations are made for taking corrective action in order to rectify the errors.
- Objective of the study : In a popular report, the specific objective for which the research has been undertaken is presented.
- Methods employed : The report must contain the various methods that has been employed in order to conduct a research.
- Results : The results of the research findings must be presented in a suitable and appropriate manner by taking the help of charts and diagrams.
- Technical appendices : The report must contain an in-depth information used to collect the data in the form of appendices.
Following are the ways through which the results of the research report can be presented on the basis of representation:
- Oral report
A written report plays a vital role in every business operation. The manner in which an organization writes business letters and business reports creates an impression of its standard. Therefore, the organization should emphasize on the improvement of the writing skills of the employees in order to maintain effective relations with their customers.
Writing effective written reports requires a lot of hard work. Therefore, before you begin writing, it is important to know the objective, i.e., the purpose of writing, collection and organization of required data.
At times, oral presentation of the results that are drawn out of research is considered effective, particularly in cases where policy recommendations are to be made. This approach proves beneficial because it provides a medium of interaction between a listener and a speaker. This leads to a better understanding of the findings and their implications.
However, the main drawback of oral presentation is the lack of any permanent records related to the research. Oral presentation of the report is also effective when it is supported with various visual devices, such as slides, wall charts and whiteboards that help in better understanding of the research reports.
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Overdraft/NSF revenue down nearly 50% versus pre-pandemic levels
Q4 2022 data suggest over $5.5 billion reduction on annual basis going forward; fees still totaled $7.7 billion in 2022.
Offices of Consumer Populations and Markets – MAY 24, 2023
For the past year-and-a-half, CFPB has been closely monitoring trends in overdraft/non-sufficient fund (NSF) fee revenue and practices. With data now available for all four quarters of 2022, we have a fuller picture of reductions in these revenues compared to pre-pandemic levels. Our most recent analysis finds the following:
- Overdraft/NSF revenue for the fourth quarter of 2022 alone was approximately $1.5 billion lower than in the fourth quarter of 2019 – a decrease of 48% compared to before the pandemic, suggesting an annual reduction of over $5.5 billion going forward. This decrease suggests average annual savings of more than $150 per household that incurs overdraft or NSF fees; many households that have typically paid a high number of overdraft or NSF fees annually have saved much more. 1
- Even with this substantial reduction, consumers paid over $7.7 billion in 2022 in overdraft/NSF fees.
- Evidence continues to suggest that financial institutions are not increasing other checking account fees to compensate for reduced overdraft/NSF revenue. Across all reporting banks, combined account maintenance and ATM fees remained flat from 2019 to 2022.
This analysis of bank call report data follows our previous analyses of trends in checking account fee revenue published in December 2021 , July 2022 , and February 2023 .
Overdraft/NSF Fee Revenue
Banks with assets over $1 billion have been required to report overdraft/NSF fee revenue in their call report data since 2015. For each of the five years from 2015 to 2019, the overdraft/NSF revenue reported by these banks totaled $11-12 billion annually. 2 Bank overdraft/NSF fee revenue was lower in 2020 and 2021 than before the pandemic, likely primarily due to pandemic-related stimulus checks pushing up average checking account balances. 3 In the second half of 2021, overdraft/NSF fee revenue rebounded somewhat. However, this revenue began decreasing again in early 2022. The sustained reductions we find in 2022 versus 2019 are likely due to changes in bank policies that started to go into effect toward the end of 2021 and throughout 2022.
For the fourth quarter of 2022 alone, overdraft/NSF revenue was approximately $1.6 billion, compared to roughly $3.1 billion in the fourth quarter of 2019 – a decrease of 48%, or nearly half. 4 Overdraft/NSF revenue also trended downward throughout 2022, with quarterly revenue approximating $2.2 billion, $2.0 billion, $1.9 billion, and $1.6 billion for the first through fourth quarters, respectively. 5 This quarterly trend further indicates that overdraft/NSF policy changes are impacting bank revenues – especially since, historically, overdraft/NSF revenues in quarters three and four have typically been higher than in quarters one and two.
Figure 1 below compares quarterly 2022 overdraft/NSF revenue to the average quarterly revenue from 2015-2019. These revenues in the first, second, third, and fourth quarters of 2022 were lower than the average from 2015-2019 by 18%, 29%, 38%, and 45% respectively.
Quarterly overdraft/NSF revenue, average of 2015-2019 compared to 2022
Source: Consolidated Reports of Condition and Income (“Call Reports”), Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council
For the full year 2022, combined overdraft/NSF revenue was $7.72 billion, a decrease of 35% compared to the $11.97 billion reported in 2019.
Figure 2 shows the reported bank overdraft/NSF fee revenue by year, beginning in 2015.
Annual overdraft/NSF revenue 2015 to 2022
Despite these declines, reporting banks collected $7.7 billion in overdraft/NSF fees from their customers in 2022. Though banks have made a range of changes to their policies over the last year-and-a-half, some banks continue to charge overdraft fees as high as $37 each. Overdraft fees can total hundreds of dollars per day, exacerbating financial setbacks. And they can lead to account closures, essentially pricing people out of the banking system .
Table 1 below compares overdraft/NSF revenue in 2022 to 2019 across specific banks and groups of banks. The individual banks listed were the largest overdraft/NSF revenue generators in 2021, with each collecting more than $200 million in these fees. Table 1 also shows trends among four groups of banks that generated $200M or less in OD/NSF fee revenue in 2021, consisting mainly of small and midsize banks (referred to as “small/midsize bank groups”). 6
Despite the overall decrease in overdraft/NSF fee revenue, we continue to see significant differences across banks and groups of banks. While this evidence is indirect and does not control for changes in the number, composition, or behavior of accountholders, the variations likely reflect, at least in part, changes in overdraft/NSF programs. 7
Change in overdraft/NSF fee revenue for the year 2022 versus the pre-pandemic year 2019 for select individual banks and groups of banks 8
The eight individual banks listed in Table 1 all report declines in their overdraft/NSF fee revenue in 2022 relative to 2019. We examine their declines further in Table 2 below. Among categories of banks with lower overdraft/NSF revenue in 2021, the $50-$200 million and $10-$50 million groups saw average declines generally similar to the eight larger banks, of 36% and 22%, respectively. The $2- $10 million and under $2 million groups experienced smaller average declines of 3% and 6%, respectively.
Table 2 below shows the change in overdraft/NSF revenue for the eight individual banks between the fourth quarter alone of 2022 and the fourth quarter alone of 2019. Isolating the fourth quarter allows us to better assess the potential impact these banks’ policy changes, some of which were still being implemented throughout 2022, may be having on their overdraft/NSF revenue.
Change in overdraft/NSF fee revenue Q4 2022 versus pre-pandemic Q4 2019 for select individual banks
All of these large banks saw decreases in overdraft/NSF revenue of at least one-third compared to the fourth quarter of 2019, and the total decrease across all eight banks was 56%. Specifically:
- Bank of America experienced the most significant decline by far (91%), which likely reflects the reduction of its overdraft fee to $10, the elimination of overdraft fees on ATM withdrawals, and the elimination of NSF fees, among other changes.
- TD Bank , U.S. Bank , and PNC all experienced declines of over 50%. Among other changes, all three banks have eliminated NSF fees; all three banks have established a grace period until the end of the next day before an overdraft fee is charged; TD Bank and U.S. Bank have implemented $50 negative balance cushions; and PNC has implemented a limit of one overdraft fee per day.
- JPMorgan Chase and Wells Fargo experienced 45% and 44% declines, respectively. Both banks eliminated NSF fees and introduced a grace period until the end of the next day before an overdraft fee is charged. JPMC also now has a $50 negative balance cushion.
- Truist (38%) and Regions (37%) experienced relatively smaller declines. Both banks eliminated NSF fees.
For the first time, we are also analyzing the change in overdraft/NSF revenue at the individual bank level for the 11 banks that reported between $50 million and $200 million in overdraft/NSF revenue in 2021, reflected in Table 3 below.
Change in overdraft/NSF fee revenue Q4 2022 versus pre-pandemic Q4 2019 for banks that earned between $50 and $200 million in overdraft/NSF fee revenue in 2021
Capital One and Citibank have both eliminated overdraft and NSF fees entirely, reflected in their 100% drop in associated revenue compared to the fourth quarter of 2019. USAA experienced a 21% decline, although it does not charge overdraft fees and announced that it would eliminate NSF fees by the end of 2022. M&T ’s revenues have dropped 77%, likely reflecting the reduction of its overdraft fee to $15 and a limit of one overdraft fee per day, along with elimination of NSF fees. Huntington and KeyBank ’s revenues fell 66% and 60%, respectively; Huntington reduced its overdraft fee to $15 among other changes, while KeyBank reduced its overdraft fee to $20 and eliminated NSF fees, among other changes. Citizens’ fees dropped 51%; it began offering a grace period until the end of the next day and eliminated NSF fees, among other changes. Fifth Third , Arvest , and Woodforest experienced smaller declines ranging from 22-24%; all of those banks announced elimination of NSF fees, among other changes. First National Bank Texas/First Convenience Bank experienced the smallest decline at 19%.
Other Listed (Maintenance and ATM) Fee Revenue
We also continue to examine other checking account fee revenue, in part to determine whether these fees may be increasing to replace reduced overdraft/NSF revenue. Call reports require banks to list consumer deposit account revenue from three sources: 1) combined overdraft and NSF fees, 2) periodic maintenance fees, and 3) ATM fees. We refer to these three types of fees as “listed fees.” In Table 4 (structured similarly to Table 1), we report changes in listed fees other than overdraft/NSF fees – i.e., maintenance and ATM fees. As with prior analyses, we do not identify a clear correlation between declines in overdraft/NSF fee revenue and increases in other listed fee revenue.
Change in other listed fee revenue (maintenance fees and ATM fees) for the year 2022 versus the pre-pandemic year 2019 for select individual banks and groups of banks 9
Among the eight larger individual banks, compared to the pre-pandemic 2019 baseline, there was a divergence of experiences in other listed fee revenue. However, there is no clear correlation between decreases in overdraft/NSF and increases in other listed fee revenue. Of the four banks with the most significant declines in overdraft/NSF fee revenue, Bank of America’s other listed fee revenue dropped 7%, while TD Bank’s increased 11%, U.S. Bank’s fell 6%, and PNC’s increased 28%. In terms of dollar amounts, the declines in overdraft/NSF fee revenue across all eight banks in 2022 ($3.4 billion) far exceeded the net increase in other listed fee revenue ($97 million).
Banks with $50-$200 million and banks with $10-$50 million in 2021 overdraft/NSF revenue, on average, reported less revenue from other listed fees than before the pandemic; in contrast, banks with $2-$10 million and under $2 million in 2021 overdraft/NSF revenue saw increases. Across all reporting banks, other listed fee revenue remained flat from 2019 to 2022, even as overdraft/NSF fee revenue decreased by $4.4 billion. It is worth noting that banks’ net interest income as a portion of combined interest and non-interest income increased from an average of 67.5% in 2019 to 68.3% in 2022, and throughout 2022 increased from 64.3% in the first quarter to 74.1% in the fourth quarter. 10
We will continue to track overdraft/NSF fees and are considering rulemaking activities related to these fees. We will also continue to follow other listed fees to discern to what extent these fees might create barriers to account access.
For our latest review of overdraft/NSF policies, please see the most recent table tracking overdraft fees and policies across banks and the most recent chart on NSF fee practices. For further discussion of trends in these practices, see our February 2022 analysis , April 2022 analysis , July 2022 analysis , and February 2023 analysis .
- Surveys prior to the pandemic found that approximately 25% of households overdrew their checking account, which amounts to roughly 33 million households. $5.5 billion in reduced fees divided by 33 million households equals $167 per household per year. Overdraft and NSF fees are not evenly distributed across households that overdraft, however. CFPB has previously found that nearly 80% of combined overdraft and NSF fees were shouldered by under 9% of accountholders who had more than 10 overdrafts annually. Thus, many households that have typically incurred a high number of overdraft or NSF fees have saved more than the average savings per household.
- This revenue excludes overdraft/NSF revenue generated by banks with assets of $1 billion or less, which are not required to report overdraft/NSF fee revenue as a separate line item in their call report data, as well as overdraft/NSF revenue generated by all credit unions. Because some banks do not report in all years, some of the year-to-year variation in overdraft revenue reflects changes in the set of reporting banks.
- JPMC Institute, Household Pulse: The State of Cash Balances through March 2022.
- The fourth quarter call report data for both 2022 and 2019 reflect additional banks reporting overdraft/NSF revenue, relative to the prior three quarters, because certain banks (currently those with assets less than $5 billion) are required to break out overdraft/NSF revenue only annually, not quarterly. Thus, some banks report all of their annual overdraft/NSF revenue in the fourth quarter. In total, such revenue reflects 5% of the total 2022 overdraft/NSF revenue reported and 2.1% of the total 2019 overdraft/NSF revenue reported. To estimate quarterly revenue for 2022 and 2019 with the benefit of the full year’s data, we allocate the annual reporters’ revenue to each quarter evenly, by applying one-fourth of it to each quarter.
- Footnote 4 above describes the methodology applied here.
- We define two groups of small banks, those collecting under $2 million and those collecting $2 million to $10 million in overdraft/NSF fee revenue in 2021, and two groups of midsized banks, those collecting $10 million to $50 million and those collecting $50 million to $200 million in overdraft/NSF fee revenue in 2021. Since our focus is exclusively on fee revenues, we use this categorization as opposed to the more common categorization by asset size. This is because overdraft/NSF revenue and asset size are strongly but not perfectly correlated. This means that some banks that are categorized as midsize banks here based on their overdraft/NSF revenue may not be midsize based on their assets. Conversely, some banks that are categorized as small banks here based on their overdraft/NSF revenue may not be small based on their assets.
- It is important to note that there are significant drivers of fee revenues besides bank overdraft program settings. An important one is the number of accounts consumers hold at a bank. While we merger-adjust the data, there can be significant changes in the number of accounts held at a bank even without mergers. We cannot examine this further since call reports do not require banks to report the number of consumer checking accounts they hold.
- The data construction for Table 1 is the same as in our Dec 2021 report ; please see that report for details. The table restricts data to banks that reported listed fees during 2022. The number of banks reflected in this table is larger than the number reflected in our February 2023 and July 2022 analyses because this table, based on year-end data, includes those banks that only break out their overdraft/NSF revenue annually. The prior analyses were of quarter-end data, not year-end data, so they included only those banks that break out their overdraft/NSF revenue quarterly.
- The data construction for Table 4 is the same as in our Dec 2021 report ; please see that report for details. The table restricts data to banks that reported listed fees during 2022. The number of banks reflected in this table is larger than the number reflected in our February 2023 and July 2022 analyses because this table, based on year-end data, includes those banks that only break out their listed fee revenue annually. The prior analyses were of quarter-end data, not year-end data, so they included only those banks that break out their listed fee revenue quarterly.
- We also note that, as with overdraft/NSF fee revenue, there are a number of factors that could influence other listed fee revenues, making it difficult to isolate the impacts of any policy changes, or lack thereof, without further analysis. The increase in savings during the pandemic led to higher average account balances, which could be resulting in fewer accounts being assessed minimum balance maintenance fees, in addition to fewer instances of overdraft and NSFs. On its own, this increase in average account balances may have caused a reduction in other listed fees, which may rebound as account balances return to more normal levels. Other factors, including growth in the number of accounts, would have the opposite effect.
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$19 Million Settlement Is Reached in Fatal Police Shooting of Colorado Man
Christian Glass, 22, was killed after he called 911 to report that his car was stuck on the side of the road and that he was coming out of a depression.
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By Derrick Bryson Taylor
The parents of a Colorado man who was fatally shot by a sheriff’s deputy last June during a mental health crisis will receive $19 million as part of a settlement announced Tuesday.
The man, Christian Glass, 22, was killed after he called 911 when the vehicle he was driving became stuck on an embankment on a mountain road near Silver Plume, about 45 miles west of Denver.
About a half-dozen officers, from multiple agencies including Colorado State Patrol, responded after Mr. Glass told a 911 dispatcher that he was coming out of a depression and that he needed help.
They negotiated with Mr. Glass for more than an hour before the situation escalated, and one officer broke the window on the driver’s side, ordering him to drop a knife.
Officers fired beanbag rounds at Mr. Glass and used a stun gun on him. He then swung an arm at the broken window, toward an approaching officer, and gunshots were fired, body camera footage showed.
Two Clear Creek County sheriff’s deputies, Andrew Buen and Kyle Gould, were indicted in November in connection to the fatal shooting. Mr. Buen was charged with second-degree murder, official misconduct and reckless endangerment. Mr. Gould was charged with criminally negligent homicide and reckless endangerment. The deputies were fired.
Under the terms of the settlement announced Tuesday, Mr. Glass’s parents will receive $19 million from state and local agencies, and changes will be implemented to how police officers are trained for similar situations, according to documents provided by the family’s lawyers.
“It’s the largest civil rights settlement in Colorado and one of the largest in the nation,” Siddhartha Rathod, one of the lawyers for the family, said on Tuesday. The settlement is $4 million more than Elijah McClain’s family received in 2021. Mr. McClain, a young Black man, died in 2019 after being restrained by the police in Aurora, Colo.
As part of the settlement, Clear Creek County has agreed to dedicate a park to Mr. Glass and to create a dedicated crisis response team by January 2025. The county’s sheriff’s office will train and certify all of its patrol officers in crisis intervention.
The Colorado State Patrol will also establish a virtual-reality training scenario reflecting the shooting, and the State Patrol and Division of Gaming will begin its statewide bystander training with a presentation from Mr. Glass’s parents, Simon and Sally Glass.
“Christian Glass should be alive today,” Mr. Rathod and another of the family’s lawyers, Qusair Mohamedbhai, said in a statement. “This settlement sends a message that such injustice will not be tolerated, and that those responsible will be held accountable — including those officers who stood by and failed to intervene to protect Christian.”
In a letter, the Clear Creek County Sheriff’s Office apologized to Mr. Glass’s family and acknowledged that its officers “failed to meet expectations.”
An autopsy report said Mr. Glass had six gunshot wounds. The report also noted that THC, the active ingredient in marijuana, was in Mr. Glass’s system, along with amphetamine that, according to a doctor who spoke to The Denver Post , was commensurate with medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Last month, after a hearing for the former officers, Mr. Glass’s parents said the men should be tried together. “They murdered him together, they get tried together,” Ms. Glass told Fox 31, a local news station . “It’s just so sad. Our son was so unlucky, so unlucky that night.”
Derrick Bryson Taylor is a general assignment reporter. He previously worked at The New York Post’s PageSix.com and Essence magazine.
Have questions about buying, selling or renting during COVID-19? Learn more
The Dollars and Cents of Buying a Home
Most buyers – especially first-timers – rely on their agents for home financing advice.
Buying a home can be a daunting task for many people. Learning the ins and outs of financing is an important first step. About half of buyers (55%) say they got help for education about the home financing process from a real estate agent – a higher percentage than from a financial institution (32%), website (30%), or a friend, relative, neighbor or colleague (29%). First-time buyers are slightly more likely to report getting such help from an agent: 58% reported doing so versus 53% for repeat buyers.
Prospective buyers most likely to rank understanding mortgage costs among their top challenges
About half (56%) of prospective buyers said that understanding all of the costs associated with a mortgage and home payment was among the top 3 most difficult parts of financing a home purchase. Understanding how much they can afford followed (45%) then researching mortgages and rates (41%).
Prospective buyers were least likely to rank understanding their credit report and credit score (25%) among their top 3 difficulties.
Saving up a down payment stresses about a quarter of buyers
About one in four (28%) buyers said saving up enough for a down payment was very or extremely stressful. This stress was more common for buyers of color (34%) and first-time buyers (41%).
Most buyers make at least one sacrifice to save up their down payment
Most buyers (71%) reported at least one sacrifice to save up enough to finance a down payment. The most common sacrifice was reducing spending on entertainment (43%), followed by postponing or canceling vacation plans (38%). Buyers of color (78%) and first-time buyers (84%) were more likely to report at least one sacrifice to save up their down payment.
Most buyers report paying some kind of mortgage insurance
73% of buyers report paying mortgage insurance, while 27% of buyers report paying no mortgage insurance. Among those that reported paying some kind of mortgage insurance, 63% report paying it monthly and 37% report paying it on a yearly basis.
Earnest money tends to increase with home price
Most buyers report some amount of earnest money to be the winning offer on a home: 79% reported including some in their final offer. Buyers that manage to buy without any earnest money are more likely to buy a lower cost home – potentially a sign of a less competitive market. Buyers who bought a home for less than $200,000, for example, were more likely to report offering no earnest money (17%) than those who bought a home for at least $400,000 (9%)
About a third of buyers report getting some form of down payment assistance
Down payment assistance – basically grants or “free money” towards a down payment – can help buyers make ends meet when buying a home. About one in three (37%) buyers report getting some kind of grant towards their down payment – most commonly from a bank (24%) or credit union (14%). Grants from government institutions (13%) can also help buyers finance their down payments.
For first-time buyers, almost half (45%) report getting some kind of down payment assistance. And buyers of color are also more likely to benefit from these grants (47% report getting one).
In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of U.S. successful and prospective buyers, Zillow Group Population Science conducted a nationally representative survey of 665 successful and 1908 prospective buyers. The study was fielded in December 2022.
For the purpose of this study, “successful buyers” refers to household decision makers 18 years of age or older who moved to a new primary residence that they purchased in the past two years. “Prospective buyers” refers to household decision makers 18 years of age or older who intend to buy a home in the next year.
Sampling & Weighting
Results from this survey are nationally representative of buyers. To achieve representativeness, ZG Population Science used a two-prong approach. First, the initial recruitment to the sample was balanced to all buyers from the U.S. Census Bureau, 2021 American Community Survey (ACS) on the basis of age, relationship status, income, ethnicity/race, education, region and sex. Additional targeted subgroups were sampled based on all key household demographic characteristics. Second, statistical raking was used to create calibration weights to ensure that the distribution of survey respondents matched the U.S. population with respect to a number of key demographic characteristics obtained from analyses of the 2021 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement (CPS ASEC).
To reduce response bias, survey respondents did not know that Zillow Group was conducting the survey. Several additional quality control measures were also taken to ensure data accuracy:
- We identified and terminated any professional respondents, robots or those taking the survey on multiple devices.
- Completion times were recorded to ensure that surveys submitted by the fastest respondents, who may have rushed through the survey, did not provide poor quality data. If necessary, these respondents were removed from the sample.
- In-survey quality control checks identified illogical or unrealistic responses.
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German police conduct nationwide raids against climate activists.
German investigators have launched a nationwide raid against members of the Last Generation climate activist group , the Munich State Prosecutor’s Office said Wednesday.
A total of 15 properties in seven German states have been searched as part of the raids conducted on behalf of the Bavarian State Criminal Police Office (LKA) and the Munich General Public Prosecutor’s Office, authorities said.
Four searches took place in Berlin, three in Bavaria and three in Hesse. There were further actions in Hamburg, Magdeburg, Dresden, and Schleswig-Holstein, authorities said.
The Prosecutor General’s Office in Munich said it had initiated a preliminary investigation “due to numerous criminal complaints from the population” against a total of seven defendants aged 22 to 38 years, “on the charge of forming or supporting a criminal organization.” The notifications had been received since the middle of 2022.
Specifically, the defendants are accused of organizing a fundraising campaign to finance “further crimes” for Last Generation, advertising it on its website and collecting at least 1.4 million Euros ($1.5 million) in donations.
Two defendants are also suspected of having attempted to sabotage the Trieste-Ingolstadt oil pipeline in April 2022, according to the LKA.
Activists with Last Generation have been blocking roads across Germany for about a year by gluing themselves to streets. Other campaigns have targeted art works . The climate protection organization says that its protests are exclusively non-violent.
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Reporting quantitative research results. If you conducted quantitative research, you'll likely be working with the results of some sort of statistical analysis. Your results section should report the results of any statistical tests you used to compare groups or assess relationships between variables.
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1 Choose a topic based on the assignment. Before you start writing, you need to pick the topic of your report. Often, the topic is assigned for you, as with most business reports, or predetermined by the nature of your work, as with scientific reports. If that's the case, you can ignore this step and move on.
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RAND reports present research findings and objective analysis that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors. All RAND reports undergo rigorous peer review to ensure high standards for research quality and objectivity. 2023;
What are Research Reports? Research reports are recorded data prepared by researchers or statisticians after analyzing the information gathered by conducting organized research, typically in the form of surveys or qualitative methods. A research report is a reliable source to recount details about a conducted research.
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Writing a Research Report Writing Centre Learning Guide As a university student you may be required to write a variety of reports for assessment purposes. A research report is one type that is often used in the sciences, engineering and psychology. Here your aim is to write clearly and
A research report is a well-crafted document that outlines the processes, data, and findings of a systematic investigation. It is an important document that serves as a first-hand account of the research process, and it is typically considered an objective and accurate source of information.
Pew Research Center conducted this analysis to better understand the on-site behaviors of U.S. adults on Twitter since Elon Musk acquired the platform. Data in this report is drawn from the American Trends Panel (ATP) Wave 119 conducted from Dec. 12 to Dec. 18, 2022. The sample is composed of panelists who indicated on the survey that they use ...
Worldwide government IT spending is forecast to total $589.8 billion in 2023, an increase of 7.6% from 2022, according to Gartner, Inc. "Global challenges like inflation and workforce scarcity and their local repercussions are testing the abilities of government CIOs to respond with appropriate service delivery mechanisms and organizational ...
ResearchAndMarkets.com is the world's leading source for international market research reports and market data. We provide you with the latest data on international and regional markets, key ...
Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools(RePORT) In addition to carrying out its scientific mission, the NIH exemplifies and promotes the highest level of public accountability. To that end, the Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools provides access to reports, data, and analyses of NIH research activities, including information on NIH ...
A research report is an end product of research. As earlier said that report writing provides useful information in arriving at rational decisions that may reform the business and society. The findings, conclusions, suggestions and recommendations are useful to academicians, scholars and policymakers.
Overdraft/NSF revenue for the fourth quarter of 2022 alone was approximately $1.5 billion lower than in the fourth quarter of 2019 - a decrease of 48% compared to before the pandemic, suggesting an annual reduction of over $5.5 billion going forward. This decrease suggests average annual savings of more than $150 per household that incurs overdraft or NSF fees; many households have saved ...
May 23, 2023. The parents of a Colorado man who was fatally shot by a sheriff's deputy last June during a mental health crisis will receive $19 million as part of a settlement announced Tuesday ...
Marked exchange rate depreciation following the global terms of trade shocks at the start of 2022 year brought high inflation and deteriorating living standards and caused substantial increases in the domestic currency values of public debt and bank liabilities. Nonetheless, growth continued, and the prospect is for a return to steady growth in 2023. But public debt is assessed to be ...
Buyers that manage to buy without any earnest money are more likely to buy a lower cost home - potentially a sign of a less competitive market. Buyers who bought a home for less than $200,000, for example, were more likely to report offering no earnest money (17%) than those who bought a home for at least $400,000 (9%) Earnest Money in Dollars.
German investigators have launched a nationwide raid against members of the Last Generation climate activist group, the Munich State Prosecutor's Office said Wednesday.