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Typhoon Haiyan Case Study
What were the primary and secondary effects of Typhoon Haiyan? What were the immediate and long-term responses?
What were the primary effects of Typhoon Haiyan?
Typhoon Haiyan, a category five typhoon, struck the Philippines, close to Tacloban on 8th November, 2013 at 4.40 am. The tropical storm originated in the northwest Pacific Ocean. It is one of the most powerful typhoons to affect the Philippines. Wind speeds of 314 kilometres per hour (195 miles per hour) were recorded.
The primary effects of Typhoon Haiyan were:
- strong winds battered homes
- people were made homeless, particularly around Western and Eastern Visayas
- electric was interrupted
- airport badly damaged
- roads were blocked by fallen trees and other debris
- Leyte and Tacloban experienced a 5-metre storm surge, and 400mm of rainfall flooded an area of up to 1km inland
- 90% of Tacloban was destroyed
- 6190 people died
- 29,000 people were injured
- 4.1 million people were made homeless
- 14.1 million people affected
- The overall cost of damage was around $12 billion
- 1.1 million tonnes of crops destroyed
- 1.1 million houses damaged
- 1 million farmers and 600,000 hectares of farmland affected
The strong winds battered homes and even the evacuation centre buildings. Those made homeless were mainly in the Western and Eastern Visayas. Power was interrupted, the airport was severely damaged, and trees and debris blocked roads. Leyte and Tacloban had a five-metre storm surge, and 400 millimetres of heavy rainfall flooded one kilometre inland. Ninety per cent of the city of Tacloban was destroyed.
Debris lines the streets of Tacloban, Leyte island. This region was the worst affected by the typhoon, causing widespread damage and loss of life. Caritas responds by distributing food, shelter, hygiene kits and cooking utensils. (Photo: Eoghan Rice – Trócaire / Caritas)
Although the harvest season was over, rice and seed stocks were squandered in the storm surges, leading to a $53 million US dollars loss.
Over one-third of farmers and fishers lost their income, leading to a total loss of $724 million.
What were the secondary effects?
- Infection and diseases spread, mainly due to contaminated surface and ground water.
- Survivors fought for food and supplies. Eight people died in a stampede for food supplies.
- Power supplies were cut off for months in some areas.
- Education was disrupted as many schools were destroyed.
- Seawater, chemicals and sewerage contaminated surface and groundwater.
- An oil tanker ran aground, causing an 800,000-litre oil leak that contaminated fishing waters.
- The airport was badly damaged and roads were blocked by debris and trees.
- Looting was rife, due to the lack of food and supplies.
- Rice prices had risen by nearly 12% by 2014.
- The leak from the oil barge led to ten hectares of mangroves being contaminated.
- Flooding caused landslides.
What were the immediate responses?
The government issued a televised warning to people to prepare and evacuate.
Eight hundred thousand people were evacuated following a televised warning by the president. Many people found refuge in a stadium in Tacloban. However, many people died when it was flooded. The government provided essential equipment and medical supplies. A curfew was introduced two days after the typhoon to reduce looting.
Over 1,200 evacuation centres were set up to help the homeless.
Three days after the storm, the main airport was reopened, and emergency aid arrived. Power was restored in some regions after a week. One million food packs and 250,000 litres of water were distributed within two weeks.
Over $1.5 billion of foreign aid was pledged. Thirty-three countries and international organisations promised help, with rescue operations and an estimated US $ 88.871 million.
Typhoon Haiyan relief effort
What were the long-term responses?
A cash for work programme paid people to clear debris and rebuild Tacloban.
The international charity organisation Oxfam replaced fishing boats.
Build Back Better is the government’s response to the typhoon. Launched in 2014, it intended to upgrade damaged buildings to protect them from future disasters. They have also set up a no-build zone along the coast in Eastern Visayas, a new storm surge warning system has been developed, and mangroves replanted to absorb future storm surges.
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On 2 November 2013, a low-pressure area developed in the Pacific Ocean, which was upgraded to a tropical storm named Haiyan on 4 November. The storm moved onwards, eventually making landfall in the Philippines on 8 November at 4:40 am local time as a Category 5 storm. With wind speeds up to 195 mph/315 km/h and gusts up to 235…
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On 2 November 2013, a low-pressure area developed in the Pacific Ocean, which was upgraded to a tropical storm named Haiyan on 4 November. The storm moved onwards, eventually making landfall in the Philippines on 8 November at 4:40 am local time as a Category 5 storm. With wind speeds up to 195 mph/315 km/h and gusts up to 235 mph/376 km/h, it wreaks havoc before moving on, eventually disintegrating over Guangxi, China. When the storm passed, more than 14 million people were heavily affected by the path of Typhoon Haiyan, the most powerful storm in 2013 and one of the most powerful typhoons of all time. Read on to learn more about this devastating storm's effects on the Philippines.
Typhoon Haiyan case study
Typhoon Haiyan was one of the strongest tropical cyclones ever recorded; it was also the second deadliest typhoon recorded in the Philippines, after Typhoon Haiphong in 1881. Read on to learn more about the Typhoon Haiyan case study.
Did you know: in the Philippines, Typhoon Haiyan is also known as Typhoon Yolanda
Path of Typhoon Haiyan
Typhoon Haiyan did not start out as a typhoon at all. It originated as a low-pressure area in the Federated States of Micronesia (in the western Pacific Ocean) on 2 November 2013.
The storm moved westwards, and by 4 November, it had gradually developed into a tropical storm, now named Haiyan. Then, things progressed quickly as the storm became a typhoon by 5 November. By 6 November, Typhoon Haiyan became a Category 5 storm that hit parts of Micronesia and Palau with wind speeds of over 157 mph/252 km/h.
Typhoon Haiyan entered the Philippines on 7 November and made landfall in Eastern Samar at 4:40 am on 8 November. It hits with full Category 5 force, leaving a path of destruction throughout several areas of the Philippines, mainly the Visayas, the central island group of the Philippines. Typhoon Haiyan moves out into the South China Sea, heading towards Vietnam by 9 November. By this time, the typhoon has weakened into a storm. The storm, already weakened, made landfall in northeast Vietnam on 10 November until it eventually disintegrated into bands of rain over Guanxi, China, on 11 November.
Typhoon Haiyan category
Typhoons are categorised into five categories based on the Saffir-Sampson Hurricane Wind scales. These categories are based on sustained wind speeds. Categories 1 and 2 are destructive, with winds between 74 to 95 mph (Category 1) and 96 to 110 mph (Category 2). If the wind speeds increase further, the storm can be updated to a Category 3, with speeds between 111 and 129 mph, and a Category 4, with wind speeds between 130 and 156 mph. These categories are labelled ‘catastrophic’. When sustained winds reach or go beyond 157 mph, it will become a Category 5, a storm that causes pure devastation. Typhoon Haiyan was a Category 5 when it hit the Philippines.
The table below shows the dates and wind speeds of the storm.
Primary effects of Typhoon Haiyan
Typhoon Haiyan had massive effects on the places where it passed/touched land. The primary effects were:
- 1.1 million homes were badly damaged or completely destroyed, and 4.1 million people became homeless, particularly around Eastern and Western Visayas (Philippines).
- Other buildings were also damaged.
- Powerlines were damaged.
- Communication was down.
- Tacloban Airport in Leyte province (Philippines) was damaged.
- Roads were blocked by debris and fallen trees.
- The infrastructure was damaged.
- There was a 5-metre storm surge in Leyte and Tacloban (Philippines). Furthermore, both places were affected by 400mm of rainfall which flooded the area up to 1km inland.
- Approximately 90% of Tacloban (Philippines) was destroyed.
- Approximately 1.1 million tonnes of crops were destroyed.
- Around 600,000 hectares of farmland were affected.
- Over 3/4 of farmers and fishers lost their income, a loss of $724 million.
- Even though harvest season was over, rice and seeds were lost in the storm surges, a loss of $53 million.
- The overall cost of damage was estimated at $12 billion.
- A total of 14.1 million people were affected, and 6,190 people lost their lives. To this day, there are still people missing. The estimated death toll is as high as 10,000.
Did you know: Bodies were discovered even well into 2019, 6 years after the storm!
Apart from the primary effects mentioned above, there were also secondary effects. An oil barge was stranded at Estancia, leaking a staggering 800,000 litres of oil. The oil contaminated the waters, killing marine life, and it caused a stop to fishing. The oil even contaminated 10 hectares of mangroves 10km inland!
The damage to the agricultural and fishing industries caused a food shortage. People began looting and fighting over food and supplies; eight people died during a stampede for rice supplies. The damage to fields and rice seeds caused rice prices to rise by 11.9% by 2014.
The flooding damaged people’s houses and agriculture and caused surface and groundwater to be contaminated with seawater, debris, industrial and agricultural chemicals, and sewage systems. Water was now contaminated, and there were increased chances of infection and the spreading of diseases.
The local government collapsed in many areas because many local officials died during the storm. This had a significant impact as it took some time to get everything in (working) order.
Typhoon Haiyan responses
In the wake of Typhoon Haiyan, there were immediate and long-term responses. Let’s take a closer look at both.
Benigno Aquino III, then-President of the Philippines, televised a warning of the upcoming storm, and the authorities evacuated 800,000 people. An indoor stadium in Tacloban had a reinforced roof to withstand typhoon winds, so many sought refuge here, thinking they were safe. While they were safe from the typhoon winds, unfortunately, many people died when the following water flooded the stadium. Ahead of the storm, the government ensured that essential equipment and medical supplies were sent out; however, in one region, these were washed away.
There were worries about substantial outbreaks of diseases such as cholera, which would only increase the death toll. The WHO (World Health Organisation) and other relief agencies took prompt actions to ensure that such outbreaks were kept isolated and to a minimum.
Three days after the storm had passed, Tacloban Airport was open again, and emergency supplies began arriving by plane, with one million food packs and 250,000 litres of water distributed within two weeks.
The storm also led to looting, where houses and shops were broken into, and goods were stolen. In light of this, a curfew was imposed just two days after the storm. Furthermore, power was entirely or partially restored, depending on the region, in a week.
Thirty-three countries and international organisations pledged help to the affected regions. Support came in the form of rescue operations and aid estimated at $88.871 million. Among those who helped were celebrities such as the Beckhams and large multinationals such as Coca-Cola, Apple and FIFA, who donated money and used their status and influence to help raise global awareness of the Philippines' predicament and encourage the public to donate. Over $1.5 billion in foreign aid was pledged.
Did you know : the Aquino government got a lot of criticism for acting slowly in the relief efforts?
Along with the immediate responses mentioned above, there were also a few important, long-term responses.
In July 2014, the Philippine government stated they were working on the country’s long-term recovery. The primary long-term response is the so-called ‘Build Back Better.' This means that buildings would not simply be rebuilt but would also be upgraded to offer better protection when, not if, a new disaster strikes.
Other long-term responses are a ‘no build zone’ along Eastern Visayas’ coast, a new storm surge warning system, the replanting of mangroves, and plans to build the Tacloban-Palo-Tanauan Road Dike. The latter should be able to help protect the area from floods .
Typhoon Haiyan facts
Here are some quick facts about Typhoon Haiyan:
- Typhoon Haiyan, also known as Typhoon Yolanda in the Philippines, was a Category 5 typhoon by the time it hit the Philippines.
- Coconut, rice and sugarcane production accounted for 12.7% of the Philippines’ GDP before Typhoon Haiyan hit.
- On 7 November, the Tacloban area was struck by the northern eyewall. This is the most powerful part of the storm.
- The Philippines is a poverty-stricken area in general. This means that the area had poor defences against storms, to begin with; it also means that the storm had even more significant consequences as homes and other buildings were damaged, fishing and agriculture were damaged, and there were even fewer resources such as food and water than before the storm.
- It took a considerable amount of time to recover from Typhoon Haiyan. There were immediate issues such as damaged houses/buildings, infrastructure and food problems, and long-term social, economic and environmental impacts that had to be addressed. While some of the more immediate issues were dealt with rather quickly, some long-term issues took years. That said, five years after the storm, the Philippines, and Tacloban, in particular, have recovered, and things were back to normal.
Typhoon Haiyan - Key takeaways
- Typhoon Haiyan, also known as Typhoon Yolanda in the Philippines, was one of the strongest cyclones ever recorded, namely Category 5, and the second deadliest in the Philippines.
- Many primary effects were damaged homes, agricultural and fishing businesses, and loss of life.
- One of the more dire secondary effects was weakened local governments because many government officials died or went missing.
- The Philippine government were criticised for reacting slowly to the storm and its aftermath.
- Long-term responses include a 'Build Back Better' where houses were not only rebuilt but upgraded to withstand storms better, and a ‘no build zone’ along Eastern Visayas’ coast.
- Fig. 2: Destruction in Tacloban, the Philippines, on 14 November 2013, 2 weeks after Typhoon Haiyan (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tacloban_Typhoon_Haiyan_2013-11-14.jpg) by Trocaire (https://www.flickr.com/people/[email protected]) Licensed by CC BY 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en)
Frequently Asked Questions about Typhoon Haiyan
--> where did typhoon haiyan start and end .
Typhoon Haiyan started in the Federated States of Micronesia (in the western Pacific Ocean) and ended over the Guanxi region in China.
--> What was the category of Typhoon Haiyan?
Typhoon Haiyan was a Category 5 storm.
--> What were the effects of Typhoon Haiyan?
There were many primary effects, such as loss of life, damaged homes, damage to agricultural and fishing industries, and an overall estimated cost of $12 billion.
--> What did the government do after Typhoon Haiyan?
The government was initially slow to respond and was criticised for it. Eventually, they acted. The primary long-term response is the 'Build Back Better', an initiative where homes and buildings were not only rebuilt but also upgraded to offer better protection against future storms. Furthermore, they opted for a 'no build' zone along Eastern Visayas' coast, new storm surge warning systems, replanting of mangroves, and the Tacloban-Palo-Tanauan Road Dike.
--> How long did it take the Philippines to recover from Typhoon Haiyan?
While certain issues were resolved relatively quickly, such as getting the power working again, other issues took longer. About 5 years after the storm, the Philippines, and Tacloban in particular, have recovered, and things were back to normal.
Final Typhoon Haiyan Quiz
Typhoon haiyan quiz - teste dein wissen.
Typhoon Haiyan was the _____ deadliest typhoon recorded in the Philippines, after Typhoon _____ in _____.
In the Philippines, Typhoon Haiyan was also known as?
Where did Typhoon Haiyan start?
Federated States of Micronesia (in the western Pacific Ocean)
What category was Typhoon Haiyan?
True or False: Approximately 75% of Tacloban was destroyed?
True or False: Around 600,000 hectares of farmland were affected.
What effects did the oil leak at Estancia have?
All of the above
True or False: the people who sought refuge in an indoor stadium in Tacloban died when the roof collapsed?
True or False: the Aquino government got a lot of criticism for acting slowly in the relief efforts.
Explain the long-term response ' Build Back Better'.
'Build Back Better' means that houses and buildings are not just rebuilt but also upgraded so they will better withstand future storms.
Coconut, rice and sugarcane production accounted for _____% of the Philippines’ GDP before Typhoon Haiyan hit.
What are the long-term responses to Typhoon Haiyan? (Select 3)
' ‘Build Back Better'
When did Typhoon Haiyan make landfall in Eastern Samar in the Philippines?
True or False: There was a 5-metre storm surge in Leyte and Tacloban (Philippines).
Why did the local government collapse?
Many local officials died during the storm. This had a significant impact as it took some time to get everything in (working) order.
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- Created by: ELONZ3434
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Impacts of Typhoon Haiyan
- Over 14 million people were affected by the typhoon, including 1.9 million being made homeless, as well as more than 6,000,000 being displaced.
- 7,400 people have been estimated to have been killed by the storm
- 500,000 homes were destroyed, as well as 600,000 being severely damaged.
- Over one million farmers in the Philippines have been impacted by Typhoon Haiyan according to the UN.
- In Tacloban alone, 90% of the structures are either destroyed or damaged while other cities, such as Ormoc, are reporting similar damage.
- The United Nations feared that the possibility of the spread of disease was high due to the lack of food, water, shelter, and medication.
- Less affected areas such as Cebu and Manila. Catbalogan reported that their population more than doubled after the typhoon with the influx of …
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The Philippines consists of a group of islands in the South China Sea. The country regularly suffers from large typhoons that move in from the south west every year during the tropical storm season. This case study is about Typhoon Haiyan, which is unofficially the fourth most intense tropical cyclone ever observed.
Facts about the Philippines & UK (from CIA Fact book 2014)
The Philippines sits in an area of seasonally warm ocean water (sea temperatures over 27°C) and has enough Coriolis Force to create rotating winds over the ocean's surface. Sea-level rise is happening globally but is particularly affecting the Philippines. It is caused by global warming and has gone up by about 20cm since 1900. These sea level rises create larger storm surges. Use of groundwater has caused parts of the country to sink. The worst affected city, Tacloban, is at the end of a bay that funnelled water from the storm surge.
NASA image of Typhoon Haiyan By NASA, LAADS Web
Timeline of development; • 2nd November 2013 – Typhoon Haiyan starts as an area of low pressure several hundred kilometers east-southeast of Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia. • 3rd November – moves west and develops into a tropical depression • 4th November - Haiyan becomes a tropical storm • 5th November - the system began a period of rapid intensification that brought it to typhoon intensity. • 7th November - Typhoon Haiyan made landfall in Guiuan, Eastern Samar • 10th to 11th of November - Haiyan reaches Vietnam and weakens in intensity Impacts Quick facts according to the Disasters and Emergency Committee of the UK • Typhoon Haiyan - known locally as Yolanda - hit eastern Samar Island at 8.40pm GMT on 7 November 2013 (4.40am 8th November local time). • It caused a storm surge – a wall of water – that was 25 feet high in some areas, including in the town of Tacloban. • Over 14 million people were affected across 46 provinces. • The city of Tacloban, home to more than 220,000 people, suffered more loss of life than any other area of the Philippines. • Five million people saw their homes severely damaged or destroyed (550,000 houses destroyed and an additional 580,000 houses were severely damaged).
Devastation in Tacloban By Trocaire from Ireland (DSC_0749)
Typhoon Haiyan is one of the most devastating storms of recent history. It killed approximately 7400 people (6,340 confirmed, 1,061 missing) and affected 9 million people. Immediately after the storm the Philippines faced a humanitarian crisis after the Visayas Islands in the central part of the country had 1.9 million homeless and more than 6,000,000 displaced. The economy was affected, with estimated losses at $2.9billion with much of this in agriculture. The major rice and sugar producing areas for the Philippines were destroyed. A total of 131,611 tons of rice was lost (Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)), together with much of the coconut crop which is nearly half the Philippines agricultural exports (the country is the world’s biggest producer of coconut oil). 5.9 million Workers lost income sources according to USAID. Tacloban airport terminal building was also completely destroyed by a 5m storm surge. The United Nations feared the possibility of the spread of disease is high due to the lack of food, water, shelter, and medication. In addition, casualties were reported as a result of the lack of aid in affected areas. Socially people were affected; they became refugees in lass affected areas and migrated there. Also, fishing communities were affected with the storm destroying boats and associated equipment. The natural environment was also affected, with loss of forests, trees and widespread flooding. Local ecosystems were also affected by sewage leaking from overwhelmed sewage systems and oil leaks. A lack of sanitation in days following the event also leads to a higher level of pollution.
Management & responses The government was criticised for its slow response to this event. However, the Philippines formally declared "A State of National Calamity" and asked for international help; one day after the Haiyan hit the country. A week after the typhoon had struck President Benigno Aquino was under growing pressure to speed up the distribution of networks or food, water and medicine to desperate survivors and to get paralysed local governments functioning. However, the storm damaged infrastructure making response difficult. For example, the Tacloban city government was decimated, with just 70 workers in the immediate days after the disaster compared to 2,500 normally. Many were killed, injured, lost family or were simply too traumatised to work.
By December, water tanks had been installed by charities like Oxfam but not in all areas. 6 Months later, many people still had limited access to shelter and water. NGOs like the International Red cross were trying to provide adequate settlements, fresh water access and access to jobs/livelihood. The Philippines authorities have invested in disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA). They spent $624m on this in 2011 – two per cent of the national budget and 0.28 per cent of GDP – while at least five per cent of a local authority's revenue is set aside for its Local Disaster Risk Reduction Management Fund
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- Urban growth in LICs and NEEs Case Study – City in a Newly Emerging Economy (NEE) – Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
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- Geographical Skills
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- Year 7 – Skills descriptor
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Case Study – Typhoon Haiyan 2013
- Past Papers
- Summer Tour of the World….
- Year 8 Revision
- Global biomes
- Globalisation, culture and tourism
- Year 9 Revision
Residents walk on a road littered with debris after Super Typhoon Haiyan battered Tacloban city.
Objective: To build up a case study of Typhoon Haiyan (2013) and the level of vulnerability of the affected population.
You are going to be looking at the 5ws – what, where, when, why and who ..
BBC Newspage – Typhoon Haiyan
Wikipedia – typhoon haiyan, the guardian – a year after the typhoon.
Use the worksheet below – save the document.
Typhoon Haiyan – worksheet
Watch this video clip at home – wont have enough time in the lesson
Type of exam question that might come up:
Discuss why a country’s level of economic development may affect the impact of a natural hazard event. reference to examples, including fieldwork, may help your answer. (9).
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- Structure of the Earth – video
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1.1 million houses damaged 1 million farmers and 600,000 hectares of farmland affected The strong winds battered homes and even the evacuation centre buildings. Those made homeless were mainly in the Western and Eastern Visayas. Power was interrupted, the airport was severely damaged, and trees and debris blocked roads.
A case study about the causes and impacts of tropical storm Haiyan When tropical storm Haiyan struck southeast Asia in November 2013, it caused havoc in an already deprived area. This region is vulnerable to extreme weather hazards such as typhoons, and any methods to reduce the impact can be limited by poverty.
TABLE OF CONTENTS On 2 November 2013, a low-pressure area developed in the Pacific Ocean, which was upgraded to a tropical storm named Haiyan on 4 November. The storm moved onwards, eventually making landfall in the Philippines on 8 November at 4:40 am local time as a Category 5 storm.
Philippines - Typhoon Yolanda / Haiyan Fact Sheet #1 Author: USAID/Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance Subject: On November 8, Typhoon Haiyan known as Yolanda in the Philippines made landfall in the central Philippines, bringing strong winds and heavy rains that have resulted in flooding, landslides, and widespread damage. Created Date
Immediate responses The Philippine government estimated that about 175,000 acres of farmland were affected. Many coconut plantations were also destroyed. Coconuts account for nearly half the Philippines agricultural exports and the country is the world's biggest producer of… Geography Case studies A2/A-level AQA
How many islands make up the Philippines? January 2014. When were bodies still being found by? Ring of Fire. On what tectonic area are the Philippines located? Otherwise known as the 'Circum Pacific Belt'. 103.3 million. What's the population of the Philippines? flooding.
Terms in this set (35) Haiyan originated from an area of... low pressure several hundred kilometers east-southeast of Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia on November 2, 2013. The typhoons most deadly impact was the.... storm surge it brought, flooding the coastal areas of the philippines, destroying 90% of the city Tacloban.
Created on: 29-05-17 15:08 Fullscreen Impacts of Typhoon Haiyan Social Impacts: Over 14 million people were affected by the typhoon, including 1.9 million being made homeless, as well as more than 6,000,000 being displaced. 7,400 people have been estimated to have been killed by the storm
This case study is about Typhoon Haiyan, which is unofficially the fourth most intense tropical cyclone ever observed. ... Sea-level rise is happening globally but is particularly affecting the Philippines. It is caused by global warming and has gone up by about 20cm since 1900. ... • Typhoon Haiyan - known locally as Yolanda - hit eastern ...
Tropical storm case study - Typhoon Rai Typhoon Rai (also known locally as "Odette") was a tropical storm that affected the Philippines in December 2021. The Philippines is a lower-middle...
1 2 3 4 5 Tropical storm case study - Typhoon Rai Typhoon Rai (also known locally as "Odette") was a tropical storm that affected the Philippines in December 2021. The Philippines is an...
A Level (New Edexcel 9GEO) Paper 1. Landscape systems, processes and change - Coastal landscapes and change. Tectonic processes and hazards. The carbon cycle and energy security. The water cycle and water insecurity. Paper 2. Global development and connections - migration, identity and soverignty. Globalisation.
A short video to explore the effects of and responses to Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines.1) Define "storm surge."2) Which city saw most of the damage?3) Na...