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11 Literature (including fiction, drama, poetry, and prose)
Essential Questions for Literature
- How is literature like life?
- What is literature supposed to do?
- What influences a writer to create?
- How does literature reveal the values of a given culture or time period?
- How does the study of fiction and nonfiction texts help individuals construct their understanding of reality?
- In what ways are all narratives influenced by bias and perspective?
- Where does the meaning of a text reside? Within the text, within the reader, or in the transaction that occurs between them?
- What can a reader know about an author’s intentions based only on a reading of the text?
- What are enduring questions and conflicts that writers (and their cultures) grappled with hundreds of years ago and are still relevant today?
- How do we gauge the optimism or pessimism of a particular time period or particular group of writers?
- Why are there universal themes in literature–that is, themes that are of interest or concern to all cultures and societies?
- What are the characteristics or elements that cause a piece of literature to endure?
- What is the purpose of: science fiction? satire? historical novels, etc.?
- How do novels, short stories, poetry, etc. relate to the larger questions of philosophy and humanity?
- How we can use literature to explain or clarify our own ideas about the world?
- How does what we know about the world shape the stories we tell?
- How do the stories we tell about the world shape the way we view ourselves?
- How do our personal experiences shape our view of others?
- What does it mean to be an insider or an outsider?
- Are there universal themes in literature that are of interest or concern to all cultures and societies?
- What is creativity and what is its importance for the individual / the culture?
- What are the limits, if any, of freedom of speech?
Literature, in its broadest sense, is any written work. Etymologically, the term derives from Latin litaritura / litteratura “writing formed with letters,” although some definitions include spoken or sung texts. More restrictively, it is writing that possesses literary merit. Literature can be classified according to whether it is fiction or non-fiction and whether it is poetry or prose. It can be further distinguished according to major forms such as the novel, short story or drama, and works are often categorized according to historical periods or their adherence to certain aesthetic features or expectations (genre).
Taken to mean only written works, literature was first produced by some of the world’s earliest civilizations—those of Ancient Egypt and Sumeria—as early as the 4th millennium BC; taken to include spoken or sung texts, it originated even earlier, and some of the first written works may have been based on a pre-existing oral tradition. As urban cultures and societies developed, there was a proliferation in the forms of literature. Developments in print technology allowed for literature to be distributed and experienced on an unprecedented scale, which has culminated in the twenty-first century in electronic literature.
Definitions of literature have varied over time. In Western Europe prior to the eighteenth century, literature as a term indicated all books and writing.  A more restricted sense of the term emerged during the Romantic period, in which it began to demarcate “imaginative” literature. 
Contemporary debates over what constitutes literature can be seen as returning to the older, more inclusive notion of what constitutes literature. Cultural studies, for instance, takes as its subject of analysis both popular and minority genres, in addition to canonical works. 
A calligram by Guillaume Apollinaire. These are a type of poem in which the written words are arranged in such a way to produce a visual image.
Poetry is a form of literary art that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, prosaic ostensible meaning (ordinary intended meaning). Poetry has traditionally been distinguished from prose by its being set in verse;  prose is cast in sentences, poetry in lines; the syntax of prose is dictated by meaning, whereas that of poetry is held across metre or the visual aspects of the poem. 
Prior to the nineteenth century, poetry was commonly understood to be something set in metrical lines; accordingly, in 1658 a definition of poetry is “any kind of subject consisting of Rythm or Verses”.  Possibly as a result of Aristotle’s influence (his Poetics ), “poetry” before the nineteenth century was usually less a technical designation for verse than a normative category of fictive or rhetorical art.  As a form it may pre-date literacy, with the earliest works being composed within and sustained by an oral tradition;  hence it constitutes the earliest example of literature.
Prose is a form of language that possesses ordinary syntax and natural speech rather than rhythmic structure; in which regard, along with its measurement in sentences rather than lines, it differs from poetry.  On the historical development of prose, Richard Graff notes that ”
Novel : a long fictional prose narrative.
Novella :The novella exists between the novel and short story; the publisher Melville House classifies it as “too short to be a novel, too long to be a short story.” 
Short story : a dilemma in defining the “short story” as a literary form is how to, or whether one should, distinguish it from any short narrative. Apart from its distinct size, various theorists have suggested that the short story has a characteristic subject matter or structure;  these discussions often position the form in some relation to the novel. 
Drama is literature intended for performance. 
Leitch et al. , The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism , 28 ↵
Ross, “The Emergence of “Literature”: Making and Reading the English Canon in the Eighteenth Century,” 406 & Eagleton, Literary theory: an introduction , 16 ↵
“POETRY, N.”. OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY . OUP. RETRIEVED 13 FEBRUARY 2014. (subscription required) ↵
Preminger, The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics , 938–9 ↵
Ross, “The Emergence of “Literature”: Making and Reading the English Canon in the Eighteenth Century”, 398 ↵
FINNEGAN, RUTH H. (1977). ORAL POETRY: ITS NATURE, SIGNIFICANCE, AND SOCIAL CONTEXT. INDIANA UNIVERSITY PRESS. P. 66. & MAGOUN, JR., FRANCIS P. (1953). “ORAL-FORMULAIC CHARACTER OF ANGLO-SAXON NARRATIVE POETRY”.SPECULUM 28 (3): 446–67. DOI:10.2307/2847021 ↵
Preminger, The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics , 938–9 &Alison Booth; Kelly J. Mays. “Glossary: P”. LitWeb , the Norton Introduction to Literature Studyspace . Retrieved 15 February 2014. ↵
Antrim, Taylor (2010). “In Praise of Short”. The Daily Beast. Retrieved 15 February 2014. ↵
ROHRBERGER, MARY; DAN E. BURNS (1982). “SHORT FICTION AND THE NUMINOUS REALM: ANOTHER ATTEMPT AT DEFINITION”. MODERN FICTION STUDIES . XXVIII (6). & MAY, CHARLES (1995). THE SHORT STORY. THE REALITY OF ARTIFICE . NEW YORK: TWAIN. ↵
Marie Louise Pratt (1994). Charles May, ed. The Short Story: The Long and the Short of It . Athens: Ohio UP. ↵
Elam, Kier (1980). The Semiotics of Theatre and Drama . London and New York: Methuen. p. 98.ISBN 0-416-72060-9. ↵
LICENSES AND ATTRIBUTIONS CC LICENSED CONTENT, SHARED PREVIOUSLY
Literature. Provided by: Wikipedia. Located at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literature#cite_note-44 . License: CC BY-SA: Attribution- ShareAlike
PUBLIC DOMAIN CONTENT: Image of man formed by words. Authored by: Guillaume Apollinaire. Located at: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Calligramme.jpg . License: Public Domain: No Known Copyright
Listen to this Discussion of the poetry of Harris Khalique . You might want to take a look at the transcript as you listen.
The first half of a 2008 reading featuring four Latino poets, as part of the American Perspectives series at the Art Institute of Chicago.
Listen to poetry reading of Francisco Aragón and Brenda Cárdenas
Listen to this conversation with Allison Hedge Coke, Linda Hogan and Sherwin Bitsui . You might want to look at the transcript as you listen. In this program, we hear a conversation among three Native American poets: Allison Hedge Coke, Linda Hogan and Sherwin Bitsui. Allison Hedge Coke grew up listening to her Father’s traditional stories as she moved from Texas to North Carolina to Canada and the Great Plains. She is the author of several collections of poetry and the memoir, Rock, Ghost, Willow, Deer. She has worked as a mentor with Native Americans and at-risk youth, and is currently a Professor of Poetry and Writing at the University of Nebraska, Kearney. Linda Hogan is a prolific poet, novelist and essayist. Her work is imbued with an indigenous sense of history and place, while it explores environmental, feminist and spiritual themes. A former professor at the University of Colorado, she is currently the Chickasaw Nation’s Writer in Residence. She lives in Oklahoma, where she researches and writes about Chickasaw history, mythology and ways of life. Sherwin Bitsui grew up on the Navajo reservation in Arizona. He speaks Dine, the Navajo language and participates in ceremonial activities. His poetry has a sense of the surreal, combining images of the contemporary urban culture, with Native ritual and myth.
Remember to return to the essential questions. Can expand on any of your answers to these questions? You might want to research these poets.
Chris Abani : Stories from Africa
In this deeply personal talk, Nigerian writer Chris Abani says that “what we know about how to be who we are” comes from stories. He searches for the heart of Africa through its poems and narrative, including his own.
Listen to Isabel Allende’s Ted Talk
As a novelist and memoirist, Isabel Allende writes of passionate lives, including her own. Born into a Chilean family with political ties, she went into exile in the United States in the 1970s—an event that, she believes, created her as a writer. Her voice blends sweeping narrative with touches of magical realism; her stories are romantic, in the very best sense of the word. Her novels include The House of the Spirits, Eva Luna and The Stories of Eva Luna, and her latest, Maya’s Notebook and Ripper. And don’t forget her adventure trilogy for young readers— City of the Beasts, Kingdom of the Golden Dragon and Forest of the Pygmies.
As a memoirist, she has written about her vision of her lost Chile, in My Invented Country, and movingly tells the story of her life to her own daughter, in Paula. Her book Aphrodite: A Memoir of the Senses memorably linked two sections of the bookstore that don’t see much crossover: Erotica and Cookbooks. Just as vital is her community work: The Isabel Allende Foundation works with nonprofits in the San Francisco Bay Area and Chile to empower and protect women and girls—understanding that empowering women is the only true route to social and economic justice.
You can read excerpts of her books online here: https://www.isabelallende.com/en/books
Read her musings. Why does she write? https://www.isabelallende.com/en/musings
You might choose to read one of her novels.
Listen to Novelist Chimamanda Adichie . She speaks about how our lives, our cultures, are composed of many overlapping stories. She tells the story of how she found her authentic cultural voice — and warns that if we hear only a single story about another person or country, we risk a critical misunderstanding.
One Hundred Years of Solitu de
Gabriel García Márquez’s novel “One Hundred Years of Solitude” brought Latin American literature to the forefront of the global imagination and earned García Márquez the 1982 Nobel Prize for Literature. What makes the novel so remarkable? Francisco Díez-Buzo investigates.
Answer these questions as you listen:
How many generations of the Buendía family are in One Hundred Years of Solitude?
In what year did Gabriel García Marquez start writing One Hundred Years of Solitude?
Who inspired the style of One Hundred Years of Solitude?
A Colonel Aureliano Buendía
B Gabriel García Márquez
C Nicolás Ricardo Márquez
D Doña Tranquilina Iguarán Cotes
Which real-life event is almost directly represented in the novel?
A The Banana Massacre of 1928
B The Venezuelan coup d’état of 1958
C The Thousand Days’ War
D The bogotazo
What is the name of the town where the novel is set?
Please explain how One Hundred Years of Solitude exemplifies the genre of magical realism.
What were the key influences in García Márquez’s life that helped inspire One Hundred Years of Solitude?
The narrative moves in a particular shape. What is that shape? How is that shape created?
Gabriel García Márquez was a writer and journalist who recorded the haphazard political history of Latin American life through his fiction. He was a part of a literary movement called the Latin American “boom ,” which included writers like Peru’s Mario Vargas Llosa, Argentina’s Julio Cortázar, and Mexico’s Carlos Fuentes. Almost all of these writers incorporated aspects of magical realism in their work . Later authors, such as Isabel Allende and Salman Rushdie, would carry on and adapt the genre to the cultural and historical experiences of other countries and continents. García Máruqez hadn’t always planned on being a writer, but a pivotal moment in Colombia’s—and Latin America’s—history changed all that. In 1948, when García Márquez was a law student in Bogotá, Jorge Eliécer Gaítan , a prominent radical populist leader of Colombia’s Liberal Party, was assassinated. This happened while the U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall brought together leaders from across the Americas to create the Organization of American States (OAS) and to build a hemisphere-wide effort against communism. In the days after the assassination, massive riots, now called the bogotazo , occurred. The worst Colombian civil war to date, known as La Violencia , also broke out. Another law student, visiting from Cuba, was deeply affected by Eliécer Gaítan’s death. This student’s name was Fidel Castro. Interestingly, García Márquez and Castro—both socialists—would become close friends later on in life , despite not meeting during these tumultuous events. One Hundred Years of Solitude ’s success almost didn’t happen, but this article from Vanity Fair helps explain how a long-simmering idea became an international sensation. When Gabriel García Márquez won the Nobel Prize in 1982, he gave a lecture that helped illuminate the plights that many Latin Americans faced on a daily basis. Since then, that lecture has also helped explain the political and social critiques deeply embedded in his novels. It was famous for being an indigenous overview of how political violence became entrenched in Latin America during the Cold War.In an interview with the New Left Review , he discussed a lot of the inspirations for his work, as well as his political beliefs.
Mounting his skinny steed, Don Quixote charges an army of giants. It is his duty to vanquish these behemoths in the name of his beloved lady, Dulcinea. There’s only one problem: the giants are merely windmills. What is it about this tale of the clumsy yet valiant knight that makes it so beloved? Ilan Stavans investigates.
Why do Don Quixote and Sancho Panza work well together?
A They eat at strange times of the day
B They are impatient
C They like to dance together
D Their characters complement each other
Why does Don Quixote want to fix the world?
A He is a knight who believes in social justice
B He reads many books
C He doesn’t have any friends
D He loves toys
Why is Don Quixote’s love for Dulcinea described as “platonic”?
A Plato is their matchmaker
B They love Greek philosophy
C They want material fortune
D It’s purely spiritual
Why is Cervantes’s book described as “the first modern novel”?
A It was originally adapted to television
B The characters evolve throughout the story
C Cervantes only wrote poetry before
D It refers to technological advances
What does the term “quixotic” mean?
B A person without money
C An old man
D A dreamer
In what ways do Don Quixote and Sancho Panza change as the plot progresses?
Is it possible to count the total number of days that pass during their journey?
In what ways does their journey reveal the changes that 17th-century Spain is also undergoing?
Interested in exploring the world of Don Quixote ? Check out this translation of the thrill-seeking classic. To learn more about Don Quixote ’s rich cultural history, click here . In this interview , the educator shares his inspiration behind his book Quixote: The Novel and the World . The travails of Don Quixote ’s protagonist were heavily shaped by real-world events in 17th-century Spain. This article provides detailed research on what, exactly, happened during that time.
It begins with a countdown. A woman goes into labor as the clock ticks towards midnight. Across India, people wait for the declaration of independence after nearly 200 years of British rule. At the stroke of midnight, an infant and two new nations are born in perfect synchronicity. These events form the foundation of “Midnight’s Children.” Iseult Gillespie explores Salman Rushdie’s dazzling novel.
Saleem Sinai’s birth coincides with:
A The invasion of India by the British
B The end of British occupation and the creation of two new nations, India and Pakistan
C The death of his mother
D His discovery of magic powers
Midnight’s Children is set over the course of:
A About thirty years of Saleem’s life
B A single day in Saleem’s life
C The duration of British occupation
D About thirty years of Saleem’s life, as well as flashbacks to before he was born
Saleem is the only person in the book with magic powers
Saleem has powers of
B Shape shifting
C Predicting the future
Midnight’s Children is full of cultural references, including
A 1001 Nights
E All of the above
List some of the historical events that are part of the plot of Midnight’s Children
Why is Midnight’s Children a work of postcolonial literature? Describe some of the features of postcolonial literature.
In addition to being a work of postcolonial literature, Midnight’s Children is considered a key work of magical realism. Why do you think this is? What are some of the features of the book that could classify as magical realism?
Midnight’s Children filters epic and complex histories through one man’s life. What are the benefits of fictionalizing history in this way? What do you think he is trying to tell us about the way we process our past? Can history be as much of a narrative construct as fiction?
At the stroke of midnight, the first gasp of a newborn syncs with the birth of two new nations. These simultaneous events are at the center of Midnight’s Children, a dazzling novel about the state of modern India by the British-Indian author Salman Rushdie . You can listen to an interview with Rushdie discussing the novel here . The chosen baby is Saleem Sinai, who narrates the novel from a pickle factory in 1977. As this article argues, much of the beauty of the narrative lies in Rushdie’s ability to weave the personal into the political in surprising ways. Saleem’s narrative leaps back in time, to trace his family history from 1915 on. The family tree is blossoming with bizarre scenes, including clandestine courtships, babies swapped at birth, and cryptic prophecies. For a detailed interactive timeline of the historical and personal events threaded through the novel, click here . However, there’s one trait that can’t be explained by genes alone – Saleem has magic powers, and they’re somehow related to the time of his birth. For an overview of the use of magical realism and astonishing powers in Mignight’s Children, click here. Saleem recounts a new nation, flourishing and founding after almost a century of British rule. For more information on the dark history of British occupation of India, visit this page. The vast historical frame is one reason why Midnight’s Children is considered one of the most illuminating works of postcolonial literature ever written. This genre typically addresses life in formerly colonized countries, and explores the fallout through themes like revolution, migration, and identity. Postcolonial literature also deals with the search for agency and authenticity in the wake of imposed foreign rule. Midnight’s Children reflects these concerns with its explosive combination of Eastern and Western references. On the one hand, it’s been compared to the sprawling novels of Charles Dickens or George Elliot, which also offer a panoramic vision of society paired with tales of personal development. But Rushdie radically disrupts this formula by adding Indian cultural references, magic and myth. Saleem writes the story by night, and narrates it back to his love interest, Padma. This echoes the frame for 1001 Nights , a collection of Middle Eastern folktales told by Scheherazade every night to her lover – and as Saleem reminds us, 1001 is “the number of night, of magic, of alternative realities.” Saleem spends a lot of the novel attempting to account for the unexpected. But he often gets thoroughly distracted and goes on astonishing tangents, telling dirty jokes or mocking his enemies. With his own powers of telepathy, Saleem forges connections between other children of midnight; including a boy who can step through time and mirrors, and a child who changes their gender when immersed in water. There’s other flashes of magic throughout, from a mother who can see into dreams to witchdoctors, shapeshifters, and many more. For an overview of the dazzling reference points of the novel, visit this page . Sometimes, all this is like reading a rollercoaster: Saleem sometimes narrates separate events all at once, refers to himself in the first and third person in the space of a single sentence, or uses different names for one person. And Padma is always interrupting, urging him to get to the point or exclaiming at his story’s twists and turns. This mind-bending approach has garnered continuing fascination and praise. Not only did Midnight’s Children win the prestigious Man Booker prize in its year of publication, but it was named the best of all the winners in 2008 . For an interview about Rushdie’s outlook and processed, click here. All this gives the narrative a breathless quality, and brings to life an entire society surging through political upheaval without losing sight of the marvels of individual lives. But even as he depicts the cosmological consequences of a single life, Rushdie questions the idea that we can ever condense history into a single narrative.
Tom Elemas : The Inspiring Truth in Fiction
What do we lose by choosing non-fiction over fiction? For Tomas Elemans, there’s an important side effect of reading fiction: empathy — a possible antidote to a desensitized world filled with tragic news and headlines.
What is empathy? How does story-telling create empathy? What stories trigger empathy in you? What is narrative immersion? Are we experiencing an age of narcissism? What might be some examples of narcissism? What connection does Tom Elemans make to individualism?
Ann Morgan: My year reading a book from every country in the world
Ann Morgan considered herself well read — until she discovered the “massive blindspot” on her bookshelf. Amid a multitude of English and American authors, there were very few books from beyond the English-speaking world. So she set an ambitious goal: to read one book from every country in the world over the course of a year. Now she’s urging other Anglophiles to read translated works so that publishers will work harder to bring foreign literary gems back to their shores. Explore interactive maps of her reading journey here: go.ted.com/readtheworld
Her blog: Check out my blog (http://ayearofreadingtheworld.com/), where you can find a complete list of the books I read, and what I learned along the way.
Jacqueline Woodson: What reading slowly taught me about writing
Reading slowly — with her finger running beneath the words, even when she was taught not to — has led Jacqueline Woodson to a life of writing books to be savored. In a lyrical talk, she invites us to slow down and appreciate stories that take us places we never thought we’d go and introduce us to people we never thought we’d meet. “Isn’t that what this is all about — finding a way, at the end of the day, to not feel alone in this world, and a way to feel like we’ve changed it before we leave?” she asks.
Introduction to Humanities II Copyright © by loribethlarsenclcmnedu is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.
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Prose, Poems, and Drama
Our Prose, Poems, and Drama lesson plan teaches students about three types of fiction writing: prose, poems, and drama. Students practice identify text as either prose, poetry, or drama, and also practice writing in each of these types.
Our Prose, Poems, and Drama lesson plan
is designed to provide students with basic information about three types of fiction writing: prose, poems, and drama. During this lesson, students are asked to read three provided texts and determine which is prose, which is a poem, and which is drama, demonstrating their ability to recognize each type of writing. Students are also asked to choose a theme and then write four pieces of writing based around that theme: two poems, one piece of prose writing, and one piece of drama writing; this gives them the opportunity to practice each type of fiction writing on their own.
At the end of the lesson, students will be able to explain major differences between prose, poems, and dramas. Students will also be able to replicate the three formats in their own writing.
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Poetry, Prose, and Drama
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Meaning and Differences between Prose, Drama and Poetry
Meaning And Differences Between Prose, Drama And Poetry : Whether the subject of a conversation is linked to books or films or even art in museums, the subject of literature is often raised in this digital era of massive film making, song production and art-making. Even though that they are often mixed up due to the fluidity of literary works that has come to stay, it is still very important to know the forms of literature there is.
Literature can be defined as the body of all creative works, written and unwritten with lasting artistic merit. It is almost all-encompassing, as the lines between its categories are getting blurrier with each passing day. However the field sums up all works that are creative and innovative, works that lead narratives that readers and viewers alike find both entertaining and educating. Its major forms are prose, drama and poetry.
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Table of Contents
Meaning of a Prose
Prose is derived from the Latin expression; prosa oratio , which means ‘ direct speech ‘. It is a branch of literature that sports a direct or straightforward structure free from ambiguity. It contains full standard sentences unlike traditional poetry that usually comes in verses and stanzas. There is usually a more direct and natural flow to this form than any other form of literature. Some would consider it as ‘ conversational ’ in nature because it often feels like facts are being conveyed from the writer to the reader in a speech. It is the clearest form of ‘ storytelling ’.
Examples of prose are;
Works of Journalism/Articles.
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Meaning of a Poetry
The term ‘ poetry ’ is derived from the Greek word “ poiesis “ , which means ‘ making ’. It is a form of literature that employs aesthetics and devices such as symbolism and assonance to communicate its meaning efficiently. The earliest poetry can be traced all the way back to hunting folksongs in parts of Africa and ’ pyramid ’ texts in Egypt where the basic purpose of poetry was communication.
Till today, some poetry types are unique to certain traditions and cultures and would be written in a form familiar to the people that belong to those sections of society. The most outstanding quality of poetry is its ability to draw out emotional responses from its readers. The diction often used in poetry is one that embodies enough metaphors and other figures of speech to give the piece a little more ‘sophisticated’ outlook. This also makes it possible for readers to give such piece several interpretations as the words could hold different meanings to different persons.
There are three major elements of Poetry and they are; rhythm, rhyme and metre .
Poetry is arguably the form of literature with the most sub-forms. It owes its numerous types to its fluidity as it can take various shapes short texts, longer texts with an almost musical sequence. You can find it in songs, in folklore, in myths, lullabies etc. The many types of poetry are classified here into genres which include;
Also see: Major figures of speech in literature explained
Meaning of a Drama
This form of literature can be a little tricky because a lot of people can’t tell the difference between a prose work and a play. Drama is simply the precise way of creating fiction that can be represented in a play or a mime or even a ballet performance. Here the writer intentionally uses dialogue and conflict to convey a particular story to an audience. Like Prose, it is direct a more intentional, but has a more structural format as it comes in Acts and scenes. Acts and scenes are the headings a playwright employs to guide the readers/viewing audience on exactly what is happening at each stage of the play.
Historically, this field of literature involved only plays live performances of stories in the past, before Shakespearean dramatic era began. This era popularized plays that were left on print without the almost compulsory requirement of live performance. The two basic divisions of Drama are Comedy and Tragedy. However, with the continuous evolution of literature and the various ways it is interpreted, the divisions are no longer as rigid, with the introductions of sub-categories like ‘ Trage-comedy ’.
The types of drama are;
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The Differences between Prose, Poetry and Drama
As earlier stated, while the difference between the three forms of Literature are slowly thinning with the advent of reforms and more subcategories. However, they still exist and some of them are;
1. The motive of the piece of literature is very important and stands as one of the differences between the forms of Literature. The motive will be conveyed in the way words are used and the purpose for which they exist. For example, in Prose, words take on a more direct approach that lacks a little of the intention to evoke much emotion from the reading audience, which is very present in poetic and dramatic pieces.
2. The structure of the piece is also very important. Prose is usually written in sentences that form paragraphs. In Drama, the words are conveyed in dialogues between characters. While in Poetry, the words are penned down in lines, verses and stanzas.
3. While Poetry usually pays attention to metres and the rhyme schemes, the focus of the playwright in a drama is on conflict.
4. In terms of expression, poetry takes lead with its cursive use of metaphors, similes and other figures of speech to produce a more rhythmic feel while Prose and Drama tend to be slightly more straightforward without much of the décor.
5. Unlike poetry and drama, prose is a genre of literature that does not require an extended version of delivery to be complete or more effective. Here, extended versions could mean spoken word performance, theatre plays, radio segments and television production. However, for a piece of prose to be represented on television for instance, it must be translated to a script, which is more of a drama with dialogues and conflict.
6. Drama, unlike other forms of literature, takes the most collaborative effort in production, especially in plays. This is as a result of several persons that can be involved in the making of a play. The exception to this difference is seen in instances where prose and poetic works have so many contributors (This is not the norm).
7. Another difference between the three is the issue of length. Prose in many instances carries the most word-length. This is followed closely by Drama with its dialogues and scenes. Poetry stands as the shortest of the three as the diction has a more succinct and gut-punching feel to it. This is however, the case with traditional works of literature. These days, there are sub-categories of fiction and poetry writing that are a lot shorter than the traditional forms. These categories include flash fictive pieces and prose poetic works.
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In conclusion, all three forms of literature have one thing in common – their artistic nature. They are all bodies of art. So whether a piece is a poem or a story or even a play, it remains a literary work as long as it is creative. It is also important to bear in mind that the borders that exist between these literary forms are forever changing and evolving. It is now common practise to merge poetry with prose and some people consider drama as performative poetry. So basically, while it is important to know the difference that exists between the three forms, one shouldn’t let it restrict them.
Edeh Samuel Chukwuemeka, ACMC, is a lawyer and a certified mediator/conciliator in Nigeria. He is also a developer with knowledge in various programming languages. Samuel is determined to leverage his skills in technology, SEO, and legal practice to revolutionize the legal profession worldwide by creating web and mobile applications that simplify legal research. Sam is also passionate about educating and providing valuable information to people.
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3 thoughts on “Meaning and Differences between Prose, Drama and Poetry”
thank you for that sir
Great work Sir! It helps a lot with my lesson.
perfect answer, thank you.
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CBSE Art Integrated Project & Circular PDF for Class 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Cbse art integrated project pdf for class 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, art-integrated projects from classes i to x with pairing of states/ union territories.
- Recommendations of NEP 2020:
Para 4.7 of the National Education Policy 2020 recommends that: “Art-integration is a cross-curricular pedagogical approach that utilizes various aspects and forms of art and culture as the basis for learning of concepts across subjects. As a part of the thrust on experiential learning, art-integrated education will be embedded in classroom transactions not only for creating joyful classrooms, but also for imbibing the Indian ethos through integration of Indian art and culture in the teaching and learning process at every level. This art-integrated approach will strengthen the linkages between education and culture.”
Recommendations of NCFFS 2022
The National Curriculum Framework for Foundational Stage 2022 recommends in the para 1.4.3 that: “Children express themselves, imagine, and create without any inhibition through the arts. The open-endedness and playful qualities of the arts encourage self-expression, intuition, reasoning, imagination, and communication. Children need to be supported with ideas and opportunities to draw, paint, print, create collages, construct structures with blocks. Children also love moving, dancing, exploring, and improvising with their bodies and playing musical instruments states.”
- As a pedagogical initiative, CBSE has introduced Art- Integrated Learning in all its affiliated schools vide Circular No. Acad-12/2019 dated 8 th March 2019. The Board has also issued Guidelines on Art-Integrated Learning vide Circular No. Acad-22/2019 dated 18.04.2019 with an aim to facilitate teachers and principals for implementing Art Integrated Learning as a pedagogical tool for experiential and joyful learning in classroom situation as well as building a joyful learning environment in the school. The Art-Integration guidelines of the Board enlists various suggestive activities, projects, assignments and lesson plans and are available at
CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
(An Autonomous Organisation under Ministry of Education, Govt. of India
- Vide Circular no. Acad 33/2020 dated 14 th May 2020, CBSE has introduced mandatory Art- Integrated Project work for classes I to X, as part of Subject-Enrichment activities under Internal Assessment.
- Guidelines for the Art-Integrated Project Work:
- Projects taken up by students should be age-appropriate and enable them to be developed as independent thinkers and learners.
- At least one Art-Integrated Project in each subject shall be taken up by all students of classes IX and X. For classes IX and X, the art integrated project work will be assessed as part of the subject enrichment activity in all the subjects for internal assessment.
- Students of classes I to VIII will also be encouraged to take at least one age- appropriate Art-Integrated Project (inter-disciplinary project) in a given academic year. The project work can include more than one subject and this can be considered for Internal Assessment in the subjects concerned.
- Projects for the students of classes 1 to 2 shall be in compliance with NCFFS 2020, as per the following recommendations given in the section 5.3.1 of NCFFS:
Projects, for this Stage, can be short and simple to be within the grasp of young children…By nature, projects are interdisciplinary, involving as many subjects as language arts, social studies, math, science, art, drama, dance, and health- along with any number of real-life experiences.
- Students will take up integration with any form of Indian Art – visual or performing, as it will be helpful to students to easily understand the project that is culturally connected to them. Teachers need to facilitate learning of the chosen Indian art form and ensure that the students are able to creatively integrate the art form(s) being used in the project.
- In minimum one project work of students from classes I –X, it is mandatory to integrate any art form of the paired State/UT, as defined under Ek Bharat Shrestha Bharat Programme . Since during the last 3 years’ students are doing project work involving the same pair of States and UTs, the Board has prepared pairing of States and UTs for academic purpose as given in the Annexure-I for Art-Integrated Project work of students in the session 2023-24. This will give an opportunity to the students of CBSE Schools to familiarize with culture, tradition and geography of more States and UTs as envisaged in the Ek Bharat Shrestha Bharat Programme (EBSB).
- Subject teachers along with Arts teachers must plan and discuss the projects in advance at the beginning of the academic session so that students can be given proper guidance toundertake various projects.
- The focus should be given on research of new topics that are not yet taken up in the classroom. Teachers must facilitate exploration of research on the topics to give students hands-on.
- The project should be taken up in an eco-friendly manner, using readily available local resources without any financial burden on parents or guardians.
- The teachers may follow the following process of embedding arts with other subjects forcarrying out the project work:
- The Project should be done by students in groups with up to 4-5 students in each group.
- While creating projects, it may also be seen that it should not be so pro- art that it becomes difficult for the subject teacher to take it forward and guide the students. The projects should be simple and doable for the subject teachers and students without the assistance of art teachers/artists or others.
- Assessment techniques should be relevant and age appropriate. Criteria along with rubrics for assessment can be devised collectively by teachers and
students while planning the projects. Students must be informed about the criteria decided for assessment along with maximum marks before commencement of work on the project.
- Schools and teachers may prepare their calendar by assigning dates and months for the execution of project work by the students and the records of assessment of these project works should be maintained at the schools.
- The Art integrated project work shall also be an integral part of assessing the student’s participation in art related activities and attainment of learning outcomes for the subject/s.
- The marks awarded for these projects, as part of subject-enrichment activities of class X, will be collected by the Board at the time of uploading of marks of internal assessment
Art-Integrated Learning (AIL) as a Pedagogical Tool from classes I to XII
- As stated under para B. I above, AIL will continue as a pedagogical tool for classes I to XII.
- The objective of AIL is not to promote arts and skills of arts but to use art as a tool to teachother subjects. The focus here should be to accept arts as medium
(An Autonomous Organisation under Ministry of Education, Govt. of India of the learning process. So, the subject teachers may make use of simple art forms in the classrooms; and give opportunities to students to enjoy planned art activities and while they are experiencing beauty of arts, they also learn and articulate the core concept of different subjects and apply it in daily life. Art activities which can be integrated with different subjects to aid learning are given in Annexure-II . The activities given in the annexure are only suggestive.
- Correlation of activities, is to be seen broadly and should not restrict to one or the other kind of subjects. For example, what helps us in Agriculture as a subject can also connect to Mathematics and Science subjects. Therefore, the teachers and learners should not limit themselves inthe rigid boundaries as suggested in the said annexure.
- In AIL activities, teachers and students may go for integration of visual and performing arts too. Since skill of making art is not the criteria of evaluation, children can explore and might come out with very creative expressions that enable achievement of the learning outcomes.
Reporting of Implementation of Art-Integrated Project:
The Board has prepared the Art Education (AE) and Art Integrated Learning (AIL)- AE & AIL portal KALASETU for reporting of the implementation of Art-Education (AE) and Art- Integrated Learning (AIL). The schools are required to upload data of the Art-Education and Art- Integrated Learning projects of students in the KALASETU AE & AIL portal at www.cbse.gov.in for enabling students of class X and XII to appear in Board exam. (Annexure-III) The dates for uploading the details shall be notified in due course.
For any query in this regard, please write to JS, (Academics), at the e-mail ID: [email protected]
ANNEXURE – I
PAIRING OF STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES FOR
CBSE Art Integrated Learning and Project Work
Academic Session 2023-24
- Visual Arts
- Performing Arts – Music: Vocal
- Performing Arts – Music: Melodic Instrument
- Creative Drama
- Dance and Movement
Art- education and art integrated learning (ae & ail) online report by schools.
- Name of the Art Teacher/s (maximum 12)
Upload Arts Periods Information (Per Week):
- Class (b) Days (c) Time Slot:————–
(Select) (Select) (Fill)
- Arts Activity as per Syllabus Performed (Fill the code/S.No. as given in Annexure-II)
Arts Integrated Activity for classes 1 to 12 th (Select/ Fill Appropriate option)
Details of arts integrated project (select/ fill appropriate option).
- Class Subject/s Duration of Project (Max. 5)
Project Beginning date: dd/mm/yyyy Project End date: dd/mm/yyyy
- Total Number of Students participated
CBSE Art Integrated Project Circular pdf download 2023
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Writing creative pieces (solar energy) (prose/poetry/drama) …
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University Interscholastic League
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- Oral Interpretation
Defining and Distinguishing Poetry, Prose, and Drama
Speech & debate.
- Extemporaneous Speaking
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Speech & Debate Director: Jana Riggins
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In the early days of UIL competition, it was fairly easy to categorize literature into one of the three main genres. Basically, all you had to do was look at the text on the page. Prose was primarily written in paragraph form, poetry was structured in stanzas, and drama included character names before each line of dialogue. However, in today's post-modern literary world, writers often borrow qualities from many different forms to create their own unique style of literature. Furthermore, recent trends place a new emphasis on the spoken word and the performance of literature. Solo performers combine vaudeville, theatre, music, standup comedy, poetry, the visual arts and dance to showcase their talents and inspire their audiences.
These literary and theatrical developments have made it increasingly difficult to determine the appropriateness of some material for use in the UIL prose and poetry contests. The Constitution and Contest Rules states that "selections from plays or screenplays are not to be used in either category." Unfortunately, many recently published plays look like prose or poetry on the page. Research indicates the use of the Dewey Decimal system is the most effective and credible way to establish the genre of a particular piece of literature.
The Dewey Decimal Classification is the oldest and most widely used classification system in the world. It is used by a majority of libraries, including nearly all public and school libraries in the United States. Information regarding Dewey Decimal categories and subdivisions is available on the University of Illinois website at www.library.illinois.edu/infosci/research/guides/dewey/ .
The first three digits of a Dewey Classification number determine a book's class, division, and section for library cataloguing purposes. For example, numbers beginning with 811 identify American poetry, 812 American drama, and 813 American fiction.
Bibliographic information on specific works, including classification according to the Dewey Decimal System, is available at the Library of Congress Online Catalogue at http://catalog.loc.gov To access this site follow these steps:
- Go to the Library of Congress site and click on "Library Catalogs".
- Click on "Basic Search".
- Search by title, author, etc.
- Enter the information in the search box , then click "begin search".
- The search results will be displayed. You may be shown several different works with the same title. Make sure you click on the title that corresponds to the material and author you are investigating. There are often sound recordings, videos, and other misleading items in the search results.
- If the correct title and author appear at the top of the page, click on Full Record.
- Scroll down to the Dewey Classification Number. The subject record may also denote the genre.
As contemporary writers begin to blur the distinctions between genres, verifying a selection's viability as a UIL contest piece has proven very difficult. Arguments arise when it comes to drawing lines between performance art and poetry or monologues and prose. Fortunately, the Dewey Decimal numbers provide a clear and unbiased decision about this matter. The following selections, which have been questioned in the past, are categorized as drama by the Dewey Classification System, and are inapproriate for use as UIL prose or poetry contests:
- Blown Sideways Through Life by Claudia Shear
- Freak by John Leguizamo
- Jails, Hospitals, and Hip-Hop and Some People by Danny Hoch
- No Cure for Cancer by Denis Leary
- Pretty Fire by Charlayne Woodard
- The Redthroats and Smooch Music by David Cale
- Savage/Love by Sam Shepard
- Sex, Drugs, Rock & Roll by Eric Bogosian
- Shimmer and Other Texts by John O'Keefe
- Swimming to Cambodia by Spalding Gray
- Two or Three Things I Know for Sure by Dorothy Allison
You may occasionally find a book or anthology that the Dewey System labels as "miscellaneous writings." These books are often collected works of individual authors that are not limited to or chiefly identified with one specific form. You may also encounter a book, published by a small press, which has not been assigned a Dewey Decimal number. In cases such as these, it is necessary to ask the following questions to identify the material's classification.
- Does any part of the book mention its performance by the author? Many writers and poets travel the country reading their works at bookstores and university campuses. This certainly does not transform their literature into theatre. Poets such as Patricia Smith, Bob Holman, and Hal Sirowitz also perform their writings in Poetry Slam contests. These events require the contestants to interpret their poetry without the aid of costumes, props or sets. Poetry Slams are not Theatre, but contests that celebrate the oral tradition of poetry. However, some texts are prefaced with a notation about their original performance as a work of Theatre. For example, the performance piece "Shimmer" follows a paragraph that states "...Shimmer was first performed by the author on January 5, 1988... Among other awards he has won for Shimmer are the 1988 Drama Critics Circle Award for Solo Performance in San Francisco and a 1989 New York Dance and Performance Choreographer/Creator Award." Even though the text is written in a prosaic, paragraph form, the introduction clearly establishes the work as a piece of Performance Literature.
- Does the piece contain stage directions? Stage directions are instructions to the actor which are usually written in italics. They also help the reader of drama understand the text and story, serving a similar function as narration in a work of prose. The presence of stage directions can help you establish a piece as a work of drama. Sections of Whoopi Goldberg's The Spook Show are written in paragraph form, but contain stage directions such as ( Enters with a white shirt draped over her head ) and ( Sniffs and wipes nose with hand; looks at her hand .)
- Are there any published articles, reviews, or interviews which clarify the genre of this particular work? Newspapers and Magazines often review or analyze works of literature. Articles found in these periodicals can give you insight into a particular book's content and form.
- Do I have the correct original source? Many works of literature are published in more than one form. For example, John Irving's The Cider House Rules is available as a novel, a play, and a screenplay. A cutting from the novel would be an acceptable prose selection. The other two literary versions of the story could not be used in UIL oral interpretation competition.
It is important for you as a performer to thoroughly analyze the piece you will be using for competition. Most of the time it is easy to determine whether a book contains prose, poetry or drama. However, when the lines of literary genre are blurry, use the steps above to verify your material's credibility as a UIL prose or poetry selection. Make copies of your findings to bring to competition. If your material is called into question, you will need printed evidence to use in its defense.
What is a prose poem?
Last month, I recommended some books to kick off your new year . One of them was Partial Genius , by Mary Biddinger. This book is a collection of prose poems, which might be an unfamiliar format for many readers.
What is a prose poem?
The prose poem form actually began in Japan in the 17th century, is evident in the work of French writers in the mid-1800’s, and regained popularity with the Beat Poets in the 1950’s and ‘60’s. Its most distinctive trait is that there are no line breaks; a prose poem looks like a prose paragraph.
The main elements of poetry, however, remain central to the crafting of these pieces. Prose poems include metaphor, imagery, repetition, figures of speech, and internal rhyme schemes. Prose poems do not necessarily contain elements of fiction, such as plot, inciting incident, character arcs, climaxes, or falling action.
Let’s take a quick look at a fun example.
Examples of prose poems
“Be Drunk,” by Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867)
You have to be always drunk. That’s all there is to it—it’s the only way. So as not to feel the horrible burden of time that breaks your back and bends you to the earth, you have to be continually drunk.
But on what? Wine, poetry or virtue, as you wish. But be drunk…
Read the rest of the poem at Poets.org .
As we can see, though this piece is in paragraph form, it is more a commentary on the human condition than a story. In the first paragraph, we have the image of backs being bent over and the beautiful alliteration of the “b” sound. In the third paragraph we have the quick repetition of nouns and the phrase “everything that is…” to create an impatient, almost ecstatic tone.
On the other hand, there is no plot or character development in this piece. There are no elements of fiction utilized here, but there are many poetic elements. The only thing missing is line breaks.
Why break from line breaks?
Why would poets choose to abandon line breaks, you might ask? Why not just write prose instead?
Well, besides the previously mentioned differences between poetry and prose, authors might choose the prose poem format if the introduction of line breaks changes the tone of the poem to something overly wrought or dramatic. The prose poem relies on the integrity of the sentence to convey the tone and the author may not want the added tension or layered meanings a line break introduces.
A prose poetry writing exercise
Find a favorite poem, either a famous example or one you’ve written yourself. Write it out with no line breaks, in sentence form.
Let’s use a famous Dickinson stanza as an example:
I'm Nobody! Who are you?
Are you – Nobody – too?
Then there's a pair of us!
Don't tell! they'd advertise – you know!
I’m Nobody! Who are you? Are you—Nobody —too? Then there’s a pair of us! Don’t tell! They’d advertise—you know!
Look at the two examples, the poem version and the prose version, and consider which one you like better, and why. Does the pace of the poem change when you read it as sentences? Do the words that end the lines with breaks seem to carry more weight and power—do they get lost in the sentence versions? If you read them aloud, does one version sound different from the other? Can you see how line breaks in the first version bring a kind of drama and attention to the Nobody, despite her efforts to remain anonymous, and how that contrast creates a tension that fuels the poem?
Take the line or sentence that most interests you and make it the first line of a new prose poem. Try to focus more on imagery, metaphor, and language than plot or characters. In other words, show us an emotional state, rather than tell us a story with a beginning, middle, and end.
What do you think of prose poems? Will you try this writing exercise? Share with us in the comments.
Related reading: Read more in 2022: 4 genres, 4 book recs
Writing in pieces: In defense of fragments over finished products
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Teneice Durrant is a proud graduate of Spalding University’s MFA program, and The University of Toledo’s MA in English Literature program. She has published four chapbooks and one full-length poetry collection, Glass Corset (2019).
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Guidelines for writing Poems, Stories and Tales
What are the major differences between poetry drama and prose?
July 18, 2022
Poems are written in lines and stanzas instead of sentences and paragraphs. Prose is made up of sentences and paragraphs without any metrical (or rhyming) structure. Drama is a piece of writing that tells a story; it is performed on a stage and uses dialogue.
What are three differences between prose and poetry?
Difference Between Prose and Poetry
What is the main difference between prose poetry and conventional poetry?
Prose refers to a form of literature, having ordinary language and sentence structure. Poetry is that form of literature, which is aesthetic by nature, i.e. it has a sound, cadence, rhyme, metre, etc., that adds to its meaning. The language of prose is quite direct or straightforward.
What is difference between poetry and drama?
Both poetry and drama are considered literary genres. Poetry is written form that expresses emotions, observations and feelings through rhythmic cadence. It is this combination of cadence and words that draws the reader or listener in. Drama, by contrast, presents the actions and words of characters on the stage.
What is the difference between poetry and prose quizlet?
The language of Prose is typically straightforward without much decoration. Poetry uses a special voice when written. It flows or has rhythm. There is figurative language, interesting words, and has very few words, but they are powerful.
What is prose poetry and drama in literature?
Prose was primarily written in paragraph form, poetry was structured in stanzas, and drama included character names before each line of dialogue . However, in today’s post-modern literary world, writers often borrow qualities from many different forms to create their own unique style of literature.
What is the difference between poetry and poems?
Poetry is the use of words and language to evoke a writer’s feelings and thoughts, while a poem is the arrangement of these words . 2. Poetry is the process of creating a literary piece using metaphor, symbols and ambiguity, while a poem is the end result of this process.
What is prose in drama?
When it comes to prose in plays, it’s a form of dramatic fiction delivered by characters on stage . The different characters recite the prose, acting out the work. It’s written in the form of a script that lays out the dialogue for each character.
What is the main difference between prose and drama quizlet?
Prose is made up of sentences and paragraphs without any metrical (or rhyming) structure. Drama is a piece of writing that tells a story; it is performed on a stage and uses dialogue.
What is a difference between poetry and prose Brainpop answers?
What is the major difference between poetry and prose? Poetry uses words for their sounds and rhythm; prose usually does not . Prose pieces are always long; poems are always short.
Which is the best definition of a prose poem?
noun. a composition written as prose but having the concentrated, rhythmic, figurative language characteristic of poetry .
How do you differentiate poetry?
So here are the characteristics of poetry at a glance:
- Its lines are shorter and grouped into stanzas or couplets.
- Its lines do not need to contain complete sentences.
- They usually rhyme, but don’t always have to (this is called ‘free verse’)
- If it rhymes, it will follow a rhyme scheme, or pattern.
What is an example of poetry?
elegy – a reflective poem to honor the dead . haiku – a seventeen-syllable poem that uses natural imagery to express an emotion. ode – an elevated poem that pays tribute to a person, idea, place, or another concept. sonnet – a descriptive fourteen-line poem with a specific rhyme scheme.
What are the elements of drama prose and poetry?
Elements of Poetry, Drama, and Prose Study Guide Words include meter, rhyme, repetition, line, theme, mood, stanza, characters, setting, description, dialogue, stage directions, plot, and point of view .
What is structure of prose?
In writing, prose refers to any written work that follows a basic grammatical structure (think words and phrases arranged into sentences and paragraphs ). This stands out from works of poetry, which follow a metrical structure (think lines and stanzas).
Is poetry a free verse?
Free verse poetry is poetry that lacks a consistent rhyme scheme, metrical pattern, or musical form . While free verse poems are not devoid of structure, they allow enormous leeway for poets, particularly when compared to more metrically strict forms like blank verse.
Does poetry have to rhyme?
There’s a common misconception that poems have to rhyme. A lot of classic and well-known poems do. It’s true that if you want something that will stick in people’s heads or sound good read aloud rhymes help. But they’re not necessary .
What’s a poem that doesn’t rhyme called?
Poetry without rhyme, known as free verse , can take many structures.
Are there rules in poetry?
There are no officially sanctioned rules of poetry . However, as with all creative writing, having some degree of structure can help you reign in your ideas and work productively. Here are some guidelines for those looking to take their poetry writing to the next level.
Is poetry written in prose form?
Prose includes pieces of writing like novels, short stories, novellas, and scripts. These kinds of writing contain the kind of ordinary language heard in everyday speech. Poetry includes song lyrics, various poetry forms, and theatrical dialogue containing poetic qualities, like iambic pentameter.
What are poetic elements?
Elements: Poetry. As with narrative, there are “elements” of poetry that we can focus on to enrich our understanding of a particular poem or group of poems. These elements may include, voice, diction, imagery, figures of speech, symbolism and allegory, syntax, sound, rhythm and meter, and structure .
How many stanzas are in a poem?
Of course, free verse, poetry that doesn’t use rhyme or meter, can also use stanzas to create pauses and organize the poem on the page. Five common stanzas are couplets (two lines), tercets (three lines), quatrains (four lines), sestets (six lines), and octaves (eight lines) .
What is 10 line poem called?
Terza Rima A type of poetry consisting of 10 or 11 syllable lines arranged in three-line tercets. Verse A single metrical line of poetry.
What is a 22 line poem called?
The Lauranelle , created by Laura Lamarca, is a hybrid (variation) of both the Villanelle and the Terzanelle forms. The poem is 22 lines in length opposed to the 19-line length of the aforementioned classical forms.
What is a 9 line poem called?
A nonet is a nine-line poem. In the nonet form, each line contains specific, descending syllable counts. The first line contains nine syllables, the second line contains eight, the third line contains seven, and so on.
What is a 1 line poem called?
A poem or stanza with one line is called a monostich , one with two lines is a couplet; with three, tercet or triplet; four, quatrain. six, hexastich; seven, heptastich; eight, octave. Also note the number of stanzas. Meter: English has stressed and unstressed syllables.
What is a poem with 24 lines called?
The roundelay is a 24 line poem written in trochaic tetrameter. What they have in common is that they both only use two rhyme sounds, and make use of refrains. Rondelet is the diminutive of rondel, a similar, longer verse form.
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Poetry (and Prose) in Motion
By darcy grabenstein.
You could say it was a tough crowd: writers from 19 states, many of them educators, many of them published, watching students and alumni of Stockton University’s Dance Department perform works interpreting written pieces. But the performance earned rousing applause from the 100-plus audience. This was the scene over MLK Weekend at the Winter Poetry & Prose Getaway, a workshop sponsored by Murphy Writing of Stockton University. Peter E. Murphy, a nationally recognized writer and educator, founded Murphy Writing in 1994.
For me, it brought together two of my favorite things: writing and dance. What could be better?
Caitlin Quinn Pittenger, associate professor and chair of Stockton’s Dance Program, and assistant professor Beau Hancock choreographed many of the pieces. The written selections were by workshop staff—those leading the sessions that ranged from memoir and novel writing to fiction, nonfiction, experimental forms, and even songwriting. I had signed up for the track “The Braided Narrative: Weaving Creative Nonfiction,” led by Davon Loeb, a high school English teacher in South Jersey. His new book, a lyrical memoir titled The In-Betweens , is hot off the West Virginia University Press. I learned so much in his sessions, both from him and from my fellow writers.
Loeb’s “ Breakdancing Shaped Who I Am As a Black Man and Father ” was one of the pieces chosen for the dance performance. I watched Loeb watch the performance, and his face broke out into a big smile. I had read this essay prior to the workshop; it is a perfect example of a braided narrative, one that weaves personal experiences with a broader issue supported by research.
An excerpt reads:
“In my suburban town and the almost-entirely-white school I attended, their idea of dancing was do-si-dos, promenades, and allemande lefts. In gym class, we line-danced to ‘Cotton Eye Joe.’ Everyone counted the steps and sang along with the lyrics, and then there was me, the Black kid, like a lone peppercorn in a salt grinder."
Another prose piece, “ When Home Leaves You ” by Anndee Hochman, served as inspiration for a number choreographed by Hancock in collaboration with dancers Sierra Duncan, Molly Glenn, and Naomi Pagan. An excerpt reads: “ It is one thing to leave home. I did that for college, then again, more emphatically, to live in Washington, DC, after I graduated, and finally (with a dramatic chop of those last apron strings) by lighting out for Portland, Oregon, when I was 23. But it is something else when the house leaves you.” The three dancers played the roles of Hochman, her mother, and father. They alternately supported one another and pushed away, reflecting the author’s conflicting emotions.
In “ First Light ” by Nancy Reddy, choreographed by Indy Caudle and Casey van Newenhizen, both dance program alumni, captured the wonder of constellations and the miracle of new life. An excerpt reads:
“… I lay against the crinkling paper of the exam table while the nurse
swabbed gel across my belly, and in the night sky of the uterus, on the grayscale screen of a handheld sonogram,
we saw it all at once: the striations of muscle and space, the stuttering and blinking, the insistent flicker of a beating heart .”
Raena Shirali’s “ jodhpur, Jharkhand, Philadelphia ” was interpreted by choreographer Pittenger, in collaboration with dancers Abigail Bell, Megan Burns, and Naomi Pagán. The dancers sometimes moved in sync, sometimes individually, speaking to the author’s multiple identities. At times the movements were physical, even violent, creating a visceral reaction in me when these words were read: “wondering how the river smells when women are dragged into it.”
During the Q&A, I asked about the use of spoken word as background for dancing. Hancock said poetry has been a part of modern dance since its creation, calling it a “shared craft.” He added that dance icons Martha Graham and Doris Humphrey both used poetry as inspiration.
Throughout the weekend, I forced myself out of my comfort zone to go behind the microphone and in front of my peers for open mic and for Story Slam , held in conjunction with the workshop. Now that I’ve stood up and read a piece about gefilte fish, I figure I’m ready for anything.
In honor of Martin Luther King, Jr., the workshop’s closing ceremony featured sound bath meditation by yoga instructor Alisa Pratt and a tribute by Jamillia Lawrence. Quotes by four prominent Black authors—James Baldwin, MLK, poet Gwendolyn Brooks, and bell hooks—graced the walls of the conference room. We were provided construction paper and markers and were to write our answer to this question: What would you say to future generations to compel them to continue the fight for racial justice?
We only had a few minutes, so I settled on this: If we are silent, we are complicit. We must act, we must speak out against systematic racism if we truly value our democracy.
Winter Poetry & Prose Getaway , Murphy Writing of Stockton University, Galloway, NJ, Jan. 13-16, 2023
By Darcy Grabenstein January 23, 2023
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- Writing Poetry
How to Write Prose Poems
Last Updated: January 26, 2023 Fact Checked
This article was co-authored by wikiHow staff writer, Hannah Madden . Hannah Madden is a writer, editor, and artist currently living in Portland, Oregon. In 2018, she graduated from Portland State University with a B.S. in Environmental Studies. Hannah enjoys writing articles about conservation, sustainability, and eco-friendly products. When she isn’t writing, you can find Hannah working on hand embroidery projects and listening to music. There are 9 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 38,298 times. Learn more...
Prose poems are a style of poetry that straddle the line between the normal written word and the art of poetry. They are the most fluid form and can take on many shapes and ideas depending on what message you would like to send with your poems. If you’d like to start writing prose poetry but don’t know how to begin, all you need to do is pick a topic, write in full sentences, and not use line breaks. Soon, you’ll be able to write prose poetry like an expert.
- In poetry, “sentence” is a relative term. Sentences can even be as short as one word. Try to keep your grammar rules loose when writing any form of poetry.
- Prose poetry can often be mistaken for short stories, although the writing style is slightly less factual and more poetic.
Tip: If you’ve never written poetry before, prose poems are a great place to start learning about it.
- Prose poetry can look like many different things, so try not to get boxed in by looking at examples.
- Try writing about the first birthday you can remember, or your first day of school.
Tip: This can be a good way to practice descriptions and relaying certain moments and feelings to others.
Tip: This is an easy way to start diving into prose poetry if you need inspiration, since you’ve probably written at least one letter in your life.
- Try writing about the Civil War, or the Civil Rights Movement.
- If you are a history buff, this would be a particularly fun project.
- Feel free to insert yourself into the historical event, or imagine what it would have been like to be there.
- You can try talking to the object, or telling other people about how much it means to you. Try an object that you have an emotional connection with as an easy place to start.
- Try to choose short words that are easy to rhyme with.
- For example, “Be Drunk” by Charles Baudelaire has a line in it that goes, “everything that is groaning, everything that is rolling.”
Examples of descriptive sentences
Instead of saying “it was raining,” try saying something like, “I could hear the sound of water droplets dancing on the roof.”
Instead of saying “the sun was out,” try saying something like, “the heat of the day pushed against the window.”
You might also like.
- ↑ https://poets.org/text/prose-poem-poetic-form
- ↑ https://www.readwritethink.org/sites/default/files/resources/p-as_docs/PoetryandProse.pdf
- ↑ https://www.poetrysoup.com/famous/poems/prose
- ↑ https://diymfa.com/writing/poets-revolt-brief-guide-prose-poem
- ↑ https://www.powerpoetry.org/actions/5-tips-writing-letter-poetry
- ↑ https://opentextbc.ca/writingforsuccess/chapter/chapter-4-what-are-you-writing-to-whom-and-how-2/
- ↑ https://www.theguardian.com/childrens-books-site/2016/jul/01/how-to-write-rollicking-rhyming-stories-pip-jones-squishy-mcfluff
- ↑ https://www.grammarly.com/blog/how-to-write-a-poem/
- ↑ https://examples.yourdictionary.com/descriptive-poem-examples.html
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