What Is a Case Study?

When you’re performing research as part of your job or for a school assignment, you’ll probably come across case studies that help you to learn more about the topic at hand. But what is a case study and why are they helpful? Read on to learn all about case studies.

At face value, a case study is a deep dive into a topic. Case studies can be found in many fields, particularly across the social sciences and medicine. When you conduct a case study, you create a body of research based on an inquiry and related data from analysis of a group, individual or controlled research environment.

As a researcher, you can benefit from the analysis of case studies similar to inquiries you’re currently studying. Researchers often rely on case studies to answer questions that basic information and standard diagnostics cannot address.

Study a Pattern

One of the main objectives of a case study is to find a pattern that answers whatever the initial inquiry seeks to find. This might be a question about why college students are prone to certain eating habits or what mental health problems afflict house fire survivors. The researcher then collects data, either through observation or data research, and starts connecting the dots to find underlying behaviors or impacts of the sample group’s behavior.

Gather Evidence

During the study period, the researcher gathers evidence to back the observed patterns and future claims that’ll be derived from the data. Since case studies are usually presented in the professional environment, it’s not enough to simply have a theory and observational notes to back up a claim. Instead, the researcher must provide evidence to support the body of study and the resulting conclusions.

Present Findings

As the study progresses, the researcher develops a solid case to present to peers or a governing body. Case study presentation is important because it legitimizes the body of research and opens the findings to a broader analysis that may end up drawing a conclusion that’s more true to the data than what one or two researchers might establish. The presentation might be formal or casual, depending on the case study itself.

Draw Conclusions

Once the body of research is established, it’s time to draw conclusions from the case study. As with all social sciences studies, conclusions from one researcher shouldn’t necessarily be taken as gospel, but they’re helpful for advancing the body of knowledge in a given field. For that purpose, they’re an invaluable way of gathering new material and presenting ideas that others in the field can learn from and expand upon.

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4 minute read


Publisher avatar for Clayton Mathias

from Cultural centre - Thesis

by Clayton Mathias


The main aim of the case study and the literature study is to understand the main aspects required in designing a cultural centre for a particular subject as obscure as the Siddi culture. Every space has its own importance and every space plays its own role in keeping the space alive. Case studies are required to figure out these spaces and whether to incorporate them of lose them in one’s design.

The following case studies have been chosen to do a case study in depth.


The criteria by which these projects were selected were quite peculiar. By now a person would have noticed that two of the above four case studies are from India and are not of Cultural Centers, but of Museums. The reason for this being that I have visited the latter during my visit to Bhopal and I could not do a live case study as my thesis took place in the midst of the coronavirus pandemic of 2020. Nonetheless, the reason I have chosen these particular museums is because they both play a part in preserving some part of a culture. The National Crafts museum in Delhi helps preserve Indian Traditional craftsmanship through architecture whereas the Madhya Pradesh Tribal museum in Bhopal helps preserve the culture commemorative of the nine forest tribes of that state.

The latter two mentioned case studies are from Europe and the Middle east respectively, places where culture first boomed and humanity persevered. The CajaGranada Cultural center is located in the valley surrounded by the Andalucian Mountains and the Andalucian people are quite different from the common Spanish people. This cultural center was made for that exact purpose to retain Andalucian culture. The KAACWC in the Kingdon of Saudi Arabia is a centre that clain to preserve world culture but giving importance to Saudi Arabian bodouin culture. This cultural heritage centre is the pinnacle of modern architecture for cultural centres.

Stating these facts, I hope to justify my selection criteria for my case studies for this project.


LOCATION : BhaironMarg near puranaquilla, Pragati Maidan, New Delhi.

ARCHITECT : Charles Correa.


Above : Map and plan of the Crafts museum and Hastakala Academy.

This museum is also knows as National Handicrafts and Handlooms museum and more recently as Crafts museum and Hastakala academy. This museum is managed by the National Ministry of Textiles. This museum was established in 1950 due to the efforts of freedom fighter patriot Smt. Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay. The whole museum is set up like a village and the current building was designed and built by architect Charles Correa.

This museum’s importance lies in the fact that it shares a common space for artisans alike and different to share their work with counterparts from all over the country. This act transformed the space from a mere exhibit to a space to a cultural exchange and a craft promotion area.

The museum has three main entrances, namely – The Bhairon Marg entry (Visitor), The Pragati Maidan entry (Visitor) and the Pragati maidan staff/service entry.

national crafts museum delhi case study

This is a picture showing a satellite view of the museum and nearby monuments or possible landmarks.

YEAR OF BUILD : 1975 –1990

FORM AND SCALE : Masculine form and Human Scale

STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE : Vernacular style of architecture using rural techniques from Indian villages.

CONNECTIVITY : This is a site located very well connected to all corners of the national capital. This museum is connected to the main road with a 24m wide (72ft) road with approximately means 3+1 lanes for each sideof traffic. Walking commuting pedestrians have an advantage too as there exists a 2m pavement. The street outside is a National Highway and directly connects to the Asian highway in 300m. To the north of the site lies Pragathi Maidan metro station within 200 metres. So we can fairly conclude and say that this museum is pretty well-connected.

national crafts museum delhi case study

Photographs of the craft museum inside.

LAYOUT : This project was an exercise in architectural and cultural metaphors. The low-lying museum building is a reflection of vernacular architecture and fine craftsmanship. Several architectural elements like the Jharokha, roof tiles, semi-open and open passages, internal courtyards, arches, carved doors, posts, pillars, perforated iron screens etc. are all visual delights.

Apart from these above features, the museum houses research and documentation facilities, a reference library, a conservation laboratory, a photo laboratory and a auditorium.

national crafts museum delhi case study


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Crafts Museum in Delhi, India by Charles Correa

6 August 1995 By Robert Powell Essays


Correa reinterprets the timeless quality of India into a building which resists the obvious western label of museum.

First published in AR August 1995, this piece was republished online in June 2015

The British brought to India the concept of collecting, preserving and displaying objects of nature and art. Dr Jyotindra Jain, the Director of the National Crafts Museum in Delhi, writes a wonderful essay on this theme in a new monograph of Charles Correa’s work entitled The Ritualistic Pathway (1993).

Jain says that ‘the institution of a museum, aimed at housing objects of antiquity and curiosity, is of western origin’. It was never part of the Indian tradition to display fragmented sculptures, rusted swords and paintings out of their context.


Part of the sequence of modest vernacular courtyards that make up the museum

Indeed, says Jain, ‘broken images were immersed in holy waters, worn-out metal objects were melted down to cast new ones and terracotta votive objects were left to decay and merge with the very earth from which they were created’.

But in following the British example the Indians forgot that, unlike in the West, the past and the present are not so severely divided and, says Jain, ‘blindly adopted the archaeological museum concept’. Dr Jain has considerable ·rapport with Correa, and in this project the architect succeeds in interpreting the timeless quality of India, where tradition and modernity coexist, into a building that resists the label ‘museum’.


Ground floor plan

Correa has frequently expressed the benefits of open-to-sky spaces. In this low-key building, a metaphor of an Indian street is introduced - along a diagonal axis are three courtyards of different scale and intensity. They are stunning spaces with perceptible changes of mood that make for great architecture.

But it is not simple nostalgia for the past. Correa’s work has always drawn on the vernacular and ‘deep-conscious’ echoes, but it is also modern in its fusion of an underlying orthogonal grid and the internal display spaces of lofty dimensions with the open and semi-open passages covered with tiled roofs and lined with artifacts.


Elaborately decorated wall

Correa has succeeded in making the museum almost invisible. He creates an environment that is difficult to define or label. It is not institutional and is deliberately self-effacing in its relationship to its ancient neighbour, the Purana Quila. Nor does it overshadow the artists’ village complex alongside.

The processional route through the building is constantly changing in an intricate kaleidoscope of space and light. It is a journey of discovery and there is a deliberately unfinished feeling about the museum … exactly as intended. What does finished mean? Merely a new beginning.

Crafts museum, Delhi, India

Architect: Charles Correa Photographs: Joo Ann Foh

national crafts museum delhi case study

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Museums of the World: National Crafts Museum & Hastkala Academy

national crafts museum delhi case study

The National Handicrafts and handlooms museum was designed by the master architect Charles Correa in the year 1990. But its famed name is National Crafts Museum & Hastkala Academy. This is situated in the nook of Pragati Maidan across the Purana Qila. The Museum celebrates India’s rich, diverse, and practising craft traditions. s Craftsmen markets were suffering due to modernisation & loss of connection with traditions; hence, it was set up for them as reference material.

Since India is known to be a culturally diverse country, each & every part of the country possesses its art techniques & traditions; from North to down South to East to West, geological features affect the art practices of its local people.

The availability of materials guides the course of art and craft in those places. 

national crafts museum delhi case study

Arts & Crafts | National Crafts Museum & Hastkala Academy

Currently, The Museum holds a collection from various states of India. Over 33000 specimens in various artefacts and arts, those consisting of Textile, Metal lamps, Sculptures , Utensils, Woodworks, Folk Tribal Paintings, Cane and Bamboo crafts, Clay and Terracotta objects.

national crafts museum delhi case study

The elegant examples of textiles include Kalamkaris, Pashmina, Jamawars and Shahtoosh Shawls; embroidered fabrics namely Kanthas, Chikankari works and Chaklas Tie and Die (Bandhani) fabrics, Baluchar and Jamdani Saree, Pichwais, Phulkaris, Orissa’s Ikat fabrics, and many more, Not only this but Tribal textiles of the Lambadi, Toda and Naga tribes of North- Eastern India .

national crafts museum delhi case study

These are preserved with the intent that they would be a source of reference, revival and reproduction of our cultural heritage and Indian crafts. This serves as a guide to tourists who wish to learn about the art & culture of India. This is also beneficial for the master craftsmen, art historians and craft designers, along with the people who are interested to know India’s age-old cultural heritage. 

national crafts museum delhi case study

Museum Boasts an art collection of a diverse and unique range of displays. A varied range of objects is made up of Cane, Bamboo , Clay Terracotta Metal, Stone, as well as Wood and Textiles; all these collections are displayed in a total of five galleries, three courtyards and passages of Folk, Tribal and Traditional community categories. All passage walls are covered in beautiful folk & Tribal paintings .

national crafts museum delhi case study

Bhuta Sculpture Gallery displays the sculptures from the Bhuta cult of coastal Karnataka , known to be one of the largest in the world.

Museums of the World: National Crafts Museum & Hastkala Academy

The Folk and Tribal Craft gallery sculptures with other daily objects, along with a diverse selection of paintings of the folk and tribal community of India.

Museums of the World: National Crafts Museum & Hastkala Academy

Cultic Craft Gallery features all types of other accessories associated with the ritual practices of various religions in India, such as sculptures, Paintings , and textiles.

Museums of the World: National Crafts Museum & Hastkala Academy

Court Craft Gallery Court Craft Gallery features objects of exquisite craftsmanship and precious materials created for homes and palaces for the nobility in India.

Museums of the World: National Crafts Museum & Hastkala Academy

Textile Gallery covers the colourful collection of Indian textile art of handcrafted techniques found all over India.

Museums of the World: National Crafts Museum & Hastkala Academy

Design & Planning

The museum is spread across 6800 sqm. of land, a horizontal play of masses. It depicts true Indianness, with innate emotion towards Vernacular architecture and excellent craftsmanship. As mentioned before, the traditional Indian architectural elements such as internal courtyards, open passages, wooden doors with carvings, pillars, iron screens, and jharokhas make you reminisce.

Museums of the World: National Crafts Museum & Hastkala Academy

The design style of Correa is well known – The Museum has square courtyards associated with Vedic kund as displayed in Jawahar Kala Kendra, the square courtyards in the museum do not follow a strict Mandala Pattern but are stepped at several places forming an informal social arena, the variation in levels articulates spaces for rejuvenating the mood says Jain, the Director of the National Crafts Museum in Delhi .

Museums of the World: National Crafts Museum & Hastkala Academy

He also adds that the metaphor of Indian streets exists in the low-key building and mentions that the concept of museums and displaying objects was never a part of Indian tradition. All of these courts with different scales also give access to exhibits via pathways in an informal manner. Village Court, Darbar court, and Temple court.

Museums of the World: National Crafts Museum & Hastkala Academy

It Retains the timeless quality of India. Around 40% of the area is occupied by courtyard & exhibition spaces. The complex follows a rectangular geometry. Columnar, Planar, and Structure all of these define the space. The amphitheatre at the centre of the site creates symmetry and balance. The circulation is free-flowing, it leads from open, semi-open and closed series of space. The light source is mainly natural light from the courtyards, a pucca building which keeps the experience of nature. It is a load-bearing Structure, which uses exposed concrete, and stone, a pucca building masked with a clay-tiled roof, one story high with walls around 3m high.

Museums of the World: National Crafts Museum & Hastkala Academy

Correa often creates a space which is not easy to label. The museum is almost invisible. It doesn’t overshadow the Purana quila across which it sits or the artist’s village complex . The passage throughout the building is a play of unveiling the mystery, in this case, exhibits along the way; The Museum seems unfinished in a way, and Correa deliberately tried to create this sense. All these features make the National Museum speak its own telltale.


WordPress(2020). National Crafts Museum, Delhi . [online]. (Last updated: Sep 26 2020). Available at: https://architecturecasestudies.wordpress.com/2020/09/26/national-crafts-museum-delhi/ ments   /[Accessed date: 15/02/2023].

SHUBHAM JAIN(2016) . Crafts Museum by Charles Correa . [online]. (Last updated: Feb 7 2016). Available at: http://archmonk.weebly.com/architects-and-their-works/crafts-museum-by-charles-correa [Accessed date: 17/02/2023].

Ramaarya(2022) . National crafts museum, New Delhi – 90 minutes at the museum. [online]. (Last updated: June 27 2022). Available at: https://ramaarya.blog/2022/06/27/new-delhi-national-crafts-museum/                   [Accessed date: 17/02/2023].

national crafts museum delhi case study

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national crafts museum delhi case study

The Crafts Museum at New Delhi

Person as author : baxi, smita j., in : museum, xxxi, 2, p. 96-99, plans, language : english, also available in : français, year of publication : 1979.


Museum Vol XXXI, n° 2, 1979 Programming for museumsVol. XXXI, No 2, 1979 Museum, successor to Mouseion, is ublished by. the United Nations Education3 Saentific and Cultural Organization in Paris. Museum serves as a quarterly survey of activities and means of research in the field of museography. Opinions expressed by individual contributors are not necessarily those of Unesco. . . . . . .. .. . - _ _ _ - . ” . . _ EDITOR-IN-CHIEF &me Erdös Iris Bettembourg Om Prakash Agrawal, India Fernanda Camargo de Almeida, Brazil Cbira Chongkol, Thailand Joseph-Marie Essomba, President of Fbymonde Frin, France Saleheddin Hasan Surv. Libvan Arab EDITOR, ENGLISH EDITION EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD OMMSA ,. , Jamahiriya Jan Jelinek. Czechoslovakia Grace L. McCann Morley, Adviser, ICOM Regional Agency in Asia I Luis MoqrCal, Secretary-General of ICOM, Paul Perrot, United States of America Georges Henri Rivière. Permanent Adviser ex-o$cto of ÏCOM Vit& Souslov, Union of Sovict Socialist Republics Each issue: . .. - - . . .. .. . . . . i L F. Subsa-&on rates ‘1 -seurn Architecture’, Vol. XXVI, N o 1974 (4 issu& or corresponding double issues per year): 72 F (1 year); 1 2 0 F (2 years). ‘4, Editorial and publishing offices: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 7 Place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris, France 0 Unesco 1979 Printed in France Imp. Maury S.A., 45330 Malesherbes In response to numerous requests this issue has been reprinted in English and is now available. . , ~ . . . . _,.. . . ‘, n I Programming tor museums Tom Hume Editorial 71 Per Kåks Introduction 7 3 T H E O R E T I C A L ASPECTS Claude Pecquet Programming-a tool at the service of the curator, the coninzissioni~ig authority and and Patrick O'Byrne the architect 7 4 > !I ' Manfred Lehmbruck Progranzming 92 C A S E - S T U D I E S I N P R O G R A M M I N G Smita J. Baxi The Cra$s Museum at New Delhi 9 6 Yani Herremann Using historic monuments as museunzs: Mexico City, Oax4ca, Guadalajara 1 O0 Germaine Pelegrin Programving and the Louvre 1 O 6 David W. Scott The new building of the National Gallery of Ar t , Washington, D.C. 110 Dieter Ronte Installation. of the WallrafRichar4 MuseunzlLudwig Museum, Cologfie 11 6 I J.ames A. M . Bell ,The Museunz of,London 120 I d ' Claude Mollard The Georges Pomjidou National Ceiatre for A r t and Culture, Paris 126 Louis Valensi The Regional Museunz of Aquitaine, Bordeaux 1 3 0 Raymond O. Harrison The Red Deer and District Museum in Alberta 137 ' ISSN 0027-3996 M U " (Unesco. Paris). Vol. XXXI, NO 2, 1979.- I NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, Washington, D.C. Air and Space Museum. Deltu S o h , a sculpture by Alejandro Otero presented to the United States of America by Venezuela, 19 7 7 . It is made of stainless steel and aluminium. In the sunshine, as the elements turn, their reflection can be seen in the water below. Behind is the west façade of the museum.Editorial - Tom Hume This issue is the second of several which will be devoted to museum architecture.’ The subject, while not absolutely new, does compel everyone to take a fresh look at the increasing complexity of museum building, and in so doing opens up a certain amount of controversy and reveals latent professional fears. When different professions have to work together there will always be initial difficulties as each learns to understand the particular problems of the other, but these should be short-lived if the work is approached in an objective, truly professional spirit. There are, of course, architects whose prime purpose is building monuments to themselves, and museum directors who consider the entrance door to the museum building to be the equivalent of the proscenium arch in the theatre-beyond which no interfering aesthetic architectural nose should intrude. Such animals are rare, however, and positive, willing co-operation is quite common. As mentioned in the introduction by Per Kåks, Chairman of ICOM’s Interna- tional Committee on Museum Architecture and Techniques, this issue has been prepared with the help of this specialized organ of ICOM. The main article is by Patrick O’Byrne and Claude Pecquet. They call for the participation of a third mediating partner, the’ programmer’, in the task of build- ing a museum, without repudiating the traditional role of the commissioning authority and the architect. The authors put forward a number of theories and practical sug- gestions in order to illustrate their conception of a programming manual applied to the museum disciplines of ancient and contemporary art for a museum building. Manfred Lehmbruck gives a sharp, balanced summary of the situation facing contemporary creators of new museums, showing how and why procedure has changed, but one might question his point that the architect is the only profession- al still treated as an independent individual, In practice, he too is only the head of a team of specialists-just as the museum director is-and frequently it is the specialists who are to the fore arguing and planning together, with their chiefs in the background only lightly controlling the reins. The real difference is that once everything has been thrashed out the architect will be off designing another project, while the museum director continues with the job in hand. Few directors are lucky enough to have the opportunity to produce even one new museum. Museums with a carefully detailed policy against which they can always exam- ine any proposed activity, and with a precise specification for their new buildings are unlikely to find extraordinary difficulties on the way to completion. One of the requirements of programming is that everyone involved must, from the very beginning, think hard about aims and needs and must be prepared to put them down on paper, in order to facilitate sensible discussion at all stages. 1. cf. Mzwwz, Vol. XXVI, No. 3/4, 19747 2 Tom Hume Programming does not relieve the curator of his responsibilities-nor does it make his task easier-it simply enswes more efficient procedure and stricter adher- ence to the timetable, but it should guarantee steady, trouble-free budding pro- gress. n e museum director has to be more alert than ever and still has to ensure that he is getting what he has demanded. One major difficulty seems to be language, as some new words and phrases have been coined and some technical jargon is used. Not everyone is yet using all the basic vocabulary in the same way, and terms such as programme outline, programme project outline, pre-project, project, evaluation, etc. could be used in very different ways. Time, care and mutual understanding will cure this. Nine case-studies follow. Three main principles emerge from the extremely varied and healthy diversity of solutions proposed, which reinforce the arguments of the theoretical articles in this issue: at the latter call ‘ scientific programming’, which others would entitle simply the ‘programme’ for a museum, should be the result of in-depth study, with which the programmer would be f d y associated from start to finish. The programmer should be an architect. As a mediator, he should have received advanced museological training, covering all museum disciplines2 and relevant architectural st~uctures,~ and should also have a knowledge of international recommendations for lighting and hygro- thermal conditioning. In 1980, Museum intends to devote a special issue to the theme ‘Museums and Historic M~numents’. This will also give us an opportunity to publish any comments and critical observations on the theoretical and practical aspects of the contents of the present issue which we receive from museum directors, administra- tors and architects, ecologists, historians, sociologists and, in general, all com- petent authorities. 2. The various types of museum include: art museums, museums of man, nature and the universe, museums of advanced techniques, the museum aspects of natural parks. 3. On built-up sites or in open spaces.7 3 ln tro duction Per Kåks ICOM’s International Committee on Museum Architecture and Techniques has inscribed programming as its main field of concern in its work plan for the period 1977-80, established in Moscow in 1977. The committee regards this as the key to achieving better museum buildings and functions. Museums are built for the future in order to protect the past, and as the past is always following us, the buildings must be able to develop according to the ever-changing needs. We are all bound by our immediate needs and the fashions of our time and our en- vironment. We also remain firmly rooted in our different professional roles and have difficulty in understanding the needs of others. Furthermore, we have to work under given political, social and economic conditions. Thus, in order to create a. museum that will meet the needs of the museum staff and the public today, and that it will be possible to use even tomorrow, we must make a thorough analysis of requirements and given factors. Some requirements are axiomatic, e.g. the protection of material. In the Museum Codex, which is at present in preparation,’ there are other similar axioms that apply over the whole globe. But there are some requirements of both a practical and socio- economic nature that change from time to time and from region to region: prob- lems of climate, accessibility, acquisition policy, activities for children, etc., apart from the eternal question of the growing needs for storage. In this issue of Museum we will try to shed light on and illustrate the need for programming, starting with a text on the theory by Patrick O’Byrne and Claude Pecquet, who have both dealt at length with these problems from the point of view of the architect and the sociologist. The articles that follow will exemplify different ways of applying and adapting the theories in different situa- tions and in different parts of the world, each author starting from his own experi- ence. The authors have not followed a common model, but they all have a com- mon awareness of the need to bring order into the mass of ideas and notions about how to create a museum. It is the hope of the members of the committee that the contents of this number of Museum will find readers not only among all those who work in the museum profession, but also among architects who are in the process of creating a museum building, and among decision-makers and politicians. 1. By the Unesco-ICOM Documentation Centre.14 Programming- a tool at the service of the curator, the commissioning u t hsrity Claude Pecquet and Patrick 0’43yrne y should programming studies and methods be applied to museums ? To begin with, all the work carried out in relation to a museum involves capital investment, and in France, for example, programming studies are compulsory for all capital- investment operations. At this point a brief definition is called for. A capital-investment operation is an undertaking which aims at supplying some material needs and which for this purpose requires financial investment. ]Every such operation has to take into account, depending on its size or aims, three main considerations : architecture, equipment and administration. AU three have to be taken into account simultaneously and in their entirety. in the case of a new building. In other cases they may be approached separately (Fig. 2). Here are some examples of capital-investment operations : construction, renova- tion or restoration of buildings; adaptation of buildings to new functions; installa- tion of new equipment; restructuring, adaptation or extension of existing plant; functional organization of new structures ; reorganization of existing structures. These examples may be regarded as exhaustive if we also include such opera- tions as the installation of a system of direction signs or a security system. After this digression, we are now in a position to turn again to programming questions: not only why programming? but also how, for whom and by whom? This article will attempt to answer these four fundamental questions, which always arise when applied programming comes up for discussion. But it should be emphasized that we are not concerned here with what is known as ‘scientific’ programming, whose aim is to define, according to a philosophical approach, the fundamental structures of the proposed museum. By way of preamble, let us attempt a brief answer to the four questions asked above. Why? To provide the commissioning authority, i.e. client (municipality, foun- dation, ministry, etc.) with practical technical assistance, starting with a definition of aims and continuing until the museum is finally launched in working order by the director or curator. The object of this assistance is to make the operation as effective as possible. NOW? By fashioning a practical technical instrument for shaping and transmit- ting information and directives so that they may be understood and used by com- missioning authority, curator and architect alike. For whom? For the commission authority, to enable him to take decisions in full knowledge of the facts ; for the curator, to provide him with a concrete formu-Programming-a tool at the service of the curator, the commissioning authority and the architect 7 5 lation of the requirements inherent in the aims he himself has defined; and for the master building (architect), to assist him in both the planning and the execu- tion of his project. B' whom? By one or more programmers who are specialists in the four relevant subjects : architecture, administration, equipment and museology. A programmer with museological experience is a professional, and neither the curator nor the architect can take his place. It is because the creation of museums is becoming more and more complex, involving an ever-increasing number of outside parties, that programming has become indispensable as a study technique and an instrument of co-ordination and control. Practically speaking, programming studies, the final aim of which is to opti- mize both the financial and the intellectual investment involved, are geared to the following main purposes: To establish a special relationship such as will give the curators-as future users and beneficiaries of the operation-an integral and fully responsible role in the entire operational process. The programmer acts as a link between the commissioning authority, the architect and the curator, for whom he acts as spokesman. To spell out the resources the commissioning authority will need in order to carry out the operation, at the three levels of architecture, administration and equip- ment, in the light of a realistic appraisal of aims and objectives, requirements and constraints. To translate the functions which need to be carried out into terms of requirements that are clear and evident to the curator, who recognizes them as deriving from the objectives he has formulated; to the commissioning authority, who accepts them; and to the architect, who takes them into account in his project. Programming General and specific Correlation ~ Development Final programme Correlation'- Correlation ~ Choice of architect Rough plan of intent - e=+> preliminary project - Execution _--__---- - Definition Consultation with Contracts Bringing into service76 Claude Pecquet and Patrick O’Byrne To supervise and co-ordinate preparation of the architectural and technical project (correlation between project and programme) on behalf of the commissioning authority and curator, and undertake or co-ordinate any further studies arising out of the operation. To help bring buildings and equipment into service by, for example, producing a user’s manual. To achieve these purposes entails a series of actions entered into at successive stages. Logic and imagination are necessary to solve the problems whish con- stantly arise. Continual checking and feedback are also necessary. The advantages of programming are of two kinds: psychological, because it arouses and calls for real interest and responsibility on the part of every partici- pant; and economic, because it limits risks and last-minute changes of mind by helping to ensure that both planning and execution proceed smoothly and swiftly. Thus the major aim of programming is, as a tool, to optimize investment, and as a mode of thought, to lead to new solutions of problems so as to allow the curator to do his job in the best possible administrative, economic, technical, human and other conditions. It must be emphasized that programming is first and foremost a mode of thought and method of study. A programme is an instrument for transmitting information and directives (the result of scientifically conducted studies). Programming should be seen as a general process of reflection which makes it possible, first, to analyse the aims put forward by the curator, secondly. to translate these aims into functions to be fulfilled, and, lastly, to formulate require- ments in the three fields of architecture, administration and equipment. These requirements must be defined in precise and concrete terms whish can be under- stood by all concerned. Programming is a tool, and must be regarded as such by everyone. It is a dy- namic process necessitating continuing studies and the recognition that each prob- lem should be considered in regard to the whole. This presupposes an ‘overall view’ of the operation and a ‘critical approach’ to each decisive element. It is very important that the programmer should inspire everyone with this attitude. As a dynamic process, programming works out a series of programme docu- ments which vary both in form and in content, ranging from a macroscopic approach to detailed studies. Every stage of the process has its own phase of studies (analysis) and reference document (synthesis) ; this permits a continuous and efficient heck on the correct functioning of the operation. (Fig. 3) . (general policy) 3Programming-a tool at the service of the curator, the commissioning authority and the architect 7 1 Every moment in the process itself corresponds to a stage in the programming studies. These stages are accordingly designated as follows : Pre-programme. This represents a synthesis of the various preliminary studies and makes it possible to draw up the main lines of the operation and, as regards architecture, a rough plan of intent. Basic programme. From this is derived the general organizational plan, as well as the outline preliminary architectural project. Final programme. This provides a detailed version of the architect’s preliminary project and finally the project itself. The programme document is thus the record of a synthesis, presenting the results and consequences of analyses carried out at various levels. It is drawn up by, or under the supervision of, the programmer, and is a faithful translation of the requirements of the curator, who ratifies it in consultation with the commissioning authority. It is then handed over to the architect, who elaborates his project on the basis of the information and directives it contains. It should be stressed that no matter what the size or importance of the museum to be built or altered, use of the programming method is indispensable, though of course in the case of small museums the programme also will be limited in size. In fact, as much care must be taken not to exaggerate the size of the pro- gramme as not to underestimate the importance of the method. Me th o dolog y There are various different methods of programming, and they are practised with varying degrees of success according to the capabilities of those who invent or apply them. The method described in this article, which has the advantage of having been used for several large museum projects, is based on five fundamental principles: Instituting a relationship of close collaboration between the curator and the pro- grammer from beginning to end of the operation, so as to ensure that both sides are perfectly clear about the aims and functions to be fulfilled, and kept regularly informed about every decision and its consequences. Regarding architecture, administration and equipment as an indivisible whole which must be approached globally and simultaneously. Tackling all problems in a logical and at the same time imaginative manner so as to bring out and then resolve the inherent contradictions. Assessing, by feedback analysis, the consequences of alternative solutions, and constantly checking their compatibility with the aims of the operation. Evaluating precisely the reciprocal effects of specific decisions, providing against possible imbalances, and taking into account administrative problems, in par- ticular in regard to costs. It is a method based on a ‘scientific’ conception of architecture. This means that problems relating to the buildings themselves cannot be treated in isolation, with- out regard to what they contain. This implies a continual use of functional analy- sis. By this method an instrument is forged which makes possible: (a) systematic analysis of the functions to be fulfilled and already existing facilities; (b) the recording of constraints and requirements; and (c) syntheses in terms of the archi- tectural and technical programme, administration and equipment. The method is also based on the theory of sets and on systems analysis. Its object is to translate the wishes of the curator into quantitative and qualitative terms, and to analyse the different uses to which building and equipment will be put. This enables the commissioning authority to make any necessary modifica- tions in good time and in full knowledge of the facts. The method, which also makes possible continuous correlation to ensure that the architectural project is in line with the needs expressed, gives rise to an opera- tional process of three main phases : feasibility, research and development. \78 Claude Pecquet and Patrick O’Byrne Feasibility phme On the basis of the general aims of the operation, and taking into account the general nature of the site (baseline data) and the administrative, financial and technical constraints and requirements, this phase determines the ‘ dimensions’ or scale of the operation and the necessary conditions for its execution. It thus shows the scope and extent of the objec‘tives, on the basis of the commissioning authority’s general policy requirements (costs and dates), what sequence of action and further planning will be necessary, and what personnel will be needed for the studies. esearch phase The object of this phase is to facilitate the working out of a basic programme which wid1 act as a reference document for the architect in establishing the outline preliminary project. According to the kind of operation involved, this phase may be broken down into set eral subphases : collection of material, analysis, synthesis, orientation. Developwent phase This phase covers the establishment of an outline preliminary project and then the working out of the final programme, on which is based the detailed preliminary project. It is by analysing the preliminary projects and comparing them with the pro- grammes that correlation between programme and project is ensured (Fig. 4) . 4 The creation, extension or modernization of a museum involves many different kinds of action. These are directed and controlled by the commissioning auth- ority, and carried out by four main participants: the curator, the programmer, the architect and the building contractor. Each has a special role to play, involv- ing responsibilities. The commissioning authority is responsible for carrying the operation through from the original decision to undertake it (general policy) until the completion of the work (handing over of premises). He is thus responsible for both defining and providing the resources needed for achieving the objectives of the operation, and for carrying it out. The curator, the chief beneficiary of the opesation and future user of the prem- ises, is responsible for defining the objectives of the museum and passing them on to the programmer. We follows the operation throughout, checking at each stage that the objectives laid down are being adhered to. H e also represents the user of the museum, i.e. the public. The programmer, who is the operational link between the user and the plan- ning agency, has to work out the functions stemming from the objectives and then to define the needs corresponding to the proper carrying out of these func- tions. In doing this, he takes into account the baseline data, the constraints and the requirements. H e conducts the programming studies and draws up the pro- n behalf of the commissioning authority, he carries out correlations to ensure that the project is in line with the programme. The architect, who is responsible for the architectural and technical execution of the work, draws up an architectural and technical project corresponding to the needs expressed in the programme, both as regards the architecture itself and as regards equipment and administration. The building contractor is responsible for carrying out the work under the dual supervision of the architect and the commissioning authority (Fig. J ) .Programming-a tool at the service of the curator, the commissioning authority and the architect 79 Functions I Project ~ Policies I Object¡; I Needs, , I Correlation rrk Commis authority Planning *Subject to acceptance -Execution- Although the roles and responsibilities of each of the participants are clearly defined from the outset of the operation, it is important that an effective network of interrelations should be organized between them so as to facilitate a permanent dialogue. It is this which makes possible the feedback essential for the successful carrying out of the operation. Here the programmer plays the important role of regulator. Role of the programmer The importance of the programmer’s role may be less evident in the case of a small, simple museum than of a large, complex one, but it is none the less essential in every case that he should be involved throughout the operation, i.e. that he should participate fully in all the actions and tasks inherent in every phase of the process. This means: In the feasibility phase: systematic analysis of general objectives formulated by the curator; taking account of general and specific policies; taking account of economic requirements and completion schedule; estimating the scope and extent of the objectives. In the research phase: survey of baseline data, constraints and requirements; sur- vey of functions to be fulfilled; formulating needs corresponding to functions; preparing files on baseline data, constraints and requirements; checking suit- ability of site to needs; checking that needs are compatible with budgetary resources and possible completion dates ; drawing up the programme document and conveying it to the architect. In the development phase: correlating the project and the programme; adjusting the programme; preparing a user’s manual. It is obvious that these various actions and tasks involve studies varying in exhaustiveness according to the nature of the museum involved and the circum- stances in which it is being built (Fig. 6). 6 Resources General policy and Objectives objectives 0 Objectives Commissioning authority ---- -___-- - Work -8 0 Claude Pecquet and Patrick O’Byrne Program ming studies Programming studies proceed by successive stages, going always from the general to the specific, i.e. progressively coming to grips with the key factors, without, a priori, listing them in order of relative importance. Studies undertaken in the ‘investigation’ and ‘formulation’ periods consist essentially in working sessions, discussions and inquiries at a general level. They make it possible: (a) to specify: a general policy, specific policies, general objec- tives; (b) to define: activities and their objectives; (c) to determine: the nature and relationship of the studies required, the programme of actions involved, the scheduling of the studies, needs in terms of consultants, the overall budget During the periods of ‘collection’ and ‘analysis’, studies are specially directed to accumulating and processing detailed information decisive for the carrying out of the programme. These studies make it possible: (a) to compile: a ‘base- line data’ file, a ‘requirements’ file, a ‘constraints’ file; (b) to define: the func- tions to be fulfilled. Studies carried out in the ‘synthesis’ period involve various ways of combining and cross-tabdating the information previously collected and analysed in order to work out scenarios for the use of the site (and/or premises) and draw up the pre-programme. These studies make it possible: (a) to ascertain: administra- tive needs, architectural and techical needs, equipment needs ; (b) to deter- mine: estimated overall costs. O n the dual basis of the pre-programme and a selected scenario, studies carried out in the ‘orientation’ period continue those that have gone before. They make it possible to draw up: a rough plan of intent, the basic programme, an estimate of admibaistrative costs, scheduled ove rd costs. During this period, the programming studies are sufficiently advanced for the . - ceiling. 7 Phase 7. Feasibility Phase 2. Research O V E R A L L COSTS O V E R A L L F l N A N C l N G ! Definition 1. I- PProgramming-a tool at the service of the curator, the commissioning authority and the architect 81 commissioning authority to choose the architect. The choice may be the result either of competition or consultation, in which case the necessary file wiU have to be opened, or simply of nomination. Programming studies of the ‘pre-planning’ and ‘planning’ periods consist in for- mulating the final programme, w&ch will be used first of all for drawing up the detailed preliminary project and later, if necessary, for adjusting the pro- gramme accordingly. During the ‘execution’ period, studies may be continued in order to produce a user’s manual, and/or to examine in more detail some particular question (e.g. an internal communication, warning or security system). Without prejudice to the relative importance of the various possible programmes, operation: (a) comprehensive: architectural and technical; (b) partial: adminis- tration, equipment, maintenance, upkeep, security and supervision, circulation and direction signs, transportation of goods, fittings and furniture, etc. (Fig. 7). the sequence of programming studies described above is valid for all types of - . The programme documents Programme documents may vary in number and length. Clearly, three or even two may be enough for the building of a very small museum. On the other hand, in the case of a really large museum the programme documents may multiply and have to be subdivided. For a inedium-sized operation, the programme documents are likely to be as follows: Scope and extent of objectives-ove~all budget ceiling These two documents are presented together, and often within a single cover. They conclude the feasibility phase and formalize the results of the investigations Phase 3. Develoament Pre-planning Planning Execution Bringing into service I .-I- C l 6 - 1 : l I I I I l I I preliminary preliminary I I I I I I I I Contracts Work Correlation I Correlation I I I I I I I I I I I I ‘I I I Ta ki I ig over of premises I I l I I I I I I I l I Realization l I I Adjustments t o programme 1 F I N A L R E A L I O F OBJECTIVES I COSTS F I N A L COSTS PROVIS IONAL COSTS O F OBJECTIVES d8 2 Claude Fecquet and Patrick O’Byrne carried out. They include the following headings: general estimate of surface requirements, general estimate of plant requirements, preliminary definition of activities, account of reasons for the operation, overall critical appraisal of baseline data and constraints, overall critical appraisal of mode of operation (administra- tion), organizational planning, list of principal activities, and overall budget ceiling for the operation. Pre-progrdnzme-estimate of overall costs These documents are the result of the vertical approach to the operation and con- sist of several sections, each of which may be presented separately. They contain the following headings : Baseline data : facts about the urban setting (population, trade, industry, universi- ties, leisure facilities, etc.); roads and communications (nature of roads and streets, public transport, parking spaces, sewers, telephones, electricity, gas, water, etc.); state of the site (survey, areas involved, description, etc.); geotech- nical surveys (nature of the subsoil). Constraints : restrictions on use (historic monument, protected area, etc.) ; local regulations (zoning, recessing, building lines, etc.) ; technical regulations (safety of people and buildings, sanitary regulations, etc.). Requirements : technical requirements (type of façade, type of structure, etc.) ; administrative requirements (deadlines, types of contract, etc.) ; financial requi- rements (ceiling prices, price limits, etc.). Needs: this section, which is generdy the chief concern of programming studies, deals especially with the qualitative aspects of the operation, as follows: account of general objectives (aims of the museum, social role, etc.) ; definition of component activities (reception, exhibition, display, etc.) ; purpose of each activity (functions pertaining to reception, office activities, etc.) ; administrative needs (intercommunications, capacity, staff, access, etc.) ; architectural needs (areas, heights, atmospheric conditions, distances, etc.) ; technical needs (heat- ing, ventilation, lighting, power supply, etc.) ; equipment needs (audio-visual, security, fusniture, hanging facilities, show-cases, etc,) ; questions calling for decisions; estimated overall costs. , Scenarios for use of site &tndl or !remises This document puts forward the main alternatives for use of the site or premises in accordance with the directives formulated in the pre-programme. It is made up of installation or occupation diagrams and financial, technical and descriptive comments covering each alternative (advantages, disadvantages, consequences). It is particularly relevant in the case of already existing buildings. asic programme-schedule of overdl1 costs This document, derived from the ‘needs’ section of the pre-programme, deter- mines in more detail the relative importance of each activity. It is the result of a horizontal approach to the problems. Mter a recapitulation of the result of a vertical approach (pre-programme), it includes the following headings : detailed account of the purpose of each activity, detailed account of the context of each activity, description of each activity both as a whole and in its functional ele- ments, questions relating to people (public and staff, timetables, etc.), Row-sheet of activities, detailed description of architectural, technical and equipment needs, questions calling for decisions, schedule of overall costs, and evaluation of administrative running costs.Programming-a tool at the service of the curator, the commissioning authority and the architect 83 Rough plan of intent This document is essentially graphic and presents the working out of the chosen scenario, bringing out its advantages and disadvantages by means of detailed analysis. In the case of restructuring or re-employment of an already existing building, it paves the way for the outline preliminary project. In the case of a new building, it corresponds to the specifications for an ideas’-as opposed to a ‘ project’-competition, i.e. a competition for the best design. Final programne This document supplements and continues the basic programme and takes into account the architect’s outline preliminary project. As well as bringing the head- ings in the basic programme up to date, it includes the following new headings: mode of functioning (activities), mode of functioning (functional sectors), mode of functioning (services-post, telephone, upkeep, etc.), manning table with job descriptions, quantitative estimate of standard equipment (furniture, office machi- nes, etc.), with details of useful life or performance, quantitative estimate of spe- cial museum equipment (hanging facilities, show-cases, storage grids, etc.), with similar details, and quantitative estimate of other special equipment (security and surveillance systems, etc.), with similar details. User’s manual This document may be in the form of booklets designed for the (internal) users of the museum-curator, administrative and technical staff, security personnel, etc.-or for its (external) users-visitors, research workers, teachers, etc. In either case the aim is to help the reader to take full advantage of the museum’s facilities, including any novel features. The document covers the following headings : time- tables, directories, sketch plan, practical guide to upkeep, pratical guide to mainte- nance, practical guide to modification of exhibition areas, practical guide to use of equipment, lists of dos and don’ts, etc. It is drawn up in close co-operation with the director or curator of the museum. Factors to be taken into account in working out a programme The factors to be taken into account in connection with programming studies are many and various. They form the subject of general studies in order to check their mutual compatibility within an overall programming operation. Some may form the subject of special studies, in cases where they are to be superimposed on an existing museum or one in course of construction. The main factors to be taken into account in drawing up a programme are: At the administrative level: nature and differentiation of activities, access and movement of persons (public and staff), access and movement of objects and materials (exhibits, goods, documents), number of people, when they come, timetables, nature and number of different sections of staff, modes of access, reception of the public, facilities provided for the public, reception of the staff, facilities provided for the staff, working conditions, information for the public, information for the staff, organization and management, exchanges (between the museum and the public), staff necessary for exchanges (curator, group lea- der, etc.), kinds of exchafige (direct, recorded, etc.), principles of surveillance and supervision, direction signs, maintenance, upkeep of buildings and equip- ment, cleaning, storage of exhibits, production, storage, use and distribution of materials (products and documents).84 Claude Pecquet and Patrick O'Byrne In regard to exhibits and products : typology, quantity, weight, nature, fragility, volume, plan, circuit, presentation, information, security, handling, rotation, preferred placing, aim of presentation, actual placing, major and minor works. At the architectural and technical level: surfaces, headroom, variations in level, unoccupied space, internal flexibility, extensions, dimensions of passages, pre- ferred placings, overloading, watertightness, acoustics and vibration, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, natural and artificial lighting, telecommunications and low-amp circuits, electricity supply and other plant, finishings, fire precau- tions, mechanized communications between floors. As regards equipment : furniture and accessories, tools, audio-visual equipment, security, direction signs, supervision of visitors, transport of produits, transport of exhibits, transport of documents, upkeep, maintenance, reserves, storage, reproduction and distribution, exhibition and presentation, data processing, workshops, etc. Since each of these factors has to be taken into account in relation to the whole, it is clear that the work involved in drawing up a programme is no light task, and one calling for specialization, i.e. a person or group devoting most of its energy to programming studies. In this field as in many others, amateurism, no matter how enlightened, can only lead to disaster. An attempt to of space for a e the organization Seen from the programming point of view, the functions inherent in a museum all revolve around the notion of relationship. The relationship is between a cul- tural object and a person: on the one hand, between the object and the curator, and on the other, between the object and the public. These relationships determine the essential aim of the musem, and hence the nature of the functions to be W a e d if that aim is to be achieved. The functions will be more or less numerous and complex according to the type, kind and size of the museum. They may, however, be divided into four classes: Reception activities, whish pave the way for the relationship in so far as its public Basic activites, which serve as a framework and make possible a direct relation Co-ordination activities, which organize the relationship physically arad intellec- Logistic activities, which pave the way for the relationship in so far as material As their name suggests, basic activities are decisive for the general organization of the musem. Prom their importance and aims derive the importance and aims of the other activities. The aims of basic activities derive from the scientific pro- gramme drawn up by the curator of the museuan. aspect is concerned. between the object and the public. tually. ements for taking care of the exhibits are concerned. Basic activities The basic activities of the museum cover all the functions relating to the perma- nent exhibition rooms, the study rooms, the temporary exhibition rooms, and where applicable, the areas used for Presentation or exhibitions. Reception activities Reception activities follow on from the basic activities. They take account of fac- tors involved in the psychological and practical conditioning of the public. They usually cover reception areas proper, together with information, orientation, sales, cloakrooms and toilets, issuing of tickets, meeting points, cafeteria and/or restau- rant, reading-room, play room, rest-rooms, children's workshops, etc.Programming-a tool at the service of the curator, the commissioning authority and the architect 85 Logistic activities These are parallel reception activities, but are concerned with products and exhi- bits. They include the safety and surveillance of both people and exhibits, the transit and storage of consumer goods, the transit and storage of exhibits (re- serves), workshops in which presentations and displays are prepared, workshops which make various articles needed for exhibitions, etc., laboratories and so on. Co-ordinatioia activities Co-ordination activities are the ‘intellectual’ support of the three preceding forms of activity. They are concerned chiefly with office and study areas, such as the director’s or curator’s office, offices of staff responsible for conservation, adminis- tration and management, and study and assembly rooms. Organization of space Whatever its size or complexity, a museum programme always includes some of the activities previously mentioned. Each of these involves functions whose per- formance necessitates a certain amount of space, organized in the form of specially defined areas which must be quite distinct from one another. These areas are of three main types: public areas, office areas and service areas, (Fig. 8). In a ‘typical’ museum, they cover the following main functions: Public areas : general and special reception, permanent and temporary exhibitions, reading-rooms and reference rooms, other events to do with exhibits, projection and lecture rooms, assembly and rest-rooms, cafeteria and/or restaurant, and free-expression workshops. Office areas : direction and administration, management, and conservation and Service areas : laboratory, museology workshops, building maintenance work- shops, storage and reserves, staff premises, technical premises, and parking areas . In order to optimize these functions, the areas housing them need to be located in a way which takes into account both the general architectural plan and opera- tional requirements. In determining how close each area should be to other areas, the following general criteria should be applied: (a) rationalization of internal functional links; (b) need for access to outside; (c) theft and fire prevention; and (d) need for specific facilities and atmosphere. Ideally, it should be possible to close off each of the areas required for fulfilling the functions mentioned above, for administrative reasons or as a safety measure. In certain areas it is even necessary to close off individual subareas (Fig. 9). I documentation. Main criteria for determining locations and orgaizi+ng space The most suitable location for the areas relating to a particular function is determi- ned on the basis of specific criteria peculiar to each activity: -’ Public areas General recejtioiz. The reception of the public should be at street level, on the same level as access to gardens and car parks. When there is direct access to gardens and car parks but not at street level, reception areas of comparable size should be provided at each level. Ideally, for reasons of security, the general reception area should be the only one opening directly on the outside. Similarly, it should act as a kind of screen or filter between the outside and the areas open to the public, and should therefore open on to each of these areas. When one of them houses some important or special activity calling for special reception arrange-86 Claude Pecquet and Patrick O’Byrne 9 Public areas 00 Service areas ooo ments, the general reception area should open on to the special reception area. The general reception area should be free of all security checks, except in special circumstances. Entry should be free and unimpeded, and the general appearance should be such as to attract people into the museum. The general reception area is not a mere ambulatory. It also serves as or provi- des the following functional facilities : rest and relaxation, smoking area, meeting point, assembly point, information centre, cloakrooms and toilets, telephones, sale of products, sale of tickets, etc. These functions together go to make up reception, defining the nature of this activity and justifying its functional autonomy. This implies that the general reception area should be able to function independently of the display part of the museum, and can be isolated if desired from one or several of the activities it ordinarily connects with. The main axes of movement through the museum, vertical and horizontal, begin and end here, and use it as a bearing. (Fig. 10). Public S’ecial reception arrangements. There may be many kinds of special reception arran- gements. Here we shall refer only to the two main ones: the reception of staff and of visiting experts, and the reception of children: eception of staff and visiting experts is subject to checking (both coming in and going out), and is separate from the general reception area. As far as architec- tural limitations permit, there is only one point of access, which is opened and closed in accordance with a fixed timetable. V&en the general reception is shut, the staff entrance is the O ~ Y possible mode of entry into the museum. It therefore has to be under strict and permanent surveillance. Reception of children is an autonomous activity and should be adapted to the problems of young visitors either alone or in groups. It is independent of the general reception area, but is directly connected both with it and with the free-ex- pression workshops provided specially for children. It includes the following functional subareas : rest and relaxation areas, meeting point, assembly point, cloakrooms and toilets, and sales point. The reception area for children can open directly on to the outside (street or garden), but it never connects directly with any activities other than those de- signed for young people (e.g. free-expression workshops). Permnneiit nizd tevzporny exhibitioiis. The function of presentation or exhibition covers all the activities facilitating a direct relationship between object and public at the cultural, scientific, recreational or aesthetic level. The areas in which this relationship occurs form the most important nerve centre of the museum. There must be ready access to these areas from the general reception area (or their own special reception area if they have one). They are also in close func-Programming-a tool at the service of the curator, the commissioning authority and the architect .. 87 ..___- tional relationship with the reserve (storage) areas and museological workshops, though they are strictly isolated from them. Public means of access to the exhibi- tion areas should be easily visible. Access may be from the outside provided it is through an enclosed space (e.g. an inner courtyard) within the general area of the museum. Areas for permanent and temporary exhibitions are separate but ’’ adjoining, and the architectural setting should permit as much modification as possible of internal space. Exhibition areas should in most cases have a supply of natural light sources that can be controlled. Artificial light should never be such as to create problems. The best natural lighting is often zenithal, though lateral lighting may be more suited to some museums. As they are meant to hold large numbers of the public strolling about freely, exhibition areas need to be spacious and allow plenty of room to move around. The flow of movement should be fluid and easy, in accordance with the criteria laid down by the director of the museum. Exhibition areas need special atmos- pheric conditions, with instruments to cheLk temperature and humidity, and should also be strongly constructed and protected against aircraft vibration. Lastly, they must be such as to facilitate strict surveillance from the point of view of security and fire and theft prevention, and it must be possible to isolate them completely from the rest of the museum’s activities. They should never open directly on to an outside area connected to the street. They should include en- closed and isolated service areas where objects can be changed or exhibitions prepared (Fig. 11). Logistic > (w activit ies Public Exhibits 11 Reading m d reference rooms. The function of reading and reference may concern public and staff alike, and the areas involved may be shared or separate. The modes of operation are the same whether it is the public or the staff that is concerned. These areas need to be specially placed, away from the main flows of move- ment (risk of noises), and sound-proofed. In the case of the staff, the areas should be in close functional relationship to the offices of the conservation staff. In the case of the public, they should be close to the general reception. Provided the standard approximates to daylight, it is not usually essential to have good natural lighting, except for consulting drawings, prints, photographs, etc., in which case the same conditions should apply as for exhibition areas. Reading and reference areas usually fall into two main parts: (a) reference areas proper; and (b) storage areas containing reference documents. When there is free access to open shelves, the two areas are usually partly or wholly combined. For consultation on request, they are quite separate. In either case, they should never open directly on to an outside area directly linked to the street. Storage areas must be screened from daylight. Other events related t o exhibits. Areas set aside for other events related to exhibits often need to be ‘open’ spaces, very flexible and without heavy equipment. Without aspiring to provide stage facilities, they accommodate a variety of activi- ties supplementary to those of the exhibition proper, and therefore need to be able to cater for various practical and technical requirements as regards acoustics, lighting, access, etc. They are strictly isolated from other museum activities and may sometimes continue into the open. Projection and lectzdre rooms. These areas need to be isolated in the same way as the previous ones. They should open directly on to the general reception area, their only connection with the outside being via the prescribed safety exits. They should have their own special security checks. They should be completely sound-proofed, and situated preferably on ground level or in the basement; contain a public auditorium, a projection-cum-control88 Claude Pecquet and Patrick O’Byrne room, a service area with office and ante-room, and toilets. It should be possible to use them outside normal museum hours. Rest and recreation areas. est and recreation cover many kinds of activity and may include play, physical relaxation, conversation, strolling about, and so on. Rest areas should be placed within areas devoted to other activities, to which they should form the antithesis. Por example, a smoking area will be set aside in an area where smoking is forbidden; a walking area is provided where people spend a long time sitting down, a lounge next to where they stroll about, and SO on. The rest areas will thus be isolated both visually and acoustically from the context of the activity to which they belong. They may include service areas and such facilities as telephones, water fountains, tea- and coffee-dispensers, etc. Assenzbly and lecture rooms. These provide for specially organized events for larger or smaller groups of varying degrees ofhomogeneity. The areas concerned should open on to a reception area (general or special); be isolated visually and acousti- cally, and relatively independent. They may be grouped together or separate as appropriate, but are situated on a major axis of movement through the museum, and may include service areas (anteroom, offices, projection and simultaneous- interpretation rooms). They may be used by either public or staff. Cafeterid andlor restaurant. This covers all catering, and the areas concerned are specialized according to their particular function : bar/sefreshent room, cafeteria, restaurant, etc. They are usually completely isolated from the museum’s other activities, for reasons both of comfort (smell, noise, etc.) and of security (long opening hours), as well as for functional reasons. They may open on to both the main reception area and the outside (street and/or private space such as garden or terraces), and they can be divided into three parts : (a) public refreshment area (cafeteria-restau- rant); (b) preparation area (kitchen); and, (c) private service area (store-rooms). These three types of area may open on to the outside so long as security for the rest of the museum is properly safeguarded. The public cafeteria andlor restaurant may sometimes be open to the museum staff, in which case it may be desirable, if they so wish, to set aside a separate area for them. Alternatively, if the number of staff involved is sufficient, separate facilities may be appropriate. Sf zce areas Administration dnd management ofices. ffice activity covers several functions : Direction-the responsibility of the director or curator-covers all the actions aimed at directing and representing. The director’s office or the curator’s office is therefore located in the middle of the office areas, and, for convenience, close to the reception area for visiting specialists. It calls for a special degree of comfort. It should be isolated acoustically and visually from the other office areas, and may give directly on to official lodgings. Administration covers everything involved in administrative service, and is chiefly made up of: personnel management, welfare services, budgetary manage- ment, general services, etc. The areas used for this function may be of three types: partitioned off (indivi- dual offices) semi-open plan, and open plan. In the definition and organization of these areas, functional interservice relations are taken into account, so that these may be easy and unimpeded. The staff management service should be comparatively isolated to ensure that inter- views may be confidential. The same applies to the welfare services. Units whose activities may be disturbing to others because of noise or constant movement (duplication, assembly room, etc.) should also be situated and proofed in the same way.Programming-a tool at the service of the curator, the commissioning authority and the architect 89 Management covers a!l the practical and technical tasks involvect in the proper functioning of the museum: i.e. archives, security, cleaning, telephones, mail ser- vices, rest and relaxation, information and orientation, sales. The areas concerned (apart from offices, which may be grouped together) are usually scattered throughout the museum. They are defined and situated in relation to the service in question; for example, technical management of the building (automatic con- trol) will be placed in relation to the general network of surveillance systems, and areas devoted to security will be isolated from public areas but in direct com- munication with them. Archives. The area set aside for archives may be outside the general office area, but should preferably be in direct and easy relation to it. It needs surveillance, and calls for installation of a special automatic fire detection and sprinkler system. Security. The central security office may include a centre for checking equipment and premises for the security staff (these two areas being adjoining). It is set apart from public areas and accesses to it call for strict surveillance. Its location should take into account: (a) the need for swift intervention on the part of staff (central position); (b) the dangers of too easy public access; and (c) the network of auto- matic control and surveillance systems. These areas should provide reasonable comfort for the staff concerned, but should not open on to the outside unless there is no possibility of unlawful entry and/or obstruction. , Cleaning. Cleaning areas are those set aside for the collection, treatment and dis- posal of refuse, and the storing of cleaning materials. Cupboards for cleaning materials and equipment are distributed at strategic points throughout the various sectors of the museum. Areas for the collection, treatment and disposal of refuse are located in the technical installations sector or in special workshops. Each sector has its own col- lection point, and the central refuse areas should be sufficiently isolated not to give rise to disagreeable noise or smells. They should also be situated so as to give convenient access to special trucks (containers). Telephone exchaqe. As it is always noisy, the telephone exchange must be com- pletely sound-proofed. It may be located in an office area lit by daylight for the comfort of the staff, and its situation must take into account both the heavy appa- ratus involved (switchboard) and the extensions served. Sales. These areas are located directly in reception areas and call for no particular specifications. A distinction should be drawn between sales organised by the museum itself, and those which are leased out (bar, refreshments, tobacco, etc.). In the case of the latter, on-the-spot storage should be kept to a minimum. Articles for sale should be stored near the sales points but away from other storage areas, because of the need for frequent restocking and handling. Mail service. The area for receiving and sending mail should be in direct communi- cation with the street or preferably with staff reception. No other specifications are needed. Rest and vecreatim. In addition to the rest and recreation areas provided in con- junction with staff premises there should be other areas where staff can relax with automatic vending machines (refreshments) placed at suitable intervals throughout the various sectors. Infowzatioiz and orientation. Depending on the size of the buildings and the ade- quacy of directions, at certain main intersections there may be information and90 Claude Pecquet and Patrick O’Byrne orientation points to back up the facilities provided in staff and public reception areas. Conservation and mziseology. The function of conservation covers all the scientific and technical tasks necessary for the proper functioning of the museum and the conservation and study of its contents. It includes : conservation proper, documen- tation, teaching and group work, drawing office, etc. For the most part, this sector resembles the traditional office sector as regards installations but, in many instances, jobs and equipment may be special. As regards conservation proper, the areas concerned should be linked to the exhibit reserves, the exhibition rooms and the reference areas (library and docu- mentation). A special strong-room should be provided for works in transit. Spa- cious and quiet general work areas facilitate the preparation of exhibitions and new displays. Documentation requires large work areas and good sound-proofing. $he drawing office is comparable to the architectural office. Daylight is indispensable for all areas devoted to conservation. Service areas. Technical and waste distosal installations. These areas include all central plants of this kind, i.e. heating and cooling plant, air-conditioning and heat conservation plant, electricity-supply plant and security and emergency systems, centre for stor- ing and distributing sprinkler fluid, plant for collection and treatment of refuse, telephone systems, etc., and plumbing. This heavy equipment can be a source of noise and vibration, so the technical installations are isolated from the museum’s other activities. Floors, ceilings and walls are treated accordingly (floating floors, double partitions, etc.). For security reasons, access to the t e h i c a l installations is subject to strict supervision. They should be rationally situated in relation to the power and water mains. They mostly contain heavy machines and equipment, often bulky, and there should be easy and adequate access from outside for the purpose of repairs and alterations. Stafpremises. Staff areas may include the following units : cloakrooms, toilets, showers, rest-rooms and recreation rooms, staff rooms, infirmary, union premises, assembly room. They may also include a cafeteria where the staff does not use the public cafeteria/restaurant area (see cafeteria and restaurant section above). These areas may be grouped together or distributed throughout the building as the case may be. Thus toilets, cloahooms and rest areas are provided for each activity, in the case of staff attached to particular offices. For mobile staff they may be grouped together, in which case they may take up considerable space. When they are Centralized, staff premises are directly connected to the staff reception area. In the case of one or more activities too far from the staff recep- tion area, staff facilities may be located within that activity area. Showers, infirm- ary, staff room and d o n premises are best centralized. Their number and size depend on the regulations currently in force. The infirmary should be placed so that stretchers can easily be carried out to an ambulance, and the possible presence of members of the public should be taken into account (in the case of accidents or sudden illness). Staff premises should have a high standard of comfort as regards both installa- tion and equipment (for example, daylight in staff room, rest-room and recreation room). Stores and reserves. Although their function is the same, it is necessary to dis- tinguish between goods storage and art reserves. Stores serve for stocking ordin- ary consumer goods necessary for the proper functioning of the museum, togetherProgramming-a tool at the service of the curator, the commissioning authority and the architect 91 with equipment necessary for the maintenance of the building. The, reserves are devoted chiefly to the storing of exhibits. Both stores and reserves should be located between the areas of the activities they serve and the delivery areas. They may be underground and require no natu- ral light. They should be completely isolated, have access that can be strictly checked (one entrance, without direct connection with outside), and be especially well protected against fire and theft. The reserves also have study areas in which specialists may study individual objects. Storage and reserve areas may be broken down functionally as follows: stores proper, transit, packing and unpacking, and reception and distribution. Handling areas should be included under this heading (storage of trolleys, etc.). Work-shojs. This term covers all areas in which production functions are carried out, i.e. building maintenance workshop, museology workshop, workshop for maintenance and restoration of exhibits, photographic laboratories, photographic studio, equipment simulation workshop, duplication and photocopying workshop, and vehicle maintenance workshop. These units as a whole may be grouped together or divided into two parts, according to size : workshops relating to the exhibits and workshops relating to the building or administration. Workshops may open directly on to the outside, but it is preferable to have an intermediate buffer area which can be subject to supervision (usually loading and unloading bays). Most may be situated in the basement, in artificial light, though natural light- ing (or at least approximating to daylight) is preferable where staff are present all the time. Current health and safety regulations must be observed, and the loca- tion of these areas should take into account the operational practices and avoid the need for trans-shipment in the transport of objets. For security reasons, it should be possible to isolate some workshops from one another and from the rest of the museum’s activities. Restoration workshops may present special problems, according to the nature of the contents of the museum. Parking. This concerns both public and services. It includes parking for coaches and private vehicles, and also service and delivery vehicles. Service set-down points (for delivery of goods and exhibits) and points for service vehicles must respect special security regulations. The areas for goods delivery and the unload- ing of exhibits should as far as possible be separated. Unloading areas should be directly connected to storage and reserve areas, to ease supervision for security, and it should, if necessary, be possible to close them off. The car park for private cars should be placed so as to minimize security problems and involve as short a walk as possible to the reception areas. This attempt to define the organization of museum space is intended only to bring out some basic principles. The authors believe it may act as an aid in draw- ing up a museum programme, and it is for that reason that it is presented here. [Translated f i o m French]Programming Manfred Kehmbruck As H have already discussed p r o g a m i n g in Mzisezrm,' I shall concentrate here on the problems which it raises in the relationship between the commissioning authority (client) and the master builder (architect). Programming is an integral part of every planning process and has existed, in some form or another, at all times. The constructive tension that exists between client and architect has always been fraught with problems in the case of larger buildings. The formula ' client-architect' has always been the concise representa- tion in personal terms of the interaction between numerous forces coming into play in the environment. In the past, because of the generally authoritarian character of social structures, the countless political, social and cultural components finally came to be concen- trated in the fields of responsibility of a few persons and were represented in the planning process by ody two individuals. These were qualified by their strong character and integrated personality to weld the many influences and trends exist- ing in their environment into a more or less homogeneous intellectual structure and world order, according to whose laws they prepared, harmonized or rejected their various designs. Since the client and the architect, having personally chosen each other, conducted their dialogue through direct contacts, programming was likewise characterized by creative give-and-take human relations. Although many examples can be given to show that the discussions did not always proceed quite smoothly and that troublesome disputes frequently arose, the shared conception of the world order nevertheless made it possible to recon- cile opposites and preserve intellectual and artistic unity. The most striking buildings constructed in the past were the result of this re- fraction of an idea in the prism of a few personalities. Programming was possibly rather one-sided according to modern thinking but, perhaps precisely for this rea- son, it was 'all of a piece'. In our time, this planning process, which grew out of the imagination and en- thusiam of a few individuals, has become enmeshed in the machinery of a complex organization because of the scope of the projects and the complexity of modern technology, and its efficacy is consequently being questioned. No client can take his own decisions independently, nor can any architect be regarded as universal. Today, it is undeniable that no single individual can claim to represent the client: a Derson has become an anonvmous conceot. Who decides on the con- L '. See Manfred Lehmbruck, M"errnt~ tracts? WO allocates the resources 2 h o is authorized to act as a negotiator 2 WO takes the responsibility? In a complex organization, limited functions are XXVI, Nos. 3/4, p. 129-267, Paris, Unesco. Rrprinted in 1979.Programming - 93 assigned to particular individuals in accordance with precise ‘rules of the game’ governing vertical and horizontal moves within a rank-ordered structure. Power is shared out among many officials : when people do not possess füll powers, they do not feel deeply concerned. As initiative is worn down by constant resistance, the administration is reduced to serving as an intermediary. By contrast, the architect is still treated as an independent individual; it can even be said that the recognition and appreciation of this function are based precise- ly on his distinctive personality, particularly when he ventures into artistic spheres. In former times, a craft practised in accordance with traditional rules allowed the main stress to be placed on the designing. Today, a highly developed techno- logy calls for specialized knowledge and the effort to keep pace with new de- velopments consumes all resources of energy. But, above all, the complexity of the forces at play oblige the architect to accept an ‘organizational superstructure’ which automatically curtails his freedom and creativity. The group thus takes the place of the architect’s personality. As a result of this splitting up of the roles of client and architect, it is becoming increasingly difficult for them to work together in the planning process. The Co-ordinatidn formerly secured by force of personality is disintegrating, the over- all view is becoming blurred, and it is no longer possible to rely on both sides trying to harmonize their ideas. In seeking to check this trend, programming has become a specialized activity. Depending on the scope of the task to be tackled, programming can be under- taken by museologists, architects or professional programmers, working alone or in a team, full time or part time-provided that they can draw on a stock of knowledge covering a large number of fields. Careful programming is particularly necessary in the case of a project to build a museum since this is a relatively rare task which calls for special experience and great sensitivity. The programmer stands midway between the commissioning authority and the master builder. He is the neutral representative of the client; however, he can be fully enabled to play his role as an intermediary only when he is equally autho- rized to act as the neutral representative of the master builder. It is precisely his impartiality which qualifies him to expose the weaknesses in wrong decisions arbi- trarily handed down from ‘on high‘ and, on the other hand, to counteract the tendency to distrust unusual or surprising personal ideas which is widely observed today among people staffing the organizational superstructure. His independence and the fact that he is better informed also entitle him to propose appropriate procedures for different situations such as problem-oriented research, direct com- missioning, competitive bidding, etc. In the field of information and analysis, the programmer prepares the underly- ing criteria and data for all further planning work on the basis of the material which his position enables him to collect sine ira et studio. The adage ’the broader the base, the higher the building’ can be applied here in the figurative sense. He is, in the best sense, a ‘dilettante’, who must know something about every subject without knowing everything about one. His activity not only relieves the client of the responsibility for the direction of operations but also releases the architect from all extraneous tasks, enabling him to devote his energies to his real work. A major function devolving upon the programmer is to develop an ’ awareness of the problem’ among all participants and exert an influence on their ‘way of thinking’. Experience shows that the methodical elaboration of a theme can be undertaken only after the objective has been determined, since it is necessary to have criteria by which to evaluate the advantages of alternative solutions. Such discussions of principles must be initiated by the programmer. However, it does not fall within his province- to take decisions, for this function must always be regarded as the prerogative of the planning group acting as a body. His role might be said to consist simply in staking out the ‘arena’ where the contending forces are to join issue. The appraisal of all data is of the greatest importance in the preparation of j94 Manfred Lehmbruck a programme because-consciously or unconsciously-preliminary decisions are already being taken at this stage. The findings must therefore be formulated with great care and must rest on a verifiable basis. Otherwise, a step may be taken in the wrong direction or a good solution may be dismissed. So-called ‘material constraints’ have frequently proved to be prejudices carried over from a previous case handled in an entirely different context. After thorough investigations ill- oriented developments must be clearly identified and, above all, action must be taken to satisfy the specific demands of museological activities (which are often completely unknown, and not only to non-specialists). In this way, programming has been imperceptibly drawn into the sphere of synthesis where the design is thought out. Here too, it is necessary to proceed at first by easy stages and to outline the largest possible framework which will leave room for alternatives while inspiring fruitful new suggestions. The greatest caution is called for, however, because the programer may succumb to the temp- tation to generalize his own convictions and even to take’ over pre-prepared models. In that case, he anticipates the decision which it is the prerogative of the planning group to take as a body. It is possible to establish a programme so precisely that a ‘latent project’ emer- ges which becomes binding upon all planners. Since this is not the programmer’s task, he must present the requirements, texts and diagrams in such a way as to describe the objective rather than the means of attaining it. This can be illustrated by the following example. A rationally constructed dia- gram of functions may require the greatest possible number of areas to be so arranged as to aUow for direct intercommunication, but also for variations in the pattern of relations. In practice, the only solution is to opt for a flexible, neutral open-plan project, whose inexpressive architectural style has no pretension to be in keeping with the character of the collection. %PJhen too much is demanded, the programming work may have the effect of limiting the freedom of choice of the decision-makers. In this connection, mention must be made of the fundamental difference between the intellectual-verbal solution and the visual-spatial solution. idea is worked out in special terms, further dimension is created and other approa- ches to the problem are suggested. In addition, a psychological and emotional factor automatically comes into play which may result in a decisive shift of emphasis. The following are a few examples of such effects: (a) inspiration may be drawn from the potentidties of the site and the general lie of the land; (b) units may be superimposed and limits of areas may be extended in multipur- pose spaces; (c) the spatial qualities of a project may be modified; (d) the con- straints of conventional rules may be overcome by new technical solutions, etc. That is why programming should always be linked up as early as possible with proposals for use of the available spaces, which must of course, remain flexible. It is noteworthy, in this connection, that to most people an abstract formulation conveys either no image at all or else an impression which is involuntarily identi- fied with ‘something already seen somewhere’. It is a constant source of surprise to find how differently the same concept is interpreted when it comes to repre- senting it in a concrete form; it often happens, therefore, that participants agree over generalities and disagree over particular cases. It is the virtue of architecture that it ultimately finds the solution to a problem, not through a process of optimization or juxtaposition, but rather through a ‘ creative leap’ of the imagination. Since the decision to choose one of many alter- native designs is always a bold step to take, which may be criticized, it is essential that an eminent specialist or an independent and cohesive group should be ready to take the risk involved. It is clearly desirable that the museum building should be a self-justifying work of architecture, and this indubitably explains a tendency to accentuate one focal point, as in tRe case of the Guggenheim Museum in New York and the National Gallery in West Berlin. Programing must nevertheless lay down sufficientlyProgramming 95 explicit basic conditions to ensure that the elementary requirements of museologi- cal work are not sacrificed to the stylistic effect by the one-sidedness of the design. Programmers must therefore be authorized to perform a regulating func- tion, to supervise the work of preparing the plan and to draw attention to any doubts collectively voiced by the planning group. The all-round programmer is therefore called upon to smooth out communica- tion difficulties between specialists working in different disciplines and using dif- ferent terminologies. Special training is needed in order to be able to transpose various categories of knowledge from one discipline to another. Since the pro- grammer is principally concerned with verbal formulations, he must devote parti- cular attention to their translation into visual terms. The rich potentialities of space and form as means of expression cannot be adequately conveyed with words and figures. In order to be able to establish criteria, the programmer must adhere to a ‘mu- seum philosophy’ to be worked out jointly and shared by all participants. Condi- tions are thereby created which are similar to those prevailing in the past when the original state of unity still existed between the client and the master builder who implicitly acted as a programmer. Last, but not least, human qualities must help the group to become so homoge- neous that it develops a personality comparable to that of the individual who performed its function in former times, and may even reach a higher level of effi- ciency. [Translated frow German]The Crafts Museum at New Delhi Smita J. Baxi Museologists often state that there can be no prototype plan of a museum which can be duplicated for any other museum, that a plan has to be conceived for a particular museum, considering its purpose, functions and activities. There can be no denying that architecturally museums form a ‘type’ of building which is dif- ferent from other types of public buildings, such as a theatre, a community centre or a recreation club. However, in spite of individual requirements of a particular museum there are certain factors common to all these institutions. A museum, whether it is an art centre OF a research centre, whether its presentation is mono- disciplinary or interdisciplinary, has to have some exhibition galleries accessible to the public; it must have reserve collections or stores, either open to the public or not; it must serve the purpose of advancement and diffusion of knowledge, whether this is achieved through special exhibitions, educational services or research publications. A museum is an institution which performs the functions of collecting, preserv- ing, exhibiting, and interpreting objects of o u natural and cultural environment. Besides dissemination of knowledge, it must increase the awareness of people towards aesthetic enjoyment when beholding an object of beauty and rarity. A categorical analysis of functions covered by this or similar definitions can be a basis for formulating a programme for a museum building in general. However, the policy of a particular museum as agreed to by the founders will give definite dimensions to the programme. Site and available budget are additional factors which affect the scope of a particular project. Scient$% programme The major responsibility of drawing up the scientific programme in consulta- tion with the controlling authorities should rest with a museologist, who may be one of the founders, or may be employed specifically for the purpose. Me should draw up a specification of building requirements, taking into account the functions that a museum must perform, including the special activities, according to the requirements of the museum founders. Such a specification can be formu- lated o d y by a museologist, who knows from experience what a museum must and should do; it cannot be left to the architect, although it may be advisable from the outset to associate an architect and an exhibition designer with the mus eologist . A scientific programme should include requirements in terms of spaces, their nature and character for carrying out each function and activity of the museum. The details of the museum’s operational units and sub-units should be drawn upThe Crafts Museum at New Delhi 97 as a part of the programme. The architectural particulars of each space may be decided upon right at the beginning as well as the circulation of the public and staff. Provision for administration and operation should be considered at the plan- ning stage. Administrative, operational quarters should include a director’s office; work-rooms for scientific, technical and other personnel; a conservation labora- tory, a photographic studio and store-rooms, as private areas, accessible only to the staff of the museum. Documentation rooms, and reserve-collections’ stores could be considered as semi-private, as these have to be accessible to scholars and students. Meeting and conference rooms, reference library and study rooms should be considered as semi-public areas, while exhibition galleries, lecture rooms, activity rooms and entrance halls are public areas. On the basis of this specification, the architect selected for designing the museum building prepares his plans. Comtruction programme The construction programme should be considered simultaneously with the scientific programme, since the nature and charactér of the museum spaces depend upon the materials and methods of construction. The architect should specify these in accordance with the requirements of the director and his committee. The external and internal wall finishes, floor-finishes, for all the museum areas, as well as landscaping of the open courtyards, and areas surrounding the museum should be specified in the construction programme by the architect, in consultation with the museologist and the interior designer. Ideally, the team of a museologist, an architect and an exhibition designer should be associated with the project from the first stage of museum programming up to the moment when the staff are installed on the premises, thus maintaining uniformity of design, which is an essential requirement of a museum. Progranzming and planning of the Crafis Museum, New Delhi The programming, planning and construction of the Crafts Museum have gone through the phases enumerated above. During the different phases, quite a few changes had to be incorporated. To gain insight into the problem it is necessary to know some relevant details about the project. The museum came into existence when the All India Handicrafts Board, at its very beginning, decided to collect and preserve choice specimens of handicrafts from all over India as source material for study, research, documentation, repro- duction and development, and to set up a Crafts Museum at New Delhi, where they could be brought together under one roof. In addition, the museum was entrusted with the task of giving information about the history of various crafts and production techniques. While planning a new building for the museum, a programme was drawn up to incorporate all the functions of a conventional museum, at present carried out on a limited scale owing to shortage of space in rented premises. It was estimated that an area of approximately 10,000 m2 would be needed for carrying out all the functions and activities. Efforts made to acquire sufficient land in the central area of the city for this ambitious project failed. It was felt at this stage that the programme of requirements could be modified to meet only immediate needs. The revised programme was therefore drawn up in accordance with the available site and spaces needed which were estimated to cover fi,OOO m2 of building be- sides several open courtyards as circulation spaces. According to this requirement, the architect C. M. Correa prepared the plan (see Fig. 12(a)). The site available for this project of the Crafts Museum was an interesting one. The Handicrafts Board had set up, on the Exhibition Grounds, a Rural In- dia Complex as a temporary exhibition of rural arts, crafts and habitats for the Asia 72 Fair. This complex created a typical rural environment through its huts§mita J. Baxi 98 22 (4 (b) CRAFTS MUSEUM, New Delhi. (a) original plan; (b) revised plan. and courtyards, displayed with artefacts representative of the folk arts and crafts of different regions of India. There are several courtyard walls adorned with Mahubani, Warli, Pithora and Rajasthani folk paintings, and huts constructed with the same materids and techniques of the region, and built by the craftsmen who were brought specially to New Delhi from their villages. The work includes a Banlai hut of Kutch, a Naga hut of Nagaland, a Mehr hut of Gujarat, a Gadaba rissa, a Rabha hut of Assam, an Adi hut of Arunachal, a Nicobar hut of Nicobar Islands, a Toda hut of the Nilgiri hills and a Kulu hut from Himachal Pradesh. There are other huts constructed with mud walls and thatched roofs wherein the craftsmen demonstrate techniques and processes of different crafts during special exhibitions and fairs. A site adjoining this Rural India Complex was selected for the new building of the Grafts Museum, so that the two units could be integrated into one craft complex. Two separate teams, each consisting of an architect and an interior designer, worked on these two projects but in colla- boration with the team of museologists and museum founders (Fig 2.2(bI).The Crafts Museum at New Delhi 99 13 Exhibition grounds. The construction programme had to be revised as it had to be carried out in phases. The delay in construction gave time for rethinking the whole project, so that the original design of a modern building, with top-lights and glass walls open- ing on the internal courtyards was transformed into a functional and flexible urban structure with characteristic tile-roofed verandahs, surrounding the open courtyards at the entrance and throughout the building, merging with the surrounding com- plex of rural habitats, made of mud and bamboo walls, with thatched roofs. The plan (Fig. 13) now provides for additional spaces as residential units incor- porating display-cum-workshops for craftsmen, where they can devote themselves to the study of museum specimens, which may lead to experimentation and new creations. In short, the museum's major activities will focus on the research for development of new designs in handicrafts. The museum will also carry out its other functions of collection, preservation and exhibition. The new concept ~I The concept of this museum, as a centre of real activity of use to craftsmen and connecting at relevant points to all the activities of the AU India Handicrafts Board, represents a departure from the conventional role of a museum as a mere storehouse of culture. The museum display, research and cataloguing system will portray a living craft process, projecting the evolution of different craft skills, forms and usages and connecting them wherever possible to our present needs. Therefore, our docu- mentztion and the present collection will be further supplemented with a view to providing the necessary information for the better planning of production- oriented craft workshops and programmes all over the country. The museum will actively co-operate in defining the present state of craft activ- ity. It will provide in-house training and technological inputs on a limited scale; identify and document the socio-economic situation of mastercraftsmen; explain available traditional and new markets for their goods, as well as help to conceive and realize all communication and promotional efforts of the All 1ndi.a Handi- crafts Board, by spearheading its consumer education programmes. While providing the necessary facilities and environment conducive to on-the- spot activities and ongoing research in crafts, the museum can become a place of special interest for the general public and international visitors, who do not normally have the opportunity of experiencing the craft process so directly. In order to understand the craft culture which is so deeply embedded in Indian living traditions and in order that people may appreciate the pioneering nature of the board's work in making the past serve our present, the proposed museum will not merely display artefacts, information and demonstrations on pedestals and in glass cases, nor will it keep to traditional rules of functioning (opening from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.). What has been planned may well create the first national institution of its kind in this part of the world, organized to become a mini- module for a university of crafts.I O 0 Using historic monuments Mexico city, Ca, Guada ra Pani Herremann ___- I . Programming likewise plays a valuable part from the viewpoint of the archi- tects supervising the construction. No matter how skilled they are, architects are more or less wont to build in accordance with their personal tastes, often obli-The Georges Pompidou National Centre for Art and Culture, Paris vious to the precise requirements of the building’s user. In any intricate operation, the prior establishment of a programme allows the client to make sure that the architect is working in the right direction: the programme represents the specifica- tions given to the architect, what the client ordered. In a small building project, such elaborate preparations may seem unnecessary. But in an operation as complex as the Pompidou Centre, it was a good thing that responsibilities were clearly defined from the outset and that the programming was set up by the client himself. And it was up to him to recruit people capable of seeing the task through. The programme was, then, the charter that regulated the relations between the client and the architect throughout the entire building phase of the operation. The charter was in effect for about two years and then updated to cover the project in its final stage. The architects’ conception of the museum was not exactly the same as that of the curators of a museum of modern art. Without a specific pro- gramme, the latter would have met with great difficulty in imposing their point of view, which was to set up picture rails and interior walls where the architects would have preferred open spaces. Open spaces have their limitations in a museum where pictures must of necessity be hung on something. Many other examples could be quoted to show that the programme provided the client with a guarantee vis-ù-vis the architects. Conversely, it also provided the architects with a guarantee vis-d-uis the client because, quite naturally, the latter may perceive, as the work progresses, the desir- ability of introducing certain modifications in the original plans, when it is a question of changes in the programme. These were few during the erection of the Pompidou Centre: there was the installation of a multi-purpose room that could serve as an auditorium for plays and concerts, a function which had not been anticipated in the original plans, and the decision to install the film library on the fifth floor instead of in the basement as initially planned. Such modifica- tions, which are sometimes necessary, may add considerably to the costs; without a detailed programme, they may mount up and be improperly charged against the architect. However, owing to the existence of a sound programme, such chan- ges at Beaubourg were kept to the strict minimum and were clearly attributable to the client, who had countermanded the original instructions given to the archi- tect. Finally, programming, the major advantage of which is that it provides a very reliable estimate, affords a comprehensive view of all aspects of the operation from the start-not only the construction of the building, of course, but also the conditions in which it functions. How many pessimists predicted that the centre would never be able to operate for want of adequate resources, This was, from the outset, our constant concern, so much so that as early as 1972, i.e. five years before the opening of the centre, we were in a position to forecast the operating cost of the centre as well as its manpower needs. This forecast would have been impossible without good programming, i.e. an overall programme embracing the design of the building, the equipment (technical and audio-visual, installations and furnishings) and the functioning of the entire centre. Large-scale projects often come to grief over the operational problem. Once the edifice is built, it often turns out to be difficult or impossible to manage owing to lack of funds; it is sometimes years before it can be put into operation. The result is a terrible financial mess or, worse still, a complete fiasco, where the whole thing has to be torn down! At Beaubourg, fortunately, we faced up to this problem and therefore, as from 1973, we started drawing up a blueprint of the activities of the future centre. Subsequently, we tried out these future activities in temporary premises. At the same time, the financial and personnel infrastructure was gradually incorporated, year by year. Thanks to this programming of the entire project (building and operation), the Pompidou Centre was able to open its doors to the public almost on the day when it was completed. Had there not been a programme, the Pompidou Centre-supposing that it I 2 7I 2 8 Claude Mollard 40 THE GEORGES POMPIDOU NATIONAL CENTRE FOR ART AND CULTURE, Paris. Page from the programme document (Fig. 41.) showing the organization chart of the future centre and the principal activities and interrelationships. This sketch shows the centre’s theoretical structure at the time of the competition.The Georges PomDidou National Centre for Art and Culture. Paris I 29 41 Programme document of the architectural competition for the Beaubourg centre. This bilingual document containing basic information about the operation was intended to guide competitors in the drafting of their project. , 42 could have been built without one-would not be the focal point of integrated cultural activities which it is, and where the public throngs with pleasure. The conception of such a project depends to a large extent on the way in which the programming is conducted. If programming is essential when a single user is concerned, it is absolutely indispensable when it comes to a complex like Beau- bourg which has number of users. By giving the users their say from the start, programming makes it possible, first of all, to apprehend all their needs and to make sure that these are not incom- patible. It is no exaggeration to say that, thanks to programming, there was true Co-management of the Pompidou Centre project. Such a conception is diametrically opposed to the system of buildings delivered with key in hand, as the saying goes: such a system is ill-adapted to such a complex cultural centre. The project’s conception, then, becomes an affair involving three partners : the future user (who must be identified before the operation gets off the ground), the client (who is ultimately responsible to the users for delivering a good build- ing, the authorities who provide the financing, and to future users), and the archi- tect, responsible for drawing up the plans. Trialogue among these three parties is essential, but it presupposes that they possess and speak the same language. In the case of the Pompidou Centre, this was not so, since there were differences in training and even nationality among them. Once again, therefore, it is no exaggeration to say that the programming was the crucible in which these differences were attenuated and in which the spirit of Beaubourg was created over the years. As a result, programming was a key , factor in forging the unity of the centre. While being necessary from the stand- point of architectural arrangements, it gradually permeated to the level of the centre’s cultural activities. Without a sound programme, the centre would have been nothing more than the juxtaposition of its parts. It would not have been the new type of cultural complex that it is, seeking to remove the partitions between forms of cultural expression which are only too often isolated. It would not have been the meeting-place that it is for a public coming from every walk of life. For each activity draws a little extra something from the proximity of contiguous activities. This extra something, this supplement, is perhaps best des- cribed as communication. The need for communication existed in a latent state and programming brought it to the fore. If programming was a constraint or, rather, a form of discipline, it was also - - the instrument, the developer, the means of controlling the destiny of a tremen- dous project. [ Ti*aizslated front F r e i d ] 43 42 ‘Specific Programme’ document. It expands and supplements the ‘Competition Programme’, and was drawn up for the winning group of architects to enable them to develop their project. 43 A page of the ‘Specific Programme’ document showing the diagram of all the museum’s functional units. 44 Programme documents for the Beaubourg centre. On the left: the‘ Competition Programme’ and the ‘Specific Programme’. On the right: the seven volumes of the ’ Definitive Programme’. 44The regional Museum of Aquitaine, B ordeaux Louis Valensi 1. This paper is based on a much longer architectural programme which is to a ear in full in a forthcoming number of MtiséeJ et Coflct iom P u b l i p s de Fratice. Most of the technical details are therefore not included in the present paper. 2. In France, regional museums-the Musée de Bretagne, Musée Lorrain, Musée Dauphinois, Musée Savoisien, and so on-have no special legal status. Most of them belong to municipalities, former provincial capitals. Bordeaux now has some 600,000 inhabitants, and is the fifth largest city in France. 3. In 1964, the municipality purchased an excavation site at Reignac in Périgord, 9 km from Les Eyzies. It has been shown that this bank of the Vézère was inhabited continuously from the Magdalenian era to the seventeenth century. The year 1968 saw the publication of a programme of systematic studies in ethnography for the Aquitaine region. 4. See Mzrsezim, Vol. XXV, No 112, 1973, ‘The Ecomuseum of Marquèze’, Sabres, by François Monot, p. 79-84. The first museum’ in Bordeaux, the Musée des Antiques, was founded in 1781, but it was not until 1960 that the municipality, on the advice of Georges-Henri Rivière, decided to reorganize it as the Musée d’Aquitaine. It was to be a regional history museum, with as wide a popular appeal as possible.2 The Musée d‘Aquitaine is a history museum at once because of its origin, its contents and its scientific programme. The collections are now divided up into three sections : prehistory; history; contemporary history and regional ethnogra- phy. They are designed to illustrate, in a continuous chronological sequence, the synthesis which came about between the different urban and rural civilizations that succeeded one another in a province whose limits fluctuated with history. The themes round which the displays are organized are such as to direct visitors’ attention to the other museums in the region, administered by the déjartements or other municipalities. The role played by the museum in the cultural life of the region is also reflected in its acquisitions policy, which brings together the chance elements represented by purchase, donation and finds made in the course of urban reconstruction with the programmed contributions arising from prehistoric exca- vation and ethnographical ~tudies .~ A similar purpose is served by the opening of a documentation centre and a restoration laboratory, the launching of an ecomuseum in Marquèze (Sabres, Landes) (Ecomusée de la Grande Lande),4 and the holding of exhibitions in Bordeaux and elsewhere to demonstrate the nature of the regional heritage. Lastly, a programme of ever more diversified cultural activities both inside and outside the museum has helped it to develop its popular appeal, since the day in February 199 5 when, after thirty-two years of dosure, it was able to open J 00 m2, pending completion of the new premises, amounting to 12,000 m2, which are to be built in the centre of Bordeaux (Fig. 4,). Consequently, the curator’s task was not finished when he put forward a ‘scientific programme’, in 1964, which listed in terms of themes and arguments every item and document in the collections, together with photographs and details of dimensions. It seemed to him indispensable to draw up also an architec- tural programme (II 97 II) whìch, without in any way impinging on the building plans, does specify, for the benefit of the architect, the requirements arising out of the scientific programme. This second document, which is just as fundamental as the first, should make it possible to ensure that the solutions put forward by the architect correspond to the needs defined by the curator, and that practical considerations-funds available, incorporation of the building into the urban set- ting, technical options and the like-do not distort the programme in the course of realization. This document, which may be likened to a musical score whoseThe regional Museum of Aquitaine, Bordeaux themes the curator and the architect will orchestrate together, should avoid the situation whereby, when the premises are handed over complete, the staff of the museum regard the new building as an instrument which is impossible to play. However, the prime purpose Oof the architectural programme is to make it possible to translate the scientific programme into firm plans to transform ideas into vol- umes, so that, embodied in objects, they may both move and teach. Museum development At the end of the twentieth century, a museum is no longer an inflexible institu- tion, fixed in its content and vocation. This truth should be a constant stimulus for both the curator and the architect. Continuous expansion of regional collections To take an example, the museum's prehistory collections, the fifth in import'ance in France, have increased by at least 60 per cent since 1960. Gallo-Roman ob- jects have multiplied tenfold. Systematic excavation of the third-century ramparts, largely buried beneath the road surface, could make the Musée d'Aquitaine the largest Roman museum in France in terms of the number of stone fragments it possesses. The sections on medieval and modern architecture and sculpture have been added to. Instead of its former 300 ethnographical items, the museum now has 4,000. This basic fact influences the way volume must be handled in the premises still to be built: stores must be extensible and public galleries flexible. Needs of the public in the year 2000 But is there not a growing divergence between, on the one hand, the pronounce- ments of science, with its ever-multiplying discoveries and ever more subtle methods, and, on the other, the popularization of knowledge for an ever-increas- ing public? Would we, in the old days, have exhibited in a museum, side by side with great works of art, the bones of animals whose flesh enabled our ances- tors to survive and be creative? To push the argument to its limits, does the visitor nowadays even need to be able to read to enjoy himself in a museum? In other Mus& d'Aquitaine History museum policy ~ TOWN P L A N N I N G A N D A R C H I T E C T U R E 15th-18th C E N T U R Y Religious buildings Civil o architecture I Aquitanian Crafts sites P R E H I S T O R Y An example of space organization: Romanization Two themes for an educational exhibition Emergency exit I words, the scientific programme put forward-in- 1964 will need to be rewritten in 1979, and rewritten again in a few more years' time. Unlike the Roman lapi- dary, the architect must provide for the translation of several systems of writing, and for the reception of a public made up of sectors with different needs. Aiz evolving institution Consequently, the museum's structure must be such as to link together the functions necessary for present conditions and also accommodate new functions (Fig. 4 6). For example, to take instances from opposite ends of museum activity, everything to do with restoration and documentation on the one hand, and with teaching and socio-cultural activities on the other, tends towards diversification. As new needs make themselves felt, the departments concerned can be moved around and the necessary areas made available. The architect therefore, in working out his plans, will have to try to analyse how the museum is likely to develop and to take into account the programme, the nature of the works exhibited, and how the public may best be served. 4/ W D ' A Q U I T A I N E ? Bordeaux. Awaiting the new museum'. As early as February 1975, the city wanted to give the public the opportunity of rediscovering some objects from their cultural heritage which had been inaccessible since 19 3 8 and of learning about the museum's new orientation. Rather than create a trompe-l'œil effect by presenting a sample of works of art selected from the 600,000 objects, the concept of the future muSem was explained a " d three t h " in three rooms covering SO0 m2 in the south wing of the town-hau gardens. Requirements stemming from the scientific programme itself Pviwag of the object and historical contimity While the objects exhibited remain first and foremost a source of personal plea- sure, it is the duty of a museum to make apparent, through each item's physical appearance, the history of vanished civilizations. Conversely, also, reality nourish-1 1 2 Louis Valensi Management Gensrai management- animation Reception rcientific and of th0 public administrative Dissemination Public relations Book-keeping Exhibition and supplies Reception. mesrengerr Correspondence CONSERVATION 0 41; MUSÉE DIAQUITAINE, Bordeaux. Organization chart of the museum’s functions. Its structure is dictated by rhe chronological order of the works and the public, technical and scientific services required. 47 MUSÉE DIAQUITAINE, Bordeaux. Descriptive card of the museum’s layout. es dream. Both the curator and the architect must take this duality into account. In the modern world, anyone who organizes a history museum is speaking as much to the mind as to the eyes. He is developing an idea in space and for a heterogeneous public, not in a book and for an individual. Ban exhibition has its own language and typography. In each gallery, the sequence of themes involves a special division or modulation of space. The hierarchy of space, volumes, show- cases, plinths, and so on, reflects the divisions, chapters and paragraphs of writ- ten language. Band the proportion of empty space, the calculated asymmetry of layout, and the arrangement of display screens and panels act as punctuation. The museum has become the visual translation of a synthesis. The contribution made by azidio-viszial aids And now the difficulties begin. A book may be exhaustive, but a public collection is bound to have gaps. Unlike film, an object is a fixed image. When you visit a site, a street or a church, you see them in their natural environment. h item in a museum has been taken out of its context. One may be tempted to play tricks with the discontinuity in time and space imposed by the history of a collec- tion. But the point of departure must always be the collection itself, and while documents and audio-visual aids may restore a certain degree of continuity, this should not be carried too far. A museum is a place which belongs first and fore- most to the objects it contains. Streaming’ the public Visitors may be divided into two independent but complementary streams. As well as the main art galleries, designed to present an overall picture and also to cater for the visitor with limited time or the connoisseur of rare objects, there are scientific rooms where the presentation is more exhaustive, examining all the aspects of a site, all the typology of a tool, or all the variants of a script or iconography. In this way the museum respects the visitor’s liberty. The technical requirements stemming from the programme can only be mentioned here in general terms. The detailed implications worked out with the architect will be set out in the specifications given to the contractors and subcontractors when the contracts are signed. In fact, the museum is made up of t h e e distinct but complementary units (conservation, common technical services, and scientific sections (Pig. 47), organized around the exhibits but visited by staff and public in varying numbers and according to different timetables. This tripartite structure entails several consequences. Allocation of space To define the various areas of the museum more clearly and arrive at a real corres- pondence between the scientific programme and the plans, experience has shown that it is necessary to break down the overall space of the museum into functional areas which together make up a whole, and to set down the individual character of each of these areas on a card setting out the kinds of access and equipment that are required (Fig. $8). Each card (2 II cm x 27 cm) serves two purposes: it places the area concerned within the overall area of the museum, and it also gives precise indications about the particular area itself. So it is divided into two parts. The first contains five headings : definition, volume, sector, category and subdivision. Thus the marble workshop has a minimum volume of 3 50 m3 (length 1 O m, width 8 m, height 4.5 m, and load 4 tonnes). It is part of the private access sector, belongs to the technical services, and should be situated on level 1. There are fourteen headings covering the location, air-conditioning, apparatus and furnishings which the cura-The regional Museum of Aquitaine, Bordeaux I 3 3’ 34 Louis Valensi tor thinks best suited to the service any particular area is supposed to provide. Thus, the marble workshop is to be divided into two unequal areas : the workshop proper and the supervisor’s glass cubicle. It will communicate with the service yard and be within easy reach of the goods lift and the casts room. It will have natural lighting and air, with normal temperature and humidity. It will have hot and cold water, gas, pipes to drain off used water, earthed power points and a current of 220l380 volts, a monorail 5-tonne travelling crane, two concrete vats with polished cement covers (length 8 m, width 2 m, height 0.4 m), and a double sliding door. The flooring will be industrial and the walls painted with dust-proof paint. Furnishings will include a desk, a sink, a draining board, two benches, a tool cupboard, a cupboard for keeping working materials in, and led- ges on which to stand the exhibits being worked on. The theoretical space of the Musée d’Aquitaine is thus divided into 15 3 sepa- rate areas. The architect can call upon ten groups of cards, corresponding to each of the functions defined in the basic structural diagram. It is his responsibility, once he has arrived at an overall approach, to allocate particular areas to particu- lar functions. Dialogue between the museum’s scientific team and the architect depends on more objective considerations, which make it possible to check at every stage how well the plans conform to the programme and, in particular, to take account of structural requirements and equipment needs. , Structural reqzlirements The continual expansion of the collections makes it necessary from the outset to provide for the extension of reserves (storerooms) and galleries. Heights of the different areas will vary, ranging from 2. to 4 or 6 m, intrusive supports being avoided as far as possible. A system of mobile partitions, together with a grid ’ of power points and projectors, will ensure flexibility of presentation, making it possible to modulate the size of viewing areas in accordance with the nature of the exhibits. Thus extensibility in the main design will be paralleled by flexibility of spacing within the building. The areas which go to make up the museum will thus be left as free as possible. They can be divided into three categories : (a) the private sector, open only to staff or certain members of it (this sector includes workshops and studios, reserves and stores); (b) the semi-public sector, open to certain members of the public either by previous arrangement (appointment with the curator’s office, guided visits) or at certain fixed hours (consultation of documents); (c) the public sector, open to everyone at hours established in terms of the preferences and convenience of the various kinds of visitor.’ One of the principles governing the use of space in the museum is thus to ‘stream’ the flow of visitors so as to maintain flexibility and sensible priorities. In this way it will be possible to keep distances as short as possible, and increase security while at the same time reducing the number of surveillance points. Different sectors of the museum entail different structural requirements, accord- ing to whether they are intended for objects, staff or the public. W e n new ob- jects arrive in the service yard, they are screened, card-indexed, photographed, and then sent by goods lift (J tonnes) or lift truck (2 tonnes) to the laboratory, the reserves or the public galleries. The exhibits service (inventory, files, card- indexes, photographs and drawings) should be close to the documentation ser- vice. The office of the curator in charge of documentation overlooks the reading- room of the library and the entrances to the reference rooms, the print room and the archives (written and audio-visual). The curators’ offices in general are placed either between the reserves and the exhibition rooms, or near the work- shops relating to their speciality. Each pbf the three sections of the museum has its own group of cultural and scientific rooms, forming an independent circuit within that of the museum as a whole. So the visitor, according to his tastes or the time at his disposal, can either go round the whole museum in chronological S . Georges-Henri Rivière evolved this theory of the organization of spaces in a museum.I 1 3 5 I The regional Museum of Aquitaine, Bordeaux order or select one of the three sections: prehstory; history; and contemporary history and regional ethnography. The ‘streaming’ of all these alternative circuits is duly recorded, together with the special needs of each in the matter of equipment. EquL;pment needs Construction and surface materials are fireproof, soundproof and dust-repellant. To provide for the weight of stone exhibits and lifting devices the floors are made to resist a stress of 2 tonnes per square metre. Equipment must provide for the best possible conservation of the exhibits. Air and light must be treated in such a way as to protect the exhibits from the physical deterioration which is a constant threat, especially since conditions in the museum are not the same as in their original surroundings. Light and air-conditioning levels must be adapted to the nature of the exhibits displayed in each area. Furniture should be standardized with three considerations in mind : to ensure the best possible conditions of conservation, to make handling the exhibits easy and safe, and to facilitate consultation. Particular attention needs to be paid to protecting objects and documents from dust. In short, all technical measures should aim at serving the exhibit without doing disservice to the public. Serving the public Different services f o r dzflerent kinds of visitor While a few visitors immediately find their way about a museum and know where to look for what they want, experience has shown that the majority needs to be received, directed and encouraged, and to be provided with opportunities for individual creative activity. So it is desirable that special reception arrange- ments should be made for each group. Schools will be helped to prepare and exploit their pupils’ visit to the fùll by the provision of a hall with audio-visual equipment, and of access to three workshops. Two of these will cater for semi- directed activities : drawing, painting, modelling, hand work of all kinds, making models of tools and rural architecture. The third workshop will offer a different kind of visit, giving pupils direct contact with an exhibit itself in the presence of the teacher and a group leader, to illustrate a theme chosen in advance. A kindergarten teacher and a teaclrier specialized in art education will take charge of younger children in play rooms with a garden attached or in a free-expression workshop. Parents visiting the town centre will thus be able to leave their off- spring, on Wednesday and Saturday afternoons, in a nursery which gradually leads the children from games to culture. Similarly, a lecture room and two multi- purpose assembly rooms will be provided for adult groups (visitors, clubs, adult education classes). In this way, by encouraging the visitor to take an active part himself, the museum may turn what is all too often a listless stroll among the glass cases into a valuable and lasting personal experience. A chance t o rest Walking through the galleries and standing in front of the exhibits tires and dis- courages many people. They would like to have light portable seats so that they could stop in comfort and look at some particular exhibit or audio-visual display or turn over the pages of an album. This facility would be particularly welcome in the scientific rooms, where ordinary visitors and research workers alike may need to spend some time studying a series of references. Rest-rooms will be pro- vided at regular intervals, for relaxation, reading and reflection. The various ways round the museum should be organized in such a way that the visitor never feels Level 5 New museum 2. Permanent exhibition 3b. Conservation Level 4 w /’ 1 7 - < 2a. Permanent exhibition u Level 3 I . Storerooms 2. Permanent exhibition 3. Documentation Level 2 I I . Storerooms 2. Temporary exhibitions 3. Reception-animation Level 1 1. Storerooms 2 Services 3. TRL (stone) Technical restoration laboratorv 48 MUSÉE D’AQUITAINE, Bordeaux. Diagram of the new museum (architect: Pierre Arius, D.P.L.G.). Today, the collections are scattered between six buildings with insufficient space, The town has decided to regroup them in the Cours Pasteur in the heart of the city near the cathedral. The new museum will be,divided into three autonomous units : stores, services and exhibitions. This meets the twofold requirement of assuring security, while maintaining a logical functioning, and of preserving the façade galleries of the old faculties.I 56 Louis Valensi driven or constrained, and can leave and go home, or sit down and rest, without having to go through a whole section all over again. Encouraging rather than di.rcouraging the pziblic A museum is a strange place to begin with. Should it be turned into a prison by having no windows? Statues in the round, intended to be seen in the changing light of days and seasons, are frozen into immobility by electricity. This kind of thing is just as important a problem for the architect as providing for a micro- climate, easy and varied access, proper observance of the scientific programme, The public, regrettably small, which visits museums nowadays is usually more interested in seeing some famous or spectacular work of art than a mere object that bears witness to history. But in a regional museum there are sometimes not so many masterpieces as there are series of representative objects or documents (facsimiles, maps, diagrams, etc.). Intellectual fatigue can be joined to physical weariness if the presentation is esoteric or too much on one note, or if there is more documentation than can be assimilated. So maps and diagrams should be as attractive and legible as possible, and not too insistent or obtrusive. The public should be guided along by the harmony between spatial layout and sequence of ideas. The explanatory panels and individual display sards must be clearly pre- sented and not contain so much detailed information as to evoke the temptation to give up instead of a desire to understand. or allowing the exhibits to exert their full sway. l Despite the fact that we are supposed to be living in a ‘leisure civilization’, des- pite ‘mass culture’, three out of every four Frenchmen never enter a museum.‘ Perhaps museums have too often been designed by curators for curators or by architects for architects, rather than to awaken in as many people as possible the desire to come in and look round. Here we come up against a double contradic- tion. Unlike a book, a museum must be accessible at one and the same time to children and adults, workers and managers, teachers and illiterates, and so on. It has to find a language common alike to those who possess ‘traditional’ culture and those who want to develop their own‘personal’ culture. The exhibit remains first and foremost a source of delight, but increasingly it is also the aim to deci- pher, through the physical presence of the object itself, the history of vanished civilizations. The problem is how to unite dream with historical rigour. One does not create a museum to please oneself, but to give pleasure to others. Perhaps we can help the curator and the architect in their common task by laying the foundations of a dialogue between them. 6 Plene Bouidieu .cnd Aldiil D.cibt.1. L ‘ A I / ~ N I do l’Ai/, /e\ A h k i e/ /cur P N ~ / I L , P‘IIIS. Edi- tioil5 de Minuit, 1966 [ Translated f r o m French]‘ 3 7 The Red Deer and District Museum ín Alberta Raymond O. Harrison The primary focus of this article is on the programming of a new museum in Canada, the Red Deer and District Museum, which is selected as an illustration of a methodology which regards ‘museum programming’ as a comprehensive study of the institution as a basis for planning. This compares with the limited ’architectural brief, normally prepared from an architectural and design view- point, of museum needs. In summary, this project was a museum presenting the natural and human history of a region, in a new building-expanding from an initial core of basic museum services, in five programme phases over a thirty-year period. Initial steps The museum was initiated by the Red Deer and District Historical Society, and early agreement was reached with the City for its future management. Building and Fund-Raising Committees were established; John Murray, architect, was ¡I OU U O U D U i i O00 C A 4 PARKIN* 49 RED DEER AND DISTRICT Red Deer (Alberta). Site MUSEUM, plan.1 3 8 Raymond O. Harrison appointed; and the author provided museum consulting services through the Pro- vincial Department of Culture. A large open site in the city centre was selected to include the proposed museum, and an existing senior citizens’ centre and recreation centre-arranged as three separate facilities with common car parking (Fig. 49). The required crit- eria for site selection, which is a vital part of a museum’s programming, are not discussed in this article. The area allocated for the museum, however, was on the basis of long-term growth needs. A regular series of sessions was arranged by the Building Committee to discuss museum needs and receive input from experts and organizations, and exploratory studies were made by architect and museum consultant. The museum consultant, in consultation with architect and committees, then pre- pared a comprehensive development report. This comprised a series of wide-rang- ing recommendations supported by detailed analysis. The following sets out the author’s views of what ‘programming’ should include, and what the process encompasses in this project. Overall concept. A ‘broad-brush‘ statement is essential to provide the concept within which an institution is to be developed. It sets the scope and level. In JO Map of the province of Alberta showing centres with major and regional museums. the case of this project, the report referred to such aspects as the regional theme, regional services, growth concepts, and the level of professional and technical quality. . elation t o museum network. Definition is essential on how a proposed museum relates to the museum network in its geographic area. In Alberta, two large metropolitan centres have major professsional institutions. Five regional centres each of 18,000-50,000 population need a second level of institution, and provin- cial cultural policy encourages development of a regional museum in each of these (Pig. /O). Red Deer Museum (city 34,000 inhabitants) was recommended there- fore to be one of the five regional museums, providing a level of excellence and regional services, and to receive exhibitions from other institutions throughout Canada. There are about 12 5 museums in the province, most of which are small. Statement ofpurpose. A comprehensive, well-articulated, all-inclusive statement of purpose is an essential basis for the programming, planning and operation of a museum. As an example, the Red Deer Museum statement was as follows : The purpose of the institution should be to portray with dynamic impact the natural and human heritage of Central Alberta through the collection, preservation and exhibition of selected speci- mens, artefacts, documents and works of art, and rhe provision of educational, informational and related cultural services, by means of modern techniques of preservation, exposition and participa- tion; to present works of man and nature circulated from other parts of the province andnation; and to exchange and radiate exhibits and services to local museums of the region-for the ultimate objective of enriching appreciation, increasing knowledge and stimulating participation in our heri- tage and cultural life. Master plan. A museum is a growing, dynamic institution. A flexible, long-range master plan is essential, therefore, to guide its overall development-in order that priorities may be established for each phase in terms of activities, staffing, finance, and facilities, and for programming to proceed. The Red Deer Museum recommendation, in broad outline, was as follows : introductory phase : initial establishment of museum, six years, 1970-75 ; phase I: development of core-mu- seum in new building, seven years, 1976-82; phase II: expand couections and exhibits, five years, P 98 3-87 phase III : expand archives as regional repository, two’ years, 1988-89; phase IV: expand educational programmes and establish regional service, five years, 1990-94; phase V: expand exhibition themes, five years, 1995-99. 0 METROPOLITAN bREA - M A J O L M U ~ E U M ~ PEGlONPL CENTRE- REGIONAL MVSEUWS ì (- ‘pJ\\) -\.{ kg: (,r/’ iThe Red Deer and District Museum in Alberta ‘39 Fzmtional and area analysis. Analysis of museum functions reveals that there are natural groupings and sub-groupings of functions, which in turn can be expressed in clusters of spaces. The two basic groupings are public functions and operating functions. Within these, are functional elements comprising various activities, and within these are the individual rooms. Figure J I gives an overview of functional groupings. In addition to these tabulations, a description of the activities in each major grouping element and room is required. r Opern/iorznl niidg’”d relntioizships. The foregoing approach needs to be expressed also by diagram. Figure J 2 clearly shows the natural affinity between clusters of activities, future growth, operating flow, and proximity needs. Accordingly, Figures J? and J 4 should be seen as a composite. On larger projects, a relation- ship matrix, showing needs between spaces, is coded on a diagonal grid. Principles of museum plantzing. A major part of programming should be a statement of principles of museum planning. A carefully articulated set of twelve principles developed by the museum consultant was used in the Red Deer project. It is not possible, however, to summarize them in this short article. Financial-cajita1 fund analysis. Financial programming requires a detailed analy- sis of both source and application of capital funds, in order to have a realistic view of all requirements and budget. The following is an example: Ajjlicatiov o ffitnds Building Fees Furniture and equipment Site-work Contingency TOTAL ($) Source of fundj 8 10,000 Provincial grant 60,000 Federal grant ~ 0 , 0 0 0 campaign 1 s ,000 15,000 City grant Fund-raising Chamber of Commerce 9 50,000 TOTAL ($) 300,000 2 50.000 200,000 100,000 100,000 9 50,000 Museums frequently, however, consider only the building cost, which is unreal- istic. A further study of value in the programmingstage is that of a cash flow chart which sets out the expenditures required against the schedule described below in ‘Schedule’. An item not shown above is an amount for exhibit produc- tion, which should normally be included. Fit~ancial-operatir2g cost analysis. It ‘is essential that operating cost implications of the museum in its new facilities should be part of the programming. Just as with the capital cost analysis, so with operating costs, there should be a detailed projec- tion of both source and application of funds. A five-year projection of annual costs of the Red Deer project was undertaken by the Historical Society within guidelines set out by the museum consultant. Schedde. A comprehensive schedule integrating all aspects of the timing of a pro- ject is essential to ensure realistic goals and clear definition and sequence of tasks required. This can be in one of three forms-a tabulation of events and dates, a bar chart, or a critical path diagram-and noting key decision points. Included should be such things as programming, exhibit development, collection prepara- tion, staffing, interim space, fund-raising, equipping, planning, construction, moving in and setting up for opening, printing, etc. Unfortunately, with most museums, the only schedule produced is usually done by the architect and pertains only to the building. In the Red Deer project, however, a comprehensive develop- ment schedule was devised covering the period from commencement of program- ming through to opening.740 Raymond O. Harrison / I Overview of functional groupings and areas to be added in future phases. /? Table showing the phasing of additional areas for exhibit production.The Red Deer and District Museum in Alberta 141 Organixution und stufling. A frequent problem in museums is that outdated and inadequate organization (both governance and staffing) is carried over from an old situation into a new building. Accordingly, it is highly desirable for program- ming to include the charting of existing and future organization needs in tune with the realities of new operations in a new building. Mzdsewz uctivities und procedztres. Three vital sections of the programming pertain to activities in the completed building-collection preservation, exhibit develop- ment, and public services. Preliminary exhibit themes need to be explored. An assessment of the collections should be undertaken-their nature, documentation, and conservation needs should be outlined. The range of proposed public and educational services should be defined. In turn, all of these are expressed in the programming of function, space and technical needs. Architectural plunning, In the Red Deer project deliberation on the development report resulted in deci- sions being reached, and the project moving into architectural planning and design. Figures I3 and I 4 show the final phased building plan. Concurrently with the architect’s final sketch planning, the museum consultant provided further A module of 16 in x 16 in (about 40 cm x 40 cm) was adopted during early programming as the most suitable for all nine basic functional elements of the museum, and multiples of this formed the final structural system. programming and technical input! J P Operational and growth relationship diagram. The separation line between the public service and the functional groupings can be dearly seen. - POBLIC ROUTE - - - - STAFF R o u r E SECURITYACCESS CONTROL POINTSI 42 Rayinond O. Harrison /4 Basic functional core museum with phased growth. The layout of activities follows the functional organization as seen in Figure S 3. FEET 0- 2 SECUUITYACCESS ~ ~ % ~ ~ d CONTROL POINTS I I I _____I_________-__-_________________ I I I PHASE11 1 L -_-_-______-_---------- ___-__ 1 I I ; I PUASE V I I 1 ___-__________ -______ - _ _ _ _ _ _ PUBLIC On approval of the sketch plans. and architectural design, the architect was then able to complete detailed working drawings and specifications for the archi- tectural, structural, electrical and mechanical work. Programming services of the museum consultant continued during this period-exhibit themes and display plans were suggested, and furniture, workroom and equipment layouts were pro- duced. Because of minimal staff envisaged for phase I, basic decision on a single- floor building was made, for easy movement of staff and collections, and surveil- lance. Further, because of the primary principle of the expandable core, exterior _ _ , . walls were designed as ‘knock-out’ panels to facilitate future expansion. This and the programme as a whole influenced also the structural system and architec- tural design concept (see Figure J J ) . Fund-raising The work of programming and physical planning should continue concurrently with financia! planning. ne advantage of the area analysis method and the plan- ning used in chis project is that if fmds fall short, fmctional elements can be easily deleted without requiring redesign, and that portion can be added more easily later when funds are availab!e. In the Red Deer project, major funds had been committed by several sources, but a large sum still remained for public fund- raising. Funding objectives, however, were exceeded and the programming and building plans remained unchanged. Implementation The process of final implementation comprises tender and award of building contract, construction of the building, ordering and installation of equipment, moving in, staffing, design and fabrication of exhibits, and preparation for the opening. TNhile these tasks are frequently considered not to be part of the ‘pro- gramming’ of a museum, this successful project demonstrates that the process in- cludes more than just an ‘architectural programme’. In consequence, the develop- ment report and programming work of the museum consultant as part of the planning team proved to be a significant element in achieving the project as an efficient museum building within the time and budget ; for realizing museum acti- vities, organization and public services; and as a guide to long-term growth of the institution.The Red Deer and District Museum in Alberta 741 11 Entrance to the museum.Anthais SMITA J. BAXI Director of Crafts Museum, New Delhi, India. Studied architecture at Sir J. J. School of Arts, Bombay, India. Taught architecture at Nagpur and New Delhi schools and studied exhibition techniques and designs at the University of Michigan, United States. Worked as keeper (display) in the National Museum, New Delhi. Now vice-president of the Museums Association of India and Associate Member of the Royal Institute of British Architects. James A. M. BELL% Director of the School of Architecture at the University of Manchester, United Kingdom. H e is a member of RIBA and of RTPI. Recently he served as President of the Manchester Society of Architects. After some years in private practice (B. Arch. Hons., University of Liverpool) he joined the staff of his present school and received his Ph.D. for his studies on the design of English domestic architecture (1 8 50-1 9 14). RAYMOND O. HARRISON Emigrated from Australia to Canada in 19 SO. Appointed Director, Provincial Museum and Archives of Alberta in 1962, then Assistant Deputy Minister of Heritage Resources. Was been specializing in programming, organization, planning and operation of heritage institutions for twenty-four years, including such major institutions as the Provincial Museum and Archives of Albertá and the Noith Dakota Heritage Center. Today he is Museum Planning Consultant to Alberta Culture. YANI HERREMAN Architect and museologist. For several years was Head of the Department of Museography at the National Museum of Culture of the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH), Mexico. Has carried out several museum projects for the Department of Planning and Installation of Museums. Now works in the Department of Museums and Exhibitions, INAH. Gives courses in museography for the Organization of American States at the Manuel Castitlo Negrete Restoration Centre. Member of the Bureau of the I C O M International Committee on Museum Architecture and Techniques. MANFRED LEHMBRUCK Architect. After studying with the architect Mies van der Rohe, and working in the office of Auguste Perret in Paris, carried out numerous constructions : Reuchlinhaus Cultural Centre, Pforzheim; Wilhem Lehmbmck Museum, Duisburg; Federsee Museum, Bad Buchau, University institute buildings, Braunschweig, etc. Now working on cultural building projects: Museum and Cultural Centre, Rottweil, the German Academic Foundation, Wiirzburg, e t c Member of the I C O M International Committee on Museum Architecture and Techniques. CLAUDE MOLLARD Referendary Adviser at the Audit Office, Paris. After being Civil Administrator, Budget Department, Ministry of Finances, then Rapporteur on the Commission for Cultural Affairs in the Fifth Plan for Cultural Expansion and, finally, Rapporteur on the Commission for the Reform of the Study Programme at the Ecole Nationale d’Administration, was nominated Administrative and Financial Director of the Georges Pompidou Centre and in this capacity participated in the programming studies for the centre. PATRICK O’BYRNE Architect and programmer: four years specializing in operational research (programming, planning, standardization) in Montreal, Canada. Responsible for drawing up the architectural programme of the Georges Pompidou Centre, then appointed by the Ministry of Cultural Affairs to carry out, in collaboration with Claude Pecquet, the programming of several museums, including the Museum of the Nineteenth Century in the Gare d’Orsay, Paris, the LouvreMuseum, Paris, and the Museum of Modern Art, Lille (donated by Masurel). Collaborated in the creation of the Pierre Levy Museum, Troyes. Member of the I C O M International Committee on Museum Security (ICMS). CLAUDE PECQUET Museologist and programmer responsible for the planning of operational programming at the ’Georges Pompidou Centre, co-author with Patrick O’Byrne of the programming of the Museum of the Nineteenth Century in the Gare d’Orsay and the Louvre Museum, Paris, the Pierre Levy Museum, Troyes, the Universities of Bonaké and Khorogo and the Cultural Centre of Yamousoukro, Ivory Coast, and the Cultural Centre of Than, France. Member of the I C O M International Committee on Museum Security (ICMS). Contributes to the work and publications of ICMS. GERMAINE PELEGRIN General Secretary of the Louvre Museum, Paris. Chargé de Mission in the Commissariat Général au Plan until 1968, then Head of Secretariat in the Office of the Ministry of Cultural Affairs and, subsequently, Chef de Bureau in the same office until 197 3. Took part, as General Secretary of the Louvre Museum, in programming studies for the Museum of the Nineteenth Century in the Gare d’Orsay and the Louvre Museum. Secretary of 1COM”s International Committee on Museum Architecture and Techniques. DIETER RONTE Assistant Director-General of the Museums of Cologne. Studied history of art, archaeology and romance studies. Thesis on the Nazarenes Movement. Specializes in nineteenth- and twentieth-century art and museology. Res onsible for the reconstruction of the Wairaf-Richartz Museum and the Ludwig Museum. Director of Graphic Art Collections in the latter. Member of ICOM’s International Committee on Museum Architecture and Techniques. DAVID W. SCOTT Architect. Professor of Art History and the Humanities at Scripps College and Claremont Graduate School. Became a permanent member of the Smithsonian Institution as Director of the National Collection of Fine Arts. Since 1969, he has served as Planning Consultant at the National Gallery, Washington, D.C., co-ordinating architectural and programme planning for the remodelling of the National Gallery’s extension, which was inaugurated in 1978. LOUIS VALENSI Conservateur des Musées de France.Professor of History and Geography. Appointed Curator to the Aquitaine Museum in 1960. Teaches History of Architecture and Civilization at the Bordeaux Architecture Workshop of the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts. Lecturer in a complementary course on cultural animation at the Université de Bordeaux III. Secretary of the ICOM International Committee on Museums of Archaeology and History. ERRATUM M~/~csc//llZ, Vol. xm1, No 1, 1979, p. 20 : Photograph No S , which illustrates E. O. Ekpo’s article entitled ‘Nigeria’ should also bear the title ‘The Punitive Expedition, 1897. British Museum, London’ Photo credits 1, 28-?? Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.; IZ(rl), (b), 13, Crafts Museum, New Delhi; 14, Edition Hermes, S.A., Mexico, D.F.; ZJ-27, Herremann, Mexico, D.F.; 22-27, Musée du Louvre, Paris; 34,3/, Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne; ? 6-39, John Donat, London; 2-11 ,4044 , Claude Pecquet, Paris; 4 / ,48 , J. M. Arnaud, Bordeaux: 49-/4, Raymond O. Harrison and John Murray, Alberta: I/, Red Deer and District Museum, Red Deer (Alberta).

national crafts museum delhi case study

Charles Correa Foundation

Education and Research in Human Settlements


Delhi 1975-90.

This Crafts Museum, casual and accepting of the artisan’s vernacular, is organized around a central pathway, going from village to temple to palace, a metaphor for the Indian street- in fact, for India herself, where all these different kinds of crafts have always co-existed down the centuries. Walking along this spine, one catches glimpses of the principal exhibits that lie on either side (the Village Court, Darbar Court, etc). One can visit any particular exhibit, or alternately, progress through all the various sections in a continuous sequence.

Towards the end of the sequence, the exhibits gets larger and include fragments of actual buildings-since the crafts of India have always been an essential element of her architecture, Finally, one exists via the roof terraces which form an amphitheater for folk dances, as well as an open-air display for large terracotta horses and other handicrafts.

Less than half of the total floor area of 5500 sq.m is open to the public; the rest of the collection is stored in special areas for the use of the very finest craftsmen who are selected from all over India to come and study these archives. In this manner, a potter from Bengal has the opportunity to examine at first hand the best work of his counterparts in Kerala, at the other end of the country- or for that matter, what his own forebears in Bengal had produced two or three hundred years previously. This is a perspective which has hitherto never been available to traditional Indian craftsmen.

national crafts museum delhi case study

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Craft Museum, Pragati Maidan, New Delhi

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  • The National Handicrafts and Handlooms Museum commonly known as National Crafts Museum in New Delhi is one of the largest crafts museums in India .
  • It is run by the Ministry of Textiles, Government of India. The museum is situated on the corner of the Pragati Maidan, facing the Purana Qila complex.
  • History is brought to life at this excellent museum, where artisans demonstrate traditional embroidery, weaving, carving and pottery.

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