Thursday, February 23: The Clark Library is closed today.
APA Style (7th Edition) Citation Guide: Journal Articles
- Journal Articles
- Magazine/Newspaper Articles
- Books & Ebooks
- Government & Legal Documents
- Biblical Sources
- Secondary Sources
- Films/Videos/TV Shows
- How to Cite: Other
- Additional Help
Table of Contents
Journal article from library database with doi - one author, journal article from library database with doi - multiple authors, journal article from a website - one author.
Journal Article- No DOI
Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.
A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.
This Microsoft support page contains instructions about how to format a hanging indent in a paper.
- APA 7th. ed. Journal Article Reference Checklist
If an item has no author, start the citation with the article title.
When an article has one to twenty authors, all authors' names are cited in the References List entry. When an article has twenty-one or more authors list the first nineteen authors followed by three spaced ellipse points (. . .) , and then the last author's name. Rules are different for in-text citations; please see the examples provided.
Cite author names in the order in which they appear on the source, not in alphabetical order (the first author is usually the person who contributed the most work to the publication).
Italicize titles of journals, magazines and newspapers. Do not italicize or use quotation marks for the titles of articles.
Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of the article title. If there is a colon in the article title, also capitalize the first letter of the first word after the colon.
If an item has no date, use the short form n.d. where you would normally put the date.
Volume and Issue Numbers
Italicize volume numbers but not issue numbers.
Most articles will not need these in the citation. Only use them for online articles from places where content may change often, like a free website or a wiki.
If an article doesn't appear on continuous pages, list all the page numbers the article is on, separated by commas. For example (4, 6, 12-14)
Do not include the name of a database for works obtained from most academic research databases (e.g. APA PsycInfo, CINAHL) because works in these resources are widely available. Exceptions are Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ERIC, ProQuest Dissertations, and UpToDate.
Include the DOI (formatted as a URL: https://doi.org/...) if it is available. If you do not have a DOI, include a URL if the full text of the article is available online (not as part of a library database). If the full text is from a library database, do not include a DOI, URL, or database name.
In the Body of a Paper
Books, Journals, Reports, Webpages, etc.: When you refer to titles of a “stand-alone work,” as the APA calls them on their APA Style website, such as books, journals, reports, and webpages, you should italicize them. Capitalize words as you would for an article title in a reference, e.g., In the book Crying in H Mart: A memoir , author Michelle Zauner (2021) describes her biracial origin and its impact on her identity.
Article or Chapter: When you refer to the title of a part of a work, such as an article or a chapter, put quotation marks around the title and capitalize it as you would for a journal title in a reference, e.g., In the chapter “Where’s the Wine,” Zauner (2021) describes how she decided to become a musician.
The APA Sample Paper below has more information about formatting your paper.
- APA 7th ed. Sample Paper
Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), first page number-last page number. https://doi.org/doi number
Smith, K. F. (2022). The public and private dialogue about the American family on television: A second look. Journal of Media Communication, 50 (4), 79-110. https://doi.org/10.1152/j.1460-2466.2000.tb02864.x
Note: The DOI number is formatted as a URL: https://doi.org/10.1152/j.1460-2466.2000.tb02864.xIf.
(Author's Last Name, Year)
Example: (Smith, 2000)
(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)
Example: (Smith, 2000, p. 80)
Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), first page number-last page number. https://doi.org/doi number
Note: Separate the authors' names by putting a comma between them. For the final author listed add an ampersand (&) after the comma and before the final author's last name.
Note: In the reference list invert all authors' names; give last names and initials for only up to and including 20 authors. When a source has 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors’ names, then three ellipses (…), and add the last author’s name. Don't include an ampersand (&) between the ellipsis and final author.
Note : For works with three or more authors, the first in-text citation is shortened to include the first author's surname followed by "et al."
Reference List Examples
Two to 20 Authors
Case, T. A., Daristotle, Y. A., Hayek, S. L., Smith, R. R., & Raash, L. I. (2011). College students' social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 3 (2), 227-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.010
21 or more authors
Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, J., Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetma, A., . . . Joseph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society , 77 (3), 437-471. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2
(Case & Daristotle, 2011)
Direct Quote: (Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)
Three or more Authors/Editors
(Case et al., 2011)
Direct Quote: (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)
Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number if given). URL
Flachs, A. (2010). Food for thought: The social impact of community gardens in the Greater Cleveland Area. Electronic Green Journal, 1 (30). http://escholarship.org/uc/item/6bh7j4z4
Example: (Flachs, 2010)
Example: (Flachs, 2010, Conclusion section, para. 3)
Note: In this example there were no visible page numbers or paragraph numbers, in this case you can cite the section heading and the number of the paragraph in that section to identify where your quote came from. If there are no page or paragraph numbers and no marked section, leave this information out.
Journal Article - No DOI
Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), first page number-last page number. URL [if article is available online, not as part of a library database]
Full-Text Available Online (Not as Part of a Library Database):
Steinberg, M. P., & Lacoe, J. (2017). What do we know about school discipline reform? Assessing the alternatives to suspensions and expulsions. Education Next, 17 (1), 44–52. https://www.educationnext.org/what-do-we-know-about-school-discipline-reform-suspensions-expulsions/
Example: (Steinberg & Lacoe, 2017)
(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page number)
Example: (Steinberg & Lacoe, 2017, p. 47)
Full-Text Available in Library Database:
Jungers, W. L. (2010). Biomechanics: Barefoot running strikes back. Nature, 463 (2), 433-434.
Example: (Jungers, 2010)
Example: (Jungers, 2010, p. 433)
- << Previous: How to Cite: Common Sources
- Next: Magazine/Newspaper Articles >>
- Last Updated: Nov 2, 2023 11:13 AM
- URL: https://libguides.up.edu/apa
Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts
Reference List: Articles in Periodicals
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here .
Please note: the following contains a list of the most commonly cited periodical sources. For a complete list of how to cite periodical publications, please refer to the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual.
APA style dictates that authors are named with their last name followed by their initials; publication year goes between parentheses, followed by a period. The title of the article is in sentence-case, meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized. If a DOI has been assigned to the article that you are using, you should include this after the page numbers for the article. If no DOI has been assigned and you are accessing the periodical online, use the URL of the website from which you are retrieving the periodical.
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical , volume number (issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyy
Article in Print Journal
Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15 (3), 5 – 13.
Note: APA 7 advises writers to include a DOI (if available), even when using the print source. The example above assumes no DOI is available.
Article in Electronic Journal
As noted above, when citing an article in an electronic journal, include a DOI if one is associated with the article.
Baniya, S., & Weech, S. (2019). Data and experience design: Negotiating community-oriented digital research with service-learning. Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement , 6 (1), 11 – 16. https://doi.org/10.5703/1288284316979
DOIs may not always be available. In these cases, use a URL. Many academic journals provide stable URLs that function similarly to DOIs. These are preferable to ordinary URLs copied and pasted from the browser's address bar.
Denny, H., Nordlof, J., & Salem, L. (2018). "Tell me exactly what it was that I was doing that was so bad": Understanding the needs and expectations of working-class students in writing centers. Writing Center Journal , 37 (1), 67 – 98. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26537363
Note that, in the example above, there is a quotation in the title of the article. Ordinary titles lack quotation marks.
Article in a Magazine
Peterzell, J. (1990, April). Better late than never. Time, 135 (17), 20 –2 1.
Article in a Newspaper
Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today , 1A, 2A.
Baumeister, R. F. (1993). Exposing the self-knowledge myth [Review of the book The self-knower: A hero under control , by R. A. Wicklund & M. Eckert]. Contemporary Psychology , 38 (5), 466–467.
- Manuscript Preparation
How to write your references quickly and easily
- 3 minute read
- 166.2K views
Table of Contents
Every scientific paper builds on previous research – even if it’s in a new field, related studies will have preceded and informed it. In peer-reviewed articles, authors must give credit to this previous research, through citations and references. Not only does this show clearly where the current research came from, but it also helps readers understand the content of the paper better.
There is no optimum number of references for an academic article but depending on the subject you could be dealing with more than 100 different papers, conference reports, video articles, medical guidelines or any number of other resources.
That’s a lot of content to manage. Before submitting your manuscript, this needs to be checked, cross-references in the text and the list, organized and formatted.
The exact content and format of the citations and references in your paper will depend on the journal you aim to publish in, so the first step is to check the journal’s Guide for Authors before you submit.
There are two main points to pay attention to – consistency and accuracy. When you go through your manuscript to edit or proofread it, look closely at the citations within the text. Are they all the same? For example, if the journal prefers the citations to be in the format (name, year), make sure they’re all the same: (Smith, 2016).
Your citations must also be accurate and complete. Do they match your references list? Each citation should be included in the list, so cross-checking is important. It’s also common for journals to prefer that most, if not all, of the articles listed in your references be cited within the text – after all, these should be studies that contributed to the knowledge underpinning your work, not just your bedtime reading. So go through them carefully, noting any missing references or citations and filling the gaps.
Each journal has its own requirements when it comes to the content and format of references, as well as where and how you should include them in your submission, so double-check before you hit send!
In general, a reference will include authors’ names and initials, the title of the article, name of the journal, volume and issue, date, page numbers and DOI. On ScienceDirect, articles are linked to their original source (if also published on ScienceDirect) or to their Scopus record, so including the DOI can help link to the correct article.
A spotless reference list
Luckily, compiling and editing the references in your scientific manuscript can be easy – and it no longer has to be manual. Management tools like Mendeley can keep track of all your references, letting you share them with your collaborators. With the Word plugin, it’s possible to select the right citation style for the journal you’re submitting to and the tool will format your references automatically.
Like with any other part of your manuscript, it’s important to make sure your reference list has been checked and edited. Elsevier Author Services Language Editing can help, with professional manuscript editing that will help make sure your references don’t hold you back from publication.
Why you should edit your manuscript before submission
The writing challenges PhD students face
You may also like.
How to Write Clear and Crisp Civil Engineering Papers? Here are 5 Key Tips to Consider
The Clear Path to An Impactful Paper: ②
The Essentials of Writing to Communicate Research in Medicine
Changing Lines: Sentence Patterns in Academic Writing
Path to An Impactful Paper: Common Manuscript Writing Patterns and Structure
How to write the results section of a research paper
What are Implications in Research?
Differentiating between the abstract and the introduction of a research paper
Input your search keywords and press Enter.
APA 7th referencing style
- About APA 7th
- Printing this guide
- In-text references
- Direct quotations
- Reference list
- Author information
- Additional referencing information
- Using headings
- Book chapter
- Brochure and pamphlets
- ChatGPT and other generative AI tools
- Dictionary or encyclopaedia
- Government legislation
Two authors, three to twenty authors, 21 authors or more, advance online publication, article in press, cochrane systematic review, article number (instead of page numbers), article from academic database.
- Lecture notes and slides
- Legal sources
- Newspaper or magazine article
- Other web sources
- Patents and standards
- Personal communication
- Press (media) release
- Secondary source (indirect citation)
- Social media
- Software and mobile apps
- Specialised health information
- Television program
- Works in non-English languages
- Works in non-English scripts, such as Arabic or Chinese
Only use if there is no DOI
If DOI available, use examples above
- << Previous: Interview
- Next: Lecture notes and slides >>
- Last Updated: Oct 23, 2023 1:52 PM
- URL: https://guides.library.uq.edu.au/referencing/apa7
- Social Anxiety Disorder
- Bipolar Disorder
- Kids Mental Health
- Therapy Center
- When To See a Therapist
- Types of Therapy
- Best Online Therapy
- Best Couples Therapy
- Best Family Therapy
- Managing Stress
- Sleep and Dreaming
- Understanding Emotions
- Healthy Relationships
- Relationships in 2023
- Student Resources
- Personality Types
- Verywell Mind Insights
- 2023 Verywell Mind 25
- Mental Health in the Classroom
- Editorial Process
- Meet Our Review Board
- Crisis Support
How to Reference Journal Articles in APA Format
Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."
Emily is a board-certified science editor who has worked with top digital publishing brands like Voices for Biodiversity, Study.com, GoodTherapy, Vox, and Verywell.
Do you know how to create references for journal articles in APA format? If you write a psychology paper, then you are going to probably need to reference a number of different journal articles. Such articles summarize the results of studies and experiments conducted by researchers. In most cases, you will need to create references for at least five or more journal articles for every APA format paper you write.
APA format details a set of clear rules for referencing articles that appear in academic journals and other periodicals. These vary somewhat based on where the article appears and who the authors are. While many articles you will use in your references appear in academic and professional journals, you might also find articles in magazines, newspapers, and online publications.
The reference section is one of the easiest places to lose points due to incorrect APA format, so always check your references before you hand in your psychology papers . Learning to reference articles in proper APA style can help you throughout your study of psychology.
Basic Structure for Journal Article References
Start by listing the author's last name and first initials, followed by the date of publication in parentheses. Provide the title of the article, but only capitalize the first letter of the title. Next, list the journal or periodical and volume number in italics, followed by the issue number in parentheses. Finally, provide the page numbers where the article can be found.
Author, I. N. (Year). Title of the article. Title of the Journal or Periodical, volume number (issue number), page numbers.
Smith, L. V. (2000). Referencing articles in APA format. APA Format Weekly, 34 (1), 4-10.
If possible, include the DOI (digital object identifier) number at the end of your reference. If a DOI number is not available and you accessed the article online, give the URL of the journal's home page.
- Capitalize the first word in the title , subtitle, and proper nouns.
- References should be double-spaced.
- The first line of each reference should be flush left and any remaining lines should be indented.
Be sure to check your references using the official Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. See an example of different types of references and learn more about APA format .
The structure for an article appearing in a magazine is similar to that of a journal article. However, the publication date should also include the month and day of publication.
James, S. A. (2001, June 7). Magazine articles in APA format. Newsweek, 20, 48-52.
References for newspaper articles follow the basic structure as magazines, but you should list each individual page the article appears on rather than recording a page range.
Tensky, J. A. (2004, January 5). How to cite newspaper articles. The New York Times, 4D, 5D.
Articles With Two Authors
If an article has two authors, follow the basic format for a journal reference. Place a comma after the first initial of the first author followed by an ampersand (&). Then include the last name and first initial of the second author.
Mischel, W., & Baker, N. (1975). Cognitive transformations of reward objects through instructions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31 , 254-261.
Articles With Three to Twenty Authors
For journal articles with three to 20 authors, follow a similar format as you would with two authors, but separate each author and initials with a comma. The final author should be preceded by an ampersand. Follow this same format for each additional author up to 20 authors.
Hart, D., Keller, M., Edelstein, W., & Hofmann, V. (1998). Childhood personality influences on social-cognitive development: A longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1288-1289. doi:10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1998
Keller, J. L., Smithfield, K. B., Ellis, M., Michelina, R., & Bels, S. (1987). The limitations of anchoring bias. J ournal of Market Research, 17 , 115-119.
Articles With More Than Twenty Authors
The rules for referencing both single and multiple authors apply to all sources, whether the material came from books, magazine articles, newspaper articles, journal articles, or online sources. Include the last name and first initials of each author, with each individual separated by a comma. The last author should be preceded with an ampersand.
If the article includes 20 or fewer authors, list each author separately. If there are more than 20, include the first 19 and then include an ellipses (. . . ) in place of the author names before listing the final author.
Arlo, A., Black, B., Clark, C., Davidson, D., Emerson, E., Fischer, F., Grahmann, G., Habib, H., Ianelli, I., Juarez, J., Kobayashi, K., Lee, L., Martin, M., Naim, N., Odelsson, O., Pierce, P., Qiang, Q., Reed, R., Scofield, S., . . . Thatcher, T. (2011). Even more references. APA Format Today, 11 (4), 30-38.
Articles With No Author
If an article does not cite any authors, then start by giving the title of the article, followed by the publication date, source, and URL if you accessed the article electronically.
Scientists seek source of creativity. (2012, March, 6). Dayton County News. http://www.daytoncountynews.com/news/39756_39275.html
American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). The American Psychological Association, 2019.
By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."
By clicking “Accept All Cookies”, you agree to the storing of cookies on your device to enhance site navigation, analyze site usage, and assist in our marketing efforts.
Have a language expert improve your writing
Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, automatically generate references for free.
- Knowledge Base
- Harvard Referencing for Journal Articles | Templates & Examples
Harvard Referencing for Journal Articles | Templates & Examples
Published on 20 May 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 7 November 2022.
In Harvard style, to reference a journal article, you need the author name(s), the year, the article title, the journal name, the volume and issue numbers, and the page range on which the article appears.
If you accessed the article online, add a DOI (digital object identifier) if available.
Scribbr’s free Harvard reference generator can instantly create accurate references for a wide variety of source types:
Harvard Reference Generator
Table of contents
Online-only journal articles, articles with multiple authors, referencing a whole issue of a journal, referencing a preprint journal article, frequently asked questions about referencing journal articles in harvard style.
To reference an online journal article with no print version, always include the DOI if available. No access date is necessary with a DOI. Note that a page range may not be available for online-only articles; in this case, simply leave it out, as in this example.
Online-only article with no DOI
When you need to reference an online-only article which doesn’t have a DOI, use a URL instead – preferably the stable URL often listed with the article. In this case, you do need to include an access date.
Note that if an online article has no DOI but does have a print equivalent, you don’t need to include a URL. The details of the print journal should be enough for the reader to locate the article.
Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.
Journal articles often have multiple authors. In both your in-text citations and reference list, list up to three authors in full. Use the first author’s name followed by ‘ et al. ’ when there are four or more.
When you want to reference an entire issue of a journal instead of an individual article, you list the issue editor(s) in the author position and give the title of the issue (if available) rather than of an individual article.
When you reference an article that’s been accepted for publication but not yet published, the format changes to acknowledge this.
If it’s unknown where or whether the article will be published, omit this information:
In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘ et al. ’
In Harvard style , when you quote directly from a source that includes page numbers, your in-text citation must include a page number. For example: (Smith, 2014, p. 33).
You can also include page numbers to point the reader towards a passage that you paraphrased . If you refer to the general ideas or findings of the source as a whole, you don’t need to include a page number.
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.
Caulfield, J. (2022, November 07). Harvard Referencing for Journal Articles | Templates & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 8 November 2023, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/referencing/harvard-journal-article-reference/
Is this article helpful?
Other students also liked, a quick guide to harvard referencing | citation examples, harvard style bibliography | format & examples, harvard in-text citation | a complete guide & examples, scribbr apa citation checker.
An innovative new tool that checks your APA citations with AI software. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations!
- Library Guides
- Journal articles
Harvard Referencing: Journal articles
- Getting started with Harvard referencing
- Books & e-books
- Lecture notes
- Conference proceedings
- Personal communications
- Multi-media materials
- Company information
- Patents & standards
- Encyclopedia & Dictionary Entries
- Case Studies
- Sample In-Text References
- Sample Reference List
On this page
- Harvard Referencing: journal articles (video)
- Basic format to reference a journal article
Referencing journal articles: Examples
- Video Transcript
Harvard Referencing: journal articles
Harvard Referencing: journal articles from Victoria University Library on Vimeo .
Basic format to reference journal articles
The basics of a Reference List entry for a journal article:
- Author or authors. The surname is followed by first initials.
- Year of publication of the article.
- Article title (in single inverted commas).
- Journal title (in italics).
- Volume of journal.
- Issue number of journal.
- Page range of article.
Example: Gray, L 2018, 'Exploring how and why young people use social networking sites', Educational Psychology in Practice , vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 175-194.
- << Previous: Books & e-books
- Next: Newspapers >>
- Last Updated: Jul 31, 2023 10:25 AM
- URL: https://libraryguides.vu.edu.au/harvard
- UWF Libraries
APA Format & Citation Style, 7th edition
- Journal Article with 3 or More Authors
- General Style Guidelines
- One Author or Editor
- Two Authors or Editors
- Three or More Authors or Editors
- Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
- Article in a Reference Book
- Edition other than the First
- Government Publication
- Journal Article with One Author
- Journal Article with 2 Authors
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Basic Web Page
- Web page from a University site
- Web Page with No Author
- Entry in a Reference Work
- Government Document
- Film and Television
- Youtube Video
- Audio Podcast
- Electronic Image
- Secondary Sources
- Formatting Your Paper
- APA Handouts & Guides This link opens in a new window
Journal Article with Three or More Authors
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):
(Author Surname et al., Year)
In-Text Citation (Quotation):
(Author Surname et al., Year, page number)
Surnames and initials for up to twenty authors should be provided in the reference list. For more than 20 authors, list the first 19, followed by an ellipses, then list the final author.
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (issue), page range. http://doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx [if available] OR [nothing - if in an online database and does not have a doi] OR URL to document on website if readers can access.
(Yonkers et al., 2001, p. 1859)
Yonkers, K. A., Ramin, S. M., Rush, A. J., Navarrete, C. A., Carmody, T., March, D., Heartwell, S., & Leveno, K. J. (2001). Onset and persistence of postpartum depression in an inner-city maternal health clinic system. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158 (11), 1856-1863. http://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.11.1856
DOI: If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference as a URL . You will not have to include a different URL or the database from which you retrieved the article if a DOI is available. Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version.
Online Database: If you viewed a journal article in an online database and it does not have a DOI, the reference should be the same as the reference for a print version of the work. In other words, nothing after the page numbers will appear.
Website/Online: If an online work (not including academic research databases), provide the URL in the reference (as long as the URL will work for readers).
Print: If you viewed a journal article in its print format , be sure to check if it has a DOI listed. If it does not, your reference to the article would end after you provide the page range of the article.
Date: When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication.
- << Previous: Journal Article with 2 Authors
- Next: Magazine Article >>
- Last Updated: Sep 25, 2023 1:40 PM
- URL: https://libguides.uwf.edu/apa7
Home / Guides / Citation Guides / Harvard Referencing / Harvard Referencing Style Examples / How to reference an article in Harvard referencing style
How to reference an article in Harvard referencing style
What is an article.
Almost all writers and academics reference other people’s writing in their works. Referencing demonstrates that you have researched your topic, are well versed in its arguments and theories, and it also helps avoid charges of plagiarism.
The Harvard citation system is just one of many referencing styles – and which style you choose is normally guided by the institution or publication you are writing for.
In this article, you will learn how to use the Harvard citation system to reference the following types of articles:
- journal article
- newspaper article
- magazine article
Properly citing article details in the reference list will help the readers to locate your source material if they wish to read more about a particular area or topic.
Information you need:
- Author name
- (Year published)
- ‘Article title’
- Journal/newspaper/magazine name
- Day and month published, if available
- Volume number, if available
- (Issue) number, if available
- Page number(s), if available
If accessed online:
- Available at: URL or DOI
- (Accessed: date).
Academic or scholarly journals are periodical publications about a specific discipline. No matter what your field is, if you are writing an academic paper, you will inevitably have to cite a journal article in your research. Journal articles often have multiple authors, so make sure you know when to use et al. in Harvard style . The method for referencing a journal article in the reference list is as follows:
Reference list (print) structure:
Last name, F. (Year published) ‘Article title’, Journal name , Volume(Issue), Page(s).
Shepherd, V. (2020) ‘An exploration around peer support for secondary pupils in Scotland with experience of self-harm’, Educational Psychology in Practice, 36(3), pp. 297-312.
Note that the article title uses sentence case. However, the title of the journal uses title case. Additionally, the volume number comes immediately after the journal title followed by the issue number in round brackets.
If the original material you are referencing was accessed online, then the method for citing it in the reference list will be the same as that in print, but with an additional line at the end.
Reference list (online) structure:
Last name, F. (Year published) ‘Article title’, Journal Name , Volume(Issue), Page(s). Available at: URL or DOI (Accessed: date).
Shepherd, V. (2020) ‘An exploration around peer support for secondary pupils in Scotland with experience of self-harm’, Educational Psychology in Practice, 36(3), pp. 297-312. Available at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02667363.2020.1772726 (Accessed: 08 October 2020).
In-text citation (print or online) structure:
In-text citations are written within round brackets and start with the last name of the author followed by the year published, both separated by a comma.
You can also mention the author within the text and only include the publication year in round brackets.
In this article (Shepherd, 2020) deals with…
According to Shepherd (2020), when peer support is available…
Talking about the secondary education system, Shepherd (2020, p.299) suggests that…
Even if you are referring to an incident which is public knowledge, you still need to cite the source.
The name of the author in a newspaper article is referred to as a byline. Below are examples for citing an article both with and without a byline.
Reference list (print) structure:
Last name, F. (Year published). ‘Article title’, Newspaper name , Day Month, Page(s).
Hamilton, J. (2018). ‘Massive fire at local department store’, The Daily Local, 10 August, p. 1.
Last name, F. (Year published). ‘Article title’, Newspaper name , Day Month, Page(s). Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).
Gambino, L. (2020) ‘Kamala Harris and Mike Pence clash over coronavirus response in vice-presidential debate,’ The Guardian, 8 October. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/oct/07/debate-kamala-harris-mike-pence-latest-news (Accessed: 8 October 2020).
Reference list structure, no byline:
The basic reference list structure for the reference is the same for both print and online articles. If information isn’t available, simply omit it from the reference.
Newspaper name (Year published) ‘Article Title’, Day Month, Page(s). Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).
The Chronicler (2016) ‘Local man wins lottery jackpot twice in one year’, 30 May, p. 14. Available at: https://thechroniclerpaper.com/local-man-wins-lottery-twice (Accessed: 1 October 2020).
In-text citation structure (print or online):
The last name of the author and date are written in round brackets, separated by a comma. The method is similar to referencing journal articles in in-text citations.
In his paper, Gambino (2020) mentioned that…
For articles accessed online which do not have an author, the name of the publication is mentioned in place of the author’s name and is italicized.
( The Chronicler , 2016)
The structure of magazine articles is similar to that of a journal article.
Last name, F. (Year published) ‘Article title’, Magazine Name , Volume(Issue), Page(s).
Ornes, S. (2020). “To save Appalachia’s endangered mussels, scientists hatched a bold plan”, ScienceNews, (198), p.2.
Last name, F. (Year published) ‘Article title’, Magazine name , Volume(Issue), Page(s). Available at: URL (Accessed: Date).
Ornes, S. (2020) ‘To save Appalachia’s endangered mussels, scientists hatched a bold plan’, ScienceNews, (198), p.2. Available at: https://www.sciencenews.org/article/endangered-mussels-appalachia-rivers-biologists-conservation-plan (Accessed: 3 October 2020).
In-text citation (print or online) structure:
(Author last name, Year published)
Published October 29, 2020.
Harvard Formatting Guide
- et al Usage
- Direct Quotes
- In-text Citations
- Multiple Authors
- Page Numbers
- Writing an Outline
- View Harvard Guide
- View all Harvard Examples
How useful was this post?
Click on a star to rate it!
We are sorry that this post was not useful for you!
Let us improve this post!
Tell us how we can improve this post?
Harvard Referencing Examples
Other Citation Styles
Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style.
- Search current calls for papers
- Try the Taylor & Francis Journal Suggester
How to write and structure a journal article
Sharing your research data can be hugely beneficial to your career , as well as to the scholarly community and wider society. But before you do so, there are some important ethical considerations to remember.
What are the rules and guidance you should follow, when you begin to think about how to write and structure a journal article? Ruth First Prize winner Steven Rogers, PhD said the first thing is to be passionate about what you write.
Steven Nabieu Rogers, Ruth First Prize winner.
Let’s go through some of the best advice that will help you pinpoint the features of a journal article, and how to structure it into a compelling research paper.
Planning for your article
When planning to write your article, make sure it has a central message that you want to get across. This could be a novel aspect of methodology that you have in your PhD study, a new theory, or an interesting modification you have made to theory or a novel set of findings.
2018 NARST Award winner Marissa Rollnick advised that you should decide what this central focus is, then create a paper outline bearing in mind the need to:
Isolate a manageable size
Create a coherent story/argument
Make the argument self-standing
Target the journal readership
Change the writing conventions from that used in your thesis
Get familiar with the journal you want to submit to
It is a good idea to choose your target journal before you start to write your paper. Then you can tailor your writing to the journal’s requirements and readership, to increase your chances of acceptance.
When selecting your journal think about audience, purposes, what to write about and why. Decide the kind of article to write. Is it a report, position paper, critique or review? What makes your argument or research interesting? How might the paper add value to the field?
If you need more guidance on how to choose a journal, here is our guide to narrow your focus.
Once you’ve chosen your target journal, take the time to read a selection of articles already published – particularly focus on those that are relevant to your own research.
This can help you get an understanding of what the editors may be looking for, then you can guide your writing efforts.
The Think. Check. Submit. initiative provides tools to help you evaluate whether the journal you’re planning to send your work to is trustworthy.
The journal’s aims and scope is also an important resource to refer back to as you write your paper – use it to make sure your article aligns with what the journal is trying to accomplish.
Keep your message focused
The next thing you need to consider when writing your article is your target audience. Are you writing for a more general audience or is your audience experts in the same field as you? The journal you have chosen will give you more information on the type of audience that will read your work.
When you know your audience, focus on your main message to keep the attention of your readers. A lack of focus is a common problem and can get in the way of effective communication.
Stick to the point. The strongest journal articles usually have one point to make. They make that point powerfully, back it up with evidence, and position it within the field.
How to format and structure a journal article
The format and structure of a journal article is just as important as the content itself, it helps to clearly guide the reader through.
How do I format a journal article?
Individual journals will have their own specific formatting requirements, which you can find in the instructions for authors.
You can save time on formatting by downloading a template from our library of templates to apply to your article text. These templates are accepted by many of our journals. Also, a large number of our journals now offer format-free submission, which allows you to submit your paper without formatting your manuscript to meet that journal’s specific requirements.
General structure for writing an academic journal article
The title of your article is one of the first indicators readers will get of your research and concepts. It should be concise, accurate, and informative. You should include your most relevant keywords in your title, but avoid including abbreviations and formulae.
Keywords are an essential part of producing a journal article. When writing a journal article you must select keywords that you would like your article to rank for.
Keywords help potential readers to discover your article when conducting research using search engines.
The purpose of your abstract is to express the key points of your research, clearly and concisely. An abstract must always be well considered, as it is the primary element of your work that readers will come across.
An abstract should be a short paragraph (around 300 words) that summarizes the findings of your journal article. Ordinarily an abstract will be comprised of:
What your research is about
What methods have been used
What your main findings are
Acknowledgements can appear to be a small aspect of your journal article, however it is still important. This is where you acknowledge the individuals who do not qualify for co-authorship, but contributed to your article intellectually, financially, or in some other manner.
When you acknowledge someone in your academic texts, it gives you more integrity as a writer as it shows that you are not claiming other academic’s ideas as your own intellectual property. It can also aid your readers in their own research journeys.
An introduction is a pivotal part of the article writing process. An introduction not only introduces your topic and your stance on the topic, but it also (situates/contextualizes) your argument in the broader academic field.
The main body is where your main arguments and your evidence are located. Each paragraph will encapsulate a different notion and there will be clear linking between each paragraph.
Your conclusion should be an interpretation of your results, where you summarize all of the concepts that you introduced in the main body of the text in order of most to least important. No new concepts are to be introduced in this section.
References and citations
References and citations should be well balanced, current and relevant. Although every field is different, you should aim to cite references that are not more than 10 years old if possible. The studies you cite should be strongly related to your research question.
Clarity is key
Make your writing accessible by using clear language. Writing that is easy to read, is easier to understand too.
You may want to write for a global audience – to have your research reach the widest readership. Make sure you write in a way that will be understood by any reader regardless of their field or whether English is their first language.
Write your journal article with confidence, to give your reader certainty in your research. Make sure that you’ve described your methodology and approach; whilst it may seem obvious to you, it may not to your reader. And don’t forget to explain acronyms when they first appear.
Engage your audience. Go back to thinking about your audience; are they experts in your field who will easily follow technical language, or are they a lay audience who need the ideas presented in a simpler way?
Be aware of other literature in your field, and reference it
Make sure to tell your reader how your article relates to key work that’s already published. This doesn’t mean you have to review every piece of previous relevant literature, but show how you are building on previous work to avoid accidental plagiarism.
When you reference something, fully understand its relevance to your research so you can make it clear for your reader. Keep in mind that recent references highlight awareness of all the current developments in the literature that you are building on. This doesn’t mean you can’t include older references, just make sure it is clear why you’ve chosen to.
How old can my references be?
Your literature review should take into consideration the current state of the literature.
There is no specific timeline to consider. But note that your subject area may be a factor. Your colleagues may also be able to guide your decision.
Grasian Mkodzongi, Ruth First Prize Winner
Top tips to get you started
Communicate your unique point of view to stand out. You may be building on a concept already in existence, but you still need to have something new to say. Make sure you say it convincingly, and fully understand and reference what has gone before.
Professor Len Barton, Founding Editor of Disability and Society
Now you know the features of a journal article and how to construct it. This video is an extra resource to use with this guide to help you know what to think about before you write your journal article.
Expert help for your manuscript
Taylor & Francis Editing Services offers a full range of pre-submission manuscript preparation services to help you improve the quality of your manuscript and submit with confidence.
How to write your title and abstract
Journal manuscript layout guide
Improve the quality of English of your article
How to edit your paper
Generate accurate MLA citations for free
- Knowledge Base
- How to cite a journal article in MLA style
How to Cite a Journal Article in MLA | Format & Examples
Published on April 16, 2019 by Courtney Gahan . Revised on June 16, 2022.
An MLA Works Cited entry for a journal article contains the author(s); article title; journal name; volume and issue; month and year; page range; and a DOI if accessed online. In the in-text citation, include the author’s last name and the page number.
Generate accurate MLA citations with Scribbr
Table of contents, citing an online journal article, articles with multiple authors, articles in special issue journals, frequently asked questions about mla style.
When citing an online journal article, first look for a DOI , as this is more stable and less likely to change than a URL. A DOI should be formatted as a full link beginning with “https://”, even if not listed as such on the page with the article.
If there is no DOI, you can add a URL instead. If the article is in PDF form, you can optionally note this in your reference .
Citing an article in a database
For sources that you accessed via a database, include the database name along with the DOI or permanent URL.
Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.
In MLA style, up to two authors are included in citations. List them in the order they appear in the source, separated by commas, and don’t invert the second author’s name.
If an article has three or more authors, include only the first author’s name, followed by “ et al. ”
Special issue journals focus on a specific theme, are written by a specific group of authors, or are compiled from a special event.
In these cases, include the special issue name, the phrase “special issue of,” and the journal’s regular name. If the special issue lists editors or other contributors, their names should also be included.
The title of an article is not italicized in MLA style , but placed in quotation marks. This applies to articles from journals , newspapers , websites , or any other publication. Use italics for the title of the source where the article was published. For example:
Use the same formatting in the Works Cited entry and when referring to the article in the text itself.
If a source has two authors, name both authors in your MLA in-text citation and Works Cited entry. If there are three or more authors, name only the first author, followed by et al.
In MLA style citations , format a DOI as a link, including “https://doi.org/” at the start and then the unique numerical code of the article.
DOIs are used mainly when citing journal articles in MLA .
Some source types, such as books and journal articles , may contain footnotes (or endnotes) with additional information. The following rules apply when citing information from a note in an MLA in-text citation :
- To cite information from a single numbered note, write “n” after the page number, and then write the note number, e.g. (Smith 105n2)
- To cite information from multiple numbered notes, write “nn” and include a range, e.g. (Smith 77nn1–2)
- To cite information from an unnumbered note, write “un” after the page number, with a space in between, e.g. (Jones 250 un)
You must include an MLA in-text citation every time you quote or paraphrase from a source (e.g. a book , movie , website , or article ).
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
Gahan, C. (2022, June 16). How to Cite a Journal Article in MLA | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved November 8, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/mla/journal-citation/
Is this article helpful?
Other students also liked, how to cite a website in mla, a complete guide to mla in-text citations, how to format your mla works cited page, what is your plagiarism score.
Featured Clinical Reviews
- Management of Acne Vulgaris: A Review JAMA Review November 23/30, 2021
- Contraception Selection, Effectiveness, and Adverse Effects: A Review JAMA Review December 28, 2021
Select Your Interests
Customize your JAMA Network experience by selecting one or more topics from the list below.
- Academic Medicine
- Acid Base, Electrolytes, Fluids
- Allergy and Clinical Immunology
- Art and Images in Psychiatry
- Assisted Reproduction
- Bleeding and Transfusion
- Caring for the Critically Ill Patient
- Challenges in Clinical Electrocardiography
- Climate and Health
- Clinical Challenge
- Clinical Decision Support
- Clinical Implications of Basic Neuroscience
- Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology
- Complementary and Alternative Medicine
- Consensus Statements
- Coronavirus (COVID-19)
- Critical Care Medicine
- Cultural Competency
- Dental Medicine
- Diabetes and Endocrinology
- Diagnostic Test Interpretation
- Drug Development
- Electronic Health Records
- Emergency Medicine
- End of Life
- Environmental Health
- Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion
- Facial Plastic Surgery
- Gastroenterology and Hepatology
- Genetics and Genomics
- Genomics and Precision Health
- Global Health
- Guide to Statistics and Methods
- Hair Disorders
- Health Care Delivery Models
- Health Care Economics, Insurance, Payment
- Health Care Quality
- Health Care Reform
- Health Care Safety
- Health Care Workforce
- Health Disparities
- Health Inequities
- Health Informatics
- Health Policy
- History of Medicine
- Images in Neurology
- Implementation Science
- Infectious Diseases
- Innovations in Health Care Delivery
- JAMA Infographic
- Law and Medicine
- Leading Change
- Less is More
- LGBTQIA Medicine
- Lifestyle Behaviors
- Medical Coding
- Medical Devices and Equipment
- Medical Education
- Medical Education and Training
- Medical Journals and Publishing
- Mobile Health and Telemedicine
- Narrative Medicine
- Neuroscience and Psychiatry
- Notable Notes
- Nutrition, Obesity, Exercise
- Obstetrics and Gynecology
- Occupational Health
- Pain Medicine
- Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
- Patient Care
- Patient Information
- Performance Improvement
- Performance Measures
- Perioperative Care and Consultation
- Pharmacy and Clinical Pharmacology
- Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
- Physical Therapy
- Physician Leadership
- Population Health
- Professional Well-being
- Psychiatry and Behavioral Health
- Public Health
- Pulmonary Medicine
- Regulatory Agencies
- Research, Methods, Statistics
- Risk Management
- Scientific Discovery and the Future of Medicine
- Shared Decision Making and Communication
- Sleep Medicine
- Sports Medicine
- Stem Cell Transplantation
- Substance Use and Addiction Medicine
- Surgical Innovation
- Surgical Pearls
- Teachable Moment
- Technology and Finance
- The Art of JAMA
- The Arts and Medicine
- The Rational Clinical Examination
- Tobacco and e-Cigarettes
- Translational Medicine
- Trauma and Injury
- Treatment Adherence
- Users' Guide to the Medical Literature
- Venous Thromboembolism
- Veterans Health
- Women's Health
- Workflow and Process
- Wound Care, Infection, Healing
- Download PDF
- Share Twitter Facebook Email LinkedIn
Health Care Access and Reproductive Rights
- 1 University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California
- 2 Associate Editor, JAMA
- 3 Editor in Chief, JAMA and the JAMA Network
- Editorial Looking Back and Moving Forward— JAMA 2022 Year in Review Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, PhD, MD, MAS; Annette Flanagin, MA, RN; Stacy L. Christiansen, MA; Greg Curfman, MD JAMA
- Original Investigation Associations of Unintended Pregnancy With Maternal and Infant Health Outcomes Heidi D. Nelson, MD, MPH; Blair G. Darney, PhD; Katherine Ahrens, PhD; Amanda Burgess, MPPM; Rebecca M. Jungbauer, DrPH; Amy Cantor, MD, MPH; Chandler Atchison, MPH; Karen B. Eden, PhD; Rose Goueth, PhD, MS; Rongwei Fu, PhD JAMA
- Research Letter Requests for Self-managed Medication Abortion Through Online Telemedicine Before and After Dobbs v Jackson Women’s Health Organization Abigail R. A. Aiken, PhD; Jennifer E. Starling, PhD; James G. Scott, PhD; Rebecca Gomperts, PhD JAMA
- Research Letter Adverse Maternal and Delivery Outcomes in Children and Very Young (Age ≤13 Years) US Adolescents Compared With Older Adolescents and Adults Beth L. Pineles, MD, PhD; Anthony D. Harris, MD, MPH; Katherine E. Goodman, JD, PhD JAMA
- Viewpoint Implications of the Dobbs Decision for Medical Education Biftu Mengesha, MD, MAS; Nikki Zite, MD, MPH; Jody Steinauer, MD, PhD JAMA
- Viewpoint Advancing Birth Equity in the US Joia Crear-Perry, MD; Asha Hassan, MPH; Sara Daniel, MPH JAMA
- Viewpoint Self-managed Abortion in the US Daniel Grossman, MD; Nisha Verma, MD, MPH JAMA
- Viewpoint The Shift From Criminalization to Legalization of Abortion in Argentina Mariana Romero, MD, MSc; Agustina Ramón Michel, JD JAMA
- Viewpoint Legal Risks and Ethical Dilemmas for Clinicians in the Aftermath of Dobbs Rebecca B. Reingold, JD; Lawrence O. Gostin, JD; Michele Bratcher Goodwin, JD, LLM, SJD JAMA
- Viewpoint Confronting the Medical Community’s Complicity in Marginalizing Abortion Care Sonya Borrero, MD, MS; Mehret Birru Talabi, MD, PhD; Christine Dehlendorf, MD, MAS JAMA
- Viewpoint Interoperability in a Post- Roe Era Daniel M. Walker, PhD, MPH; Sharona Hoffman, JD, LLM, SJD; Julia Adler-Milstein, PhD JAMA
- Viewpoint The Challenge of Emergency Abortion Care Following the Dobbs v Jackson Ruling Andrea MacDonald, MD; Hayley B. Gershengorn, MD; Deepshikha Charan Ashana, MD, MBA, MS JAMA
- JAMA Patient Page Patient Information: Medication Abortion Rebecca H. Cohen, MD, MPH; Stephanie B. Teal, MD, MPH JAMA
- Viewpoint Medicaid’s Moment for Protecting and Promoting Women’s Health Mohammad Hussain Dar, MD; Charissa Fotinos, MD, MS; Christopher R. Cogle, MD JAMA
- Viewpoint New Legal Frontiers to Safeguard Reproductive Freedoms Rebecca B. Reingold, JD; Lawrence O. Gostin, JD JAMA
Evidence-based care for early pregnancy is well established and includes strong evidence for safe abortion as part of the reproductive health care spectrum. 1 Legal interference to provision of safe, accessible abortion diverts the time, attention, and skills of clinicians from other pressing health concerns, especially improving maternal health and birth equity. The rate of maternal mortality in the US, already unacceptably high, surged from 20.1 deaths per 100 000 live births in 2019 to 23.8 deaths per 100 000 live births in 2020; the increases were significantly higher for Black and Hispanic people. 2 Maternal deaths (during pregnancy or within 42 days of the end of pregnancy from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management) are anticipated to increase as evolving abortion restriction laws undermine physicians’ ethical and professional mandate to prioritize patients’ well-being.
Nationally, Black individuals are 3 times more likely than White individuals to die of pregnancy-related causes. 3 Legal interference with evidence-based abortion counseling and care will disproportionately affect Black and Hispanic individuals as well as all persons for whom low income, lack of health insurance, or other life circumstances (eg, related to employment, transportation, or family care responsibilities) pose a barrier for access to legal abortion services. Current estimates are that two-thirds of maternal deaths are preventable; the proportion of preventable maternal deaths will increase following the Supreme Court decision in Dobbs v Jackson Women's Health Organization .
Beyond reproductive care, legal interference with clinical care makes it difficult for other groups of patients to receive evidence-based care, including access to medications such as methotrexate (widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis), isotretinoin (used to treat nodular acne), and valproate (used to treat seizures). In addition, the Dobbs decision may create a barrier to an essential component of cancer care for adolescents and young adults with new cancer diagnoses, such as lymphomas, leukemias, sarcomas, and breast or reproductive tract cancers. These patients may no longer have access to standard fertility preservation techniques (eg, genetic testing, sperm and embryo cryopreservation, and embryo disposal). 4 The legal interference may have implications beyond current practice as clinicians—faced with a markedly heightened risk of criminalization by providing routine outpatient, inpatient, emergency, or critical care—alter their current pattern of care.
This issue of JAMA includes original research and 8 scholarly Viewpoints that provide data and perspective about abortion care and the larger context of evidence-based health care.
Several research articles and Viewpoints highlight the current health risks associated with pregnancy and those that are expected to increase with criminalization of abortion health care. In their research article, Nelson and coauthors focus on unintended pregnancy, the reduction of which is a Healthy People 2030 public health priority. 5 The rates of unintended pregnancy in the US, estimated at 38% of pregnancies between 2017 to 2019, remained highest for younger individuals, those in racial or ethnic minority groups, and those with low incomes. Based on their systematic review and meta-analysis that included 524 522 participants, the authors contribute evidence that unintended pregnancy was significantly associated with higher odds of maternal depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period, preterm birth, and low-birth-weight infants. Unintended pregnancy also exacerbated the risk for maternal experience of interpersonal violence, already known to be increased during pregnancy. The proportion of unintended pregnancies, with these associated risks, is expected to increase following the Dobbs decision.
In their Research Letter, Pineles and colleagues describe the increased risk of adverse maternal and delivery outcomes in children and very young (age ≤13 years) US adolescents. 6 Compared with older adolescents and young adults, children and very young adolescents had a significantly increased risk of preterm delivery, which is associated with numerous adverse outcomes, some of which have lifelong consequences. As abortion access is restricted, it is anticipated that there will be an increase in pregnancies in children and very young adolescents.
Two Viewpoints underscore the health risk anticipated to increase with criminalization of abortion care. The Dobbs decision magnifies preexisting threats to birth equity, a foundational concept in the reproductive justice framework. In their Viewpoint, Crear-Perry and coauthors describe the disproportionate harm for Black pregnant people and their families, including continued poverty, intimate partner violence, and serious health problems. 7 Current estimates project a 33% rise in maternal mortality for Black people, an unacceptable increase from an already unacceptable baseline.
In their Viewpoint, critical care specialists MacDonald and colleagues emphasize the importance of early recognition and timely treatment of events that increase a pregnant patient’s risk of adverse outcomes or death. 8 This central tenet of critical care medicine is highly relevant for the evidence-based care of pregnant individuals who need emergency termination of pregnancy. Withholding standard care may demonstrate to individuals without medical training the unambiguous nature of the emergency and the life-threatening risk to the patient. However, withholding early evidence-based care that would prevent impending morbidity and potential mortality goes against the prevention and early intervention strategy that is central to medical care. It is the physician’s duty and core responsibility to determine what constitutes a medical emergency, share an assessment of risk and treatment options with the patient, and implement medical care aligned with the patient’s values and preferences.
The Research Letter by Aiken and coauthors 9 provides new data on the increase in telemedicine requests for self-managed abortion medication in the US following the leak of the draft Supreme Court decision in Dobbs , with further increase following release of the formal Dobbs decision. The authors suggest that with further limitations on facility-based abortion services, requests for self-managed medication abortions will continue to increase.
In their Viewpoint, Grossman and Verma discuss modern, evidence-based methods of self-managed abortion, which has strong evidence supporting its efficacy and safety. 10 The authors describe what clinicians should be cognizant of as patients present to obtain care prior to or following a self-managed abortion. They highlight the importance of prioritizing evidence-based care, which will rarely differ based on whether the pregnancy ended spontaneously or through self-managed abortion. A JAMA Patient Page summarizes medication abortion. 11
Two Viewpoints in this issue discuss legal effects on clinicians and the larger society. Reingold and coauthors describe the ethical dilemmas and serious legal risks to clinicians posed by the breadth of post- Dobbs state laws. 12 They highlight the chilling professional consequences with risks to career and livelihood for clinicians who are simply practicing evidence-based care, using their best clinical judgment, and counseling patients honestly. The authors urge physicians who believe that abortion laws violate ethical values or are unjust to work for changes in abortion restriction laws.
Changes in national laws are possible, as described by Romero and Ramón Michel in their Viewpoint detailing the legalization of abortion in Argentina in 2020. 13 The authors note the high rates of maternal mortality in Argentina as a result of unsafe abortion care prior to legalization, as well as the events leading to the changes in the law and subsequent consequences.
The Dobbs ruling has implications for the training of physicians. The current program requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) require inclusion of abortion training as a routine experience, while individual residents are able to partially participate, sometimes called “opting out.” In their Viewpoint, Mengesha and coauthors 14 clarify the implications on residency training, as individual states restrict abortion. Given the evidence documenting the benefits of routine, integrated abortion training, the authors suggest that there may be a decrease in the number of obstetrician-gynecologists who have competency in the ability to perform safe abortion. They also highlight the risk of moral distress due to clinicians’ inability to provide timely standard care for their patients.
Two Viewpoints consider abortion care within the larger US health system. Borrero and colleagues describe how the creation of freestanding abortion clinics isolated abortion care and threatened the health and dignity of patients and their clinicians. 15 The authors note that mainstream medicine has relied on a system that has marginalized abortion care and detracts from the rightful role of abortion as part of evidence-based health care. As clinicians, hospitals, and health care systems have been the often-unacknowledged beneficiaries of abortion access, the authors argue that health care professionals have an obligation to collectively chart a new course forward to destigmatize and legitimize safe abortion care through clinical, education, research, and advocacy efforts.
In their Viewpoint, Walker and coauthors discuss the role of technology solutions that could better safeguard reproductive health information to ensure that a patient’s reproductive health information is not used by law enforcement who are responding to court orders, court-ordered warrants, or subpoenas. 16 Existing laws are based on an assumption that data sharing would optimize health outcomes for individuals and populations, and the authors call for implementation of effective and intentional safeguards.
These articles in this issue of JAMA provide information about how abortion restrictions interfere with the autonomy of clinicians to provide evidence-based medical care and to engage in shared decision-making with their patients in accordance with their professional responsibilities. The evolving patchwork of restrictive abortion laws in the US does not align with modern medical care, poses risks to multiple groups of patients, and exacerbates injustices in health care. Legal interference between patients and their clinicians who are providing evidence-based care is unacceptable and ultimately harms patients, clinicians, and society at large.
Corresponding Author: Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, MD, PhD, MAS, Editor in Chief, JAMA and the JAMA Network ( [email protected] ).
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Brubaker reports receiving fees for serving as editor in chief of Urogynecology and as a section editor for UpToDate, outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.
See More About
Brubaker L , Bibbins-Domingo K. Health Care Access and Reproductive Rights. JAMA. 2022;328(17):1707–1709. doi:10.1001/jama.2022.19172
Artificial Intelligence Resource Center
Cardiology in JAMA : Read the Latest
Browse and subscribe to JAMA Network podcasts!
Others Also Liked
- Register for email alerts with links to free full-text articles
- Access PDFs of free articles
- Manage your interests
- Save searches and receive search alerts