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MLA General Format
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MLA Style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and citing research in writing. MLA Style also provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through parenthetical citation in their essays and Works Cited pages.
Writers who properly use MLA also build their credibility by demonstrating accountability to their source material. Most importantly, the use of MLA style can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the purposeful or accidental uncredited use of source material produced by other writers.
If you are asked to use MLA format, be sure to consult the MLA Handbook (9th edition). Publishing scholars and graduate students should also consult the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd edition). The MLA Handbook is available in most writing centers and reference libraries. It is also widely available in bookstores, libraries, and at the MLA web site. See the Additional Resources section of this page for a list of helpful books and sites about using MLA Style.
The preparation of papers and manuscripts in MLA Style is covered in part four of the MLA Style Manual . Below are some basic guidelines for formatting a paper in MLA Style :
- Type your paper on a computer and print it out on standard, white 8.5 x 11-inch paper.
- Double-space the text of your paper and use a legible font (e.g. Times New Roman). Whatever font you choose, MLA recommends that the regular and italics type styles contrast enough that they are each distinct from one another. The font size should be 12 pt.
- Leave only one space after periods or other punctuation marks (unless otherwise prompted by your instructor).
- Set the margins of your document to 1 inch on all sides.
- Indent the first line of each paragraph one half-inch from the left margin. MLA recommends that you use the “Tab” key as opposed to pushing the space bar five times.
- Create a header that numbers all pages consecutively in the upper right-hand corner, one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin. (Note: Your instructor may ask that you omit the number on your first page. Always follow your instructor's guidelines.)
- Use italics throughout your essay to indicate the titles of longer works and, only when absolutely necessary, provide emphasis.
- If you have any endnotes, include them on a separate page before your Works Cited page. Entitle the section Notes (centered, unformatted).
Formatting the First Page of Your Paper
- Do not make a title page for your paper unless specifically requested or the paper is assigned as a group project. In the case of a group project, list all names of the contributors, giving each name its own line in the header, followed by the remaining MLA header requirements as described below. Format the remainder of the page as requested by the instructor.
- In the upper left-hand corner of the first page, list your name, your instructor's name, the course, and the date. Again, be sure to use double-spaced text.
- Double space again and center the title. Do not underline, italicize, or place your title in quotation marks. Write the title in Title Case (standard capitalization), not in all capital letters.
- Use quotation marks and/or italics when referring to other works in your title, just as you would in your text. For example: Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas as Morality Play; Human Weariness in "After Apple Picking"
- Double space between the title and the first line of the text.
- Create a header in the upper right-hand corner that includes your last name, followed by a space with a page number. Number all pages consecutively with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.), one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin. (Note: Your instructor or other readers may ask that you omit the last name/page number header on your first page. Always follow instructor guidelines.)
Here is a sample of the first page of a paper in MLA style:
The First Page of an MLA Paper
Writers sometimes use section headings to improve a document’s readability. These sections may include individual chapters or other named parts of a book or essay.
MLA recommends that when dividing an essay into sections you number those sections with an Arabic number and a period followed by a space and the section name.
MLA does not have a prescribed system of headings for books (for more information on headings, please see page 146 in the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing , 3rd edition). If you are only using one level of headings, meaning that all of the sections are distinct and parallel and have no additional sections that fit within them, MLA recommends that these sections resemble one another grammatically. For instance, if your headings are typically short phrases, make all of the headings short phrases (and not, for example, full sentences). Otherwise, the formatting is up to you. It should, however, be consistent throughout the document.
If you employ multiple levels of headings (some of your sections have sections within sections), you may want to provide a key of your chosen level headings and their formatting to your instructor or editor.
Sample Section Headings
The following sample headings are meant to be used only as a reference. You may employ whatever system of formatting that works best for you so long as it remains consistent throughout the document.
Level 1 Heading: bold, flush left
Level 2 Heading: italics, flush left
Level 3 Heading: centered, bold
Level 4 Heading: centered, italics
Level 5 Heading: underlined, flush left
Penn State University Libraries
Mla quick citation guide.
- In-text Citation
- Citing Generative AI
- Citing Web Pages and Social Media
- Citing Articles
- Citing Books
- Other formats
- MLA Style Quiz
Using In-text Citation
Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list.
MLA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken, for example: (Smith 163). If the source does not use page numbers, do not include a number in the parenthetical citation: (Smith).
For more information on in-text citation, see the MLA Style Center .
Example paragraph with in-text citation
A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing et al. 246; Thomas 15). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing and others conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program (258).
Derwing, Tracey M., et al. "Teaching Native Speakers to Listen to Foreign-accented Speech." Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, vol. 23, no. 4, 2002, pp. 245-259.
Thomas, Holly K. Training Strategies for Improving Listeners' Comprehension of Foreign-accented Speech. University of Colorado, Boulder, 2004.
Citing Web Pages In Text
Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author if known. If the author is not known, use the title as the in-text citation.
Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list. Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages.
Entire website with author: In-text citation Parents play an important role in helping children learn techniques for coping with bullying (Kraizer).
Reference entry Kraizer, Sherryll. Safe Child. Coalition for Children, 2011, www.safechild.org.
Web page with no author: In-text citation The term Nittany Lion was coined by Penn State football player Joe Mason in 1904 ("All Things Nittany").
Reference entry "All Things Nittany." About Penn State. Penn State University, 2006, www.psu.edu/ur/about/nittanymascot.html.
In MLA style the author's name can be included either in the narrative text of your paper, or in parentheses following the reference to the source.
Author's name part of narrative:
Gass and Varonis found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (163).
Author's name in parentheses:
One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass and Varonis 163).
Group as author: (American Psychological Association 123)
Multiple works: (separate each work with semi-colons)
Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass and Varonis 143; Thomas 24).
One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass and Varonis 85).
Gass and Varonis found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (85).
Note: For quotations that are more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, display quotations as an indented block of text (one inch from left margin) and omit quotation marks. Place your parenthetical citation at the end of the block of text, after the final punctuation mark.
In addition to awareness-raising, practicing listening to accented speech has been shown to improve listening comprehension. This article recommends developing listening training programs for library faculty and staff, based on research from the linguistics and language teaching fields. Even brief exposure to accented speech can help listeners improve their comprehension, thereby improving the level of service to international patrons. (O'Malley 19)
Works by Multiple Authors
When citing works by multiple authors, always spell out the word "and." When a source has three or more authors, only the first one shown in the source is normally given followed by et al.
One author: (Field 399)
Works Cited entry: Field, John. "Intelligibility and the Listener: The Role of Lexical Stress." TESOL Quarterly , vol. 39, no. 3, 2005, pp. 399-423.
Two authors: (Gass and Varonis 67)
Works Cited entry: Gass, Susan, and Evangeline M. Varonis. "The Effect of Familiarity on the Comprehensibility of Nonnative Speech." Language Learning , vol. 34, no. 1, 1984, pp. 65-89.
Three or more authors: (Munro et al. 70)
Works Cited entry: Munro, Murray J., et al. "Salient Accents, Covert Attitudes: Consciousness-raising for Pre-service Second Language Teachers." Prospect , vol. 21, no. 1, 2006, pp. 67-79.
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MLA Citation Generator
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MLA Format Guide for MLA (9th Edition)
MLA citations have two main parts that work together to identify the sources you’ve used for a paper and each of the specific places in your paper where you directly quote or paraphrase from a source:
- A Works Cited list
- Located at the end of your paper
- Contains a list of full references for every source you cited in your paper
- Alphabetized by author’s last name
- In-text citations
- Appear in the text of your paper, after any place where you directly quote or paraphrase from a source
- Consist of just the author name and relevant page number of the quote source
- Are written inside
How to Write an MLA Works Cited
The Works Cited list (sometimes also called a reference list or bibliography) contains the full references for every source you used in writing your paper. The references are alphabetized in the list by author’s last name.
Every entry in an MLA Works Cited—whether for a book, website, journal, etc.—is built from up to nine components:
- Author. “Title of the Source.” Title of the Container , Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location.
If a particular reference you are using doesn’t have any information for one of these components, then you just leave out that component.
Here's a bit more information about each of the components that will let you handle any type of MLA works cited entry.
Author in MLA Format
How you handle the author depends on how many authors the work has, or if the author is an organization rather than a single person.
- 1 author : Invert the author’s name (Last Name, First Name)
- Andrews, Julianne
- 2 authors : Include both authors in the order in which they appear on the work, inverting the first author’s name, followed by an “and” and then the second author’s name written normally.
- Andrews, Julianne and Arthur Smith
- 3+ authors : Include the first author listed on the work, inverted, followed by the phrase “et al”
- Andrews, Julianne, et al
- Organization : If the work was written by an Organization rather than by a person or group of people, then just write out the name of the organization.
- No author : If a work has no listed author at all, then you can leave out the Author component entirely and start with the Title of the Source. (Note: when alphabetizing the entry by the first letter of the Title of the Source, ignore articles that start the title such as “The,” “A,” etc.)
Title of the Source in MLA Format
Use the entire title of your source, including subtitles. Subtitles should be separated from the main title by a colon.
The formatting for the source depends on whether it’s self contained or part of a larger whole (such as an entire book, website, or movie), or is part of a larger work (such as a story in an anthology, an article in a magazine, etc.):
- If the source is a self contained unit : The title should be italicized.
- Andrews, Julianne. The Friendly Giraffe . Knopf, 2011.
- If the source is part of a larger work : The title should be placed within quotation marks.
- Andrews, Julianne. “The Best Game Ever Played.” Essays on Sports , Harcourt, 2017, pp. 17-31.
Regardless of whether it’s inside quotes or italicized, the title of the source should be written in title case, which means you capitalize every word other than articles, conjunctions, and prepositions.
Title of the Container in MLA Format
The “container” refers to a larger work that contains the source, such as a magazine that contains an article. If a source isn’t a part of a longer work (such as an entire book), then leave out the Title of Container component.
The Title of the Container should always be italicized:
Common examples of containers are:
- A book containing short stories or essays
- A magazine or newspaper containing articles
- An encyclopedia containing entries
- A website containing articles or other entries
- A TV series containing episodes
If there are people who contributed to a work besides the author(s), include those names in the “Other Contributors” component.
Other contributors should be formatted by identifying what the person did and then the person’s name written out normally. For example:
- Andrews, Julianne. “The Best Game Ever Played.” Great Sports Writing of 2018 , edited by Carlos Mendes, Harcourt, 2017, pp. 17-31.
Common types of work that are result in people being included as contributors are:
- Translated by
- Illustrated by
- Directed by
If there are different versions or editions of your source, specify which version your specific source belongs to:
- Andrews, Julianne. “The Best Game Ever Played.” Great Sports Writing of 2018 , edited by Carlos Mendes, 3rd ed, Harcourt, 2017, pp. 17-31.
Common reasons for the inclusion of a version number for an entry are:
- A 2nd (or 3rd or 4th, etc.) edition of a source
- A director’s cut of a movie
- An anniversary or expanded edition
Many types of sources are numbered in some way, and in such cases the MLA entry should capture that numbering:
- Andrews, Julianne. “The Best Game Ever Played.” Great Sports Writing of 2018 , edited by Carlos Mendes, 3rd ed, vol. 3, Harcourt, 2017, pp. 17-31.
Numbering most often occurs for sources that have containers. Common examples include:
- Journals are often divided into volumes (“vol. 3”)
- Magazines and some periodicals may be numbered (“no. 16”)
- Television shows often have season and episode numbers (“Season 4, Episode 2”)
If a source has multiple numbers, separate the numbers with commas (“vol 3, no. 16”).
Not all sources will have a publisher—this component usually only applies to books and to movies. For movies, the production company is treated as the “publisher.”
You should include as specific a publication date as possible, which can range from just the year all the way down to the minute. Ranges are acceptable.
- Andrews, Julianne. “The Best Game Ever Played.” Great Sports Writing of 2018, edited by Carlos Mendes, 3rd ed, vol. 3, Harcourt, 2017, pp. 17-31.
The most common ways to represent the publication date are:
- Year : 2001
- Month/Year : Apr. 1976 (note that months should be abbreviated to their first three letters followed by a period, such as “Apr.”)
- Day/Month/Year : 2 Apr. 1976 (note that the day should precede the month)
- Precise time and date : 2 Apr. 1976, 5:15 p.m.
- Year Range : 1975-1977
- Month/Year Range : Apr. 1976–Apr. 1977
- If there’s no date : If you can’t find a publication date, instead use the day/month/year format for the day on which you accessed the information and use the word “Accessed” to make clear the distinction.
- Andrews, Julianne. “The Best Game Ever Played.” Great Sports Writing , edited by Carlos Mendes, Accessed 2 Apr. 2018, www.greatsportswriting.com/best.
The location component generally only applies to references that either have containers or that is an event or physical object that occurred or you encountered in a physical place.
- For a chapter, essay, story, or other part of a book : Include a page range.
- Andrews, Julianne. “The Best Game Ever Played.” Great Sports Writing of 2018 , edited by Carlos Mendes, 3rd ed, vol. 3, Harcourt, 2017, pp. 217-231.
- For a web page : Include the URL, leaving out the “http://” or “https://”.
- For a printed periodical article : Include a page range.
- Andrews, Julianne. “The Best Game Ever Played.” The Sports Magazine, 2 Jan. 2022, 25-39.
- For an online journal : There are two options
- Include a URL, leaving out the “http://” or “https://”
- Andrews, Julianne. “A Statistical Analysis to Identify the Best Games Ever Played.” Sports Analytics , Accessed 2 Apr. 2018, www.sportsanalytics.org/1249.
- A DOI—digital object identifier—which are sometimes assigned to journal articles to provide a link to that article that will never change. If an article has one, use it instead of a URL
- Example: doi: 11.1633/tox.31266
- Andrews, Julianne. “A Statistical Analysis to Identify the Best Games Ever Played.” Sports Analytics , Accessed 2 Apr. 2018, doi: 11.1633/tox.31266.
- For a physical object located in a specific place : Include the place where you encountered the object, including the name of any institution and the location of that institution.
- Goldsworthy, Andy. The Wall that Went for a Walk . 1999, Storm King Art Center, Windsor, NY.
How to Write MLA In-Text Citations
In-text citations do two things:
- They identify the places in your paper where you either directly quote or paraphrase a source.
- They contain just enough information to refer to the full entry in the Works Cited list, so a reader can tell which source you quoted or paraphrased from.
MLA In-Text Citations Format
MLA in-text citations follow two basic formats:
- The author’s last name and a page number or other location inside parentheses:
- The greatest game ever played wasn’t “great because of what happened on the field, but because of what happened off of it” (Andrews 71).
- If the author is named in the sentence, then the in-text citation can include just the page:
- As Andrews puts it, the greatest game every played wasn’t “great because of what happened on the field, but because of what happened off of it” (71).
Additions to Basic In-Text Citations Format
There are a few scenarios in which the formatting of in-text MLA citations changes just a bit:
- Two authors : Use the last names of both authors separated by an “and.”
- (Andrews and Smith 71).
- Three authors : Within the parentheses, include the last name of the first author along with “et al.” When mentioning the authors outside the parentheses, use the last name of the first author along with the phrase “and colleagues.”
- (Andrews et al. 71).
- No author : Within the parentheses, include an abbreviated reference to the first two or three words of the source title in the Works Cited entry, and format the in-text citation to match the use of italicization or quotation marks in Works Cited entry. Outside the parentheses, use the entire source title, formatted correctly with quotation marks or italics.
- (The Best Game 71).
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- How to cite a website in MLA
How to Cite a Website in MLA | Format & Examples
Published on July 17, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on June 16, 2022.
An MLA website citation includes the author’s name , the title of the page (in quotation marks), the name of the website (in italics), the publication date , and the URL (without “https://”).
If the author is unknown, start with the title of the page instead. If the publication date is unknown, or if the content is likely to change over time, add an access date at the end instead.
Websites don’t usually have page numbers, so the in-text citation is just the author name in parentheses. If you already named the author in your sentence, you don’t need to add a parenthetical citation.
Generate accurate MLA citations with Scribbr
The format differs for other types of online content, such as YouTube videos , TED Talks , and podcasts .
Table of contents
Citing online articles, citing web pages with no author or date, citing an entire website, publishers in mla website citations, frequently asked questions about mla style.
The format for citing an article from an online newspaper , magazine, or blog is the same as a general web page citation. If the article is a PDF of a print article, the format differs slightly .
Write the article title in title case (all major words capitalized). Use the most recent publication date on the page, including the day, month, and year if available.
Note, however, that a different format is used when citing online articles from academic journals.
Learn how to cite journal articles in MLA
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If no author is credited, leave out this element, and start with the title of the page or article instead.
Use a shortened version of the title in your in-text citation. The shortened title must match the first words of your Works Cited entry.
If no publication date is available, leave out this element, and include the date on which you accessed the page at the end.
Note that a specific format exists for citing online dictionary entries .
If you cite a whole website, there is usually no named author, so the Works Cited entry begins with the name of the website in italics.
If the website has a publication or copyright date (usually found in the footer), include this; if not, add the date when you accessed the website at the end of the citation.
When should you cite a whole website?
Most of the time, you should cite the specific page or article where you found the information. However, you might have to cite the entire website if you are giving a general overview of its content, referring only to the homepage, or quoting text that appears on many different pages across the site (such as a company’s slogan).
If you cite multiple pages or articles from the same website, you should include a separate Works Cited entry for each one.
If the publisher is the same as the name of the website, you leave it out of the citation to avoid repetition.
Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.
If a source has no author, start the MLA Works Cited entry with the source title . Use a shortened version of the title in your MLA in-text citation .
If a source has no page numbers, you can use an alternative locator (e.g. a chapter number, or a timestamp for a video or audio source) to identify the relevant passage in your in-text citation. If the source has no numbered divisions, cite only the author’s name (or the title).
If you already named the author or title in your sentence, and there is no locator available, you don’t need a parenthetical citation:
- Rajaram argues that representations of migration are shaped by “cultural, political, and ideological interests.”
- The homepage of The Correspondent describes it as “a movement for radically different news.”
If a source has two authors, name both authors in your MLA in-text citation and Works Cited entry. If there are three or more authors, name only the first author, followed by et al.
Yes. MLA style uses title case, which means that all principal words (nouns, pronouns , verbs, adjectives , adverbs , and some conjunctions ) are capitalized.
This applies to titles of sources as well as the title of, and subheadings in, your paper. Use MLA capitalization style even when the original source title uses different capitalization .
The title of an article is not italicized in MLA style , but placed in quotation marks. This applies to articles from journals , newspapers , websites , or any other publication. Use italics for the title of the source where the article was published. For example:
Use the same formatting in the Works Cited entry and when referring to the article in the text itself.
The fastest and most accurate way to create MLA citations is by using Scribbr’s MLA Citation Generator .
Search by book title, page URL, or journal DOI to automatically generate flawless citations, or cite manually using the simple citation forms.
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If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
McCombes, S. (2022, June 16). How to Cite a Website in MLA | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved November 29, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/mla/website-citation/
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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / MLA Format / MLA Website Citation
How to Cite a Website in MLA
If you are a student faced with creating an MLA website citation for the first time, you may be confused about where to begin. This guide is here to answer all of your questions and take the guesswork out of creating an MLA citation for websites.
All academic fields require students and researchers to document their sources. Those studying the humanities, including fields in language literature, will typically follow MLA format when structuring their papers as well as when documenting sources.
Citing your sources is a necessary part of any research paper or project. This element serves both to give credit to the researchers and authors whose work informed yours, as well as to preserve academic integrity. Any source that provided you with ideas or information that you have included in your work and which are not considered common knowledge must be included, including websites.
The Modern Language Association is not associated with this guide. All of the information, however, is based on the MLA Handbook, Ninth Edition as well as the MLA website, and is presented as guidance for students writing in this style.
If you are looking for help with APA format , our reference library can provide you with guidance for this and more styles .
What You Need
To cite a website, you should have the following information:
- Title of source.
- Title of the container ,
- Other contributors (names and roles),
- Publication date,
- Location of the source (such as DOI, URL, or page range).
The Modern Language Association refers to these guidelines as “core elements” on page 105 of the Handbook. If your teacher has asked you to cite your sources in this format, these elements will form the foundation for each MLA website citation included in your MLA Works Cited list, as well as the entries for sources in any other format.
If one of the elements does not apply, students may omit it. Supplemental items may also be included when necessary. In addition to the supplemental details discussed below, a list of additional supplemental components can be found on the MLA website.
If it’s an APA citation website page or an APA reference page you need help with, we have many other resources available for you!
Table of Contents
This guide includes the following sections:
- MLA9 Changes
- Citing websites with an author
- Citing websites with no author
- Citing websites with no formal title
- Citing social media websites
- In-text citations
Changes to MLA Citation for Websites in Ninth Edition
In previous editions, students and researchers creating an MLA website citation were not required to include the URL. However, beginning with MLA 8, it is recommended that you include the URL when creating a citation for a website unless your teacher instructs you otherwise. Even though web pages and URLs can be taken down or changed, it is still possible to learn about the source from the information seen in the URL.
When including URLs in a citation, http:// and https:// should be omitted from the website’s address ( Handbook 195). Additionally, If you are creating a citation that will be read on a digital device, it is helpful to make the URL clickable so that readers can directly access the source themselves.
If the website’s publisher includes a permalink or DOI (Digital Object Identifier), these are preferable as they are not changeable in the same manner as URLs. Whether you include a URL, permalink, or DOI, this information should be included in the location portion of your citation.
Another change that occurred with the eighth edition that impacts how to cite a website in MLA is the removal of the date the website was accessed. While you may still find it useful to include this information or your teacher may request it, it is no longer a mandatory piece of your citation. Should you choose to add this optional information, you may list it after the URL in the following manner:
- Accessed Day Month Year.
- Accessed 2 May 1998.
- Accessed 31 Apr. 2001.
- Accessed 17 Sept. 2010.
For an overview of additional formatting changes in the ninth edition, including resources to help with writing an annotated bibliography , check out the rest of EasyBib.com’s writing and citation guides, and try out our plagiarism checker for help with grammar and to avoid unintentional plagiarism.
MLA 9: Citing Websites With an Author
To make an MLA 9 citation for a website, you will need the following pieces of information:
- author’s name
- title of the article or page
- title of the website
- name of the publisher (Note: Only include the name of the publisher when it differs from the name of the website.)
- date the page or site was published (if available)
Citing a Website in MLA
Place the author’s name in reverse order, the last name first, followed by a comma, and then the first name followed by a period. The title of the web page or article is placed in quotation marks, with a period before the end quotation. The title of the website is written in italics followed by a comma. If the name of the publisher differs from the name of the website, include it after the title. Immediately following the publisher is the date that the page or article was published or posted. Finally, end with the URL, permalink, or DOI, followed by a period.
View Screenshot | Cite your source
In-text website citation with one author
The in-text citation for a website with an author is reflected as the author’s last name in parentheses, followed by a period. Unless the website includes numbered paragraphs or sections, you should not include any additional information. For the website used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:
Cite your source
An APA parenthetical citation is similar, except it also includes the year the source was published.
To learn more about formatting MLA in-text & parenthetical citations , be sure to check out the rest of EasyBib.com’s resources and citation guides.
How to cite a website with two authors in MLA 9
According to Section 5.7 of the Handbook , for a website with two authors, place the authors’ names in the same order as the source (similar to an APA citation ). The first name should be formatted in reverse order as was done for a single author. The second name, however, is written as First Name Last Name and is followed by a period, as demonstrated in the template that follows:
In-text website citation with two authors
The in-text citation for a website with two authors should include both authors’ last names, in the order in which they are listed in the source and your works cited:
How to cite a website with three or more authors in MLA 9
For a source with three or more authors, you should place the authors’ names in the same order as the source. The first name is listed in reverse order and is followed by a comma and et al. Et al is the abbreviation for et alia, a gender-neutral Latin phrase meaning “and others.”
In-text website citation with 3+ authors
The in-text citation for a website with three or more authors should contain only the first author’s last name, followed by et al. ( Handbook 232):
Click on this page if you’re looking for information on how to create an APA in-text citation .
MLA 9 Citation for Websites with No Author
Sometimes, websites do not state who wrote the information on the page. When no author is listed, you may omit the author information from the MLA citation for the website and begin, instead, with the title ( Handbook 108).
Note about web pages by organizations/corporations: Often, web pages are published by organizations or corporations with no author indicated. In these cases, you can assume that the publisher also authored the web page (like the example above). Since the author and publisher are the same in these cases, you can skip showing an author and just indicate the organization /corporation as the publisher ( Handbook 119 ).
In-text website citation with no author
The in-text citation for a website without an author is noted with the first noun phrase or words in the title in quotations and parenthesis, followed by a period. Unless the website includes numbered paragraphs or sections, you should not include any additional information. For the website used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:
MLA 9 Citation for Websites Without a Formal Title
When citing a web page that does not include a formal title, it is acceptable to include a description of the page. Do not place the description in italics or quotation marks. Follow the description with the name of the website.
In-text website citation without a title
The in-text citation for a website without a formal title uses a shortened version of the webpage description for the in-text citation. Use the first noun phrase of the description from your Works Cited citation in parenthesis, followed by a period. For the website used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:
MLA 9 Citation for Social Media Websites
In an increasingly digital world, social media platforms have become one of the most popular sources students turn to when writing a research paper. From Black history facts , to quotes from notable people, such as Martin Luther King and Winston Churchill , social media has become a mega influence in our world.
When citing social media in your work, follow the same format as an MLA citation for a website. Here are some examples of ways you can cite various social media platforms in your work:
How to cite Twitter in MLA 9
Many notable individuals use Twitter as a platform to share intriguing ideas. It’s a shame Twitter was unavailable to long-gone scientists, authors, and presidents such as Albert Einstein , Mark Twain , and Abraham Lincoln . Luckily, we have the Twitter profiles of today’s great minds at our fingertips!
To cite a tweet, you will begin with the account holder’s name and their Twitter handle in square brackets, followed by a period ( Handbook 118). After this, in quotations, you should enter the full text of the tweet, including any hashtags. The publisher, Twitter, is then listed in italics, followed by the date the tweet was posted in day, month, year format. Finally, include a URL to the tweet followed by a period.
Note: When the account name and username are similar, the username can be excluded from the citation. For example, if the account’s username was @FirstNameLastName or @OrganizationName.
In-text website citation of a Twitter post
The in-text citation for a Twitter post is reflected as the author’s last name in parentheses, followed by a period. For the tweet used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:
How to cite Instagram in MLA 9
To cite an Instagram post, begin with the account holder’s name and their username in square brackets. In quotations, list the title of the photo, if it is given. If there is no title, write a brief description of the picture but do not place it in italics or quotation marks. The publisher, Instagram, is then listed in italics. Any other contributors (such as the photographer, if it is not the same as the account holder) are then listed, after which you will add the date the photo was published and the URL.
In-text website citation of an Instagram post
The in-text citation for an Instagram post is reflected as the author’s last name or the name of the account in parentheses, followed by a period. For the Instagram post used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:
How to cite Facebook in MLA 9
To cite a Facebook post, begin with the account holder’s name or username. In quotations, list the title or caption of the post, if it is given. If there is no title or caption, write a brief description of the post, but do not place it in italics or quotation marks. Examples: Image of Malcolm X, or, Muhammed Ali headshot.
The publisher, Facebook, is then listed in italics, after which you will add the date posted and URL.
In-text website citation of a Facebook post
The in-text citation for a Facebook post is reflected as the author’s last name or the name of the account in parentheses, followed by a period. For the Facebook post used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:
Social media and website comments
Citing the comments left on social media or a website begins with the commenter’s name or username. To indicate that you are citing a comment, follow the name with a period and then the words Comment on , followed by the title of the source (for example, the name of the article) in quotation marks. This is then followed by the title of the website in italics, and the publisher, if applicable. The date is then listed, followed by the URL, permalink, or DOI.
In-text citation of a social media comment
The in-text citation for a social media comment is reflected as the author’s last name in parentheses, followed by a period. For the post used in the example above, the in-text citation would be written as follows:
In-text Citations for Websites
In-text citations generally consist of parentheses and the last names of the authors or the first few words of the web page title.
Since there are no page numbers, unless the web page includes numbered paragraphs or sections, you don’t need to include any additional information.
When you have multiple authors, place them in the same order they are listed in the source.
If what you really need is an APA book citation or a reference for an APA journal , there are more guides on EasyBib.com for you to explore.
Visit our EasyBib Twitter feed to discover more citing tips, fun grammar facts, and the latest product updates.
Solution #1: when and how to reference entire websites versus specific pages in mla.
Reference an entire website when your information comes from multiple pages or if you are describing the entirety of the website. If your information is only from one page, only cite the singular page.
Whole website, author known
- Write the author’s name in last name, first name format with a period following.
- Next, write the name of the website in italics.
- Write the contributing organization’s name with a comma following.
- List the date in day, month, year format with a comma following.
- Lastly, write the URL with a period following.
Works cited example:
Night, Samuel. Food Creations , International Hypothetical Chefs’ Club, 21 May 2021, www.foodcreationshypotheticalwebsite.com/best_macaroni_recipe.
Whole website, author unknown
- If there is no specific author, begin the citation by writing the website name in italics.
Food Creations , International Hypothetical Chefs’ Club, 21 May 2021, www.foodcreationshypotheticalwebsite.com/best_macaroni_recipe.
( Food Creations )
Webpage, author known
If information is from only a few pages or the pages cover multiple topics, reference each page
- If an author is named, write the author’s name in last name, first name format.
- If a title is not provided, create your own description of the page.
- List the title of the website in italics with a comma following.
- Write the date that the page was created followed by a comma.
- Lastly, list the URL followed by a period.
Blake, Evan. “Best Southern Macaroni Recipe.” Food Creations , International Hypothetical Chefs’ Club, 21 May 2021, www.foodcreationshypotheticalwebsite.com/best_macaroni_recipe.
Webpage, author unknown
If an author is not named, write the name of the page in quotation marks with a period following.
“Best Southern Macaroni Recipe.” Food Creations , International Hypothetical Chefs’ Club, 21 May 2021, www.foodcreationshypotheticalwebsite.com/best_macaroni_recipe.
(“Best Southern Macaroni Recipe”)
Solution #2: Referencing a conversation on social media in MLA
The in-text citation should identify the author and talk about the format (e.g., video, post, image, etc.) in prose.
Lilly West’s photo of traditional Japanese sweets shows an example of nature influencing Japanese design.
The basic structure of a works-cited reference for social media stays the same no matter the format or the social media service (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.). Here are works- cited-list entry guidelines:
- The name is listed in last name, first name format with a period following. If an organization, just write the organization’s name as it’s usually presented.
- If the username is very different from the author’s real name, include it in brackets after the user’s real name but before the period.
- Write the title, post text, or description of the post in quotation marks. End it with a period.
- Write the website name in italics with a comma afterward.
- List the day, month, and year that the post was created followed by a comma.
- List the URL followed by a period. Leave out “https://” and “http://”.
West, Lily. “Kyoto Japanese sweets.” Facebook , 30 May 2021, www.facebook.com/hypotheticalexample/thispostisnotreal.
Twitter reference example:
West, Lily [@lilianhypotheticalwestbest]. “Kyoto Japanese sweets.” Twitter, 30 May 2021, www.twitter.com/hypotheticalexample/thispostisnotreal.
Instagram reference example:
West, Lily [@lilianhypotheticalwestbest]. “Kyoto Japanese sweets.” Instagram , 30 May 2021, www.instagram.com/hypotheticalexample/thisphotoisnotreal.
Solution #3: How to cite a social media post without a title or text
If there is no text or title where the title element usually goes, instead describe the post without quotation marks. Example:
West, Lily [@lilianhypotheticalwestbest]. Photo of traditional Japanese sweets on a green plate. Instagram , photographed by Bethany Lynn, 30 May 2021, www.instagram.com/hypotheticalexample/thisphotoisnotreal.
Solution #4: How to cite a social media post with a long title or text
If the text is very long, you can shorten it by adding ellipsis at the end of the text. Example:
West, Lily [@lilianhypotheticalwestbest]. “Nothing is better in life than feeling like all of the effort you’ve invested has finally. . . .” Twitter, 17 Feb. 2021, www.twitter.com/hypotheticalexample/thispostisnotreal.
- Works Cited
MLA Handbook . 9th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2021.
Published October 31, 2011. Updated June 5, 2021.
Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.
MLA Formatting Guide
- Annotated Bibliography
- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Page Numbers
- Sample Paper
- MLA 8 Updates
- MLA 9 Updates
- View MLA Guide
- Book Chapter
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Website (no author)
- View all MLA Examples
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It’s 100% free to create MLA citations. The EasyBib Citation Generator also supports 7,000+ other citation styles. These other styles—including APA, Chicago, and Harvard—are accessible for anyone with an EasyBib Plus subscription.
No matter what citation style you’re using (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.), the EasyBib Citation Generator can help you create the right bibliography quickly.
Yes, there’s an option to download source citations as a Word Doc or a Google Doc. You may also copy citations from the EasyBib Citation Generator and paste them into your paper.
Creating an account is not a requirement for generating MLA citations. However, registering for an EasyBib account is free, and an account is how you can save all the citations you create. This can help make it easier to manage your citations and bibliographies.
Yes! Whether you’d like to learn how to construct citations on your own, our Autocite tool isn’t able to gather the metadata you need, or anything in between, manual citations are always an option. Click here for directions on using creating manual citations.
If any important information is missing (e.g., author’s name, title, publishing date, URL, etc.), first see if you can find it in the source yourself. If you cannot, leave the information blank and continue creating your citation.
It supports MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard, and over 7,000 total citation styles.
If there is no author, the title becomes the website page’s identifier.
In-text example (no author): ( Honey Bee Medley )
Works cited example (no author): Honey Bee Medley . Hivemind Press, 2018, www.hivebees.com/honey-bees.
If there is no publication date, include an accessed date instead.
Works cited example (no author, no date): Honey Bee Medley . Hivemind Press, www.hivebees.com/honey-bees. Accessed 17 Nov. 2020.
If there is no title, briefly describe the source.
Works cited example (no author, no date, no title): Collage of honey bees. Hivemind Press, www.hivebees.com/honey-bees. Accessed 17 Nov. 2020.
To cite a website that has no page number in MLA, it is important that you know the name of the author, title of the webpage, website, and URL. The templates for an in-text citation and works-cited-list entry of a website that has no page number, along with examples, are given below:
In-text citation template and example:
You can use a time stamp if you are referring to an audio or video. Otherwise, use only the author’s surname.
Works-cited-list entry template and example:
Author or Organization Name. “Title of the Webpage.” Website Name . Publication Date, URL.
Dutta, Smita S. “What is Extra Sensory Perception?” Medindia . 16 Nov. 2019, www.medindia.net/patients/patientinfo/extra-sensory-perception.htm#3 .
Abbreviate the month in the date field.
MLA Citation Examples
Other Citation Styles
Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style.
MLA Citation Guide (9th Edition): Annotated Bibliography
- What Kind of Source Is This?
- Books, eBooks & Pamphlets
- Book Reviews
- Class Handouts, Presentations, and Readings
- Encyclopedias & Dictionaries
- Government Documents
- Images, Artwork, Charts, Graphs & Tables
- Interviews and Emails (Personal Communications)
- Journal Articles
- Magazine Articles
- Newspaper Articles
- Primary Sources
- Religious Texts
- Social Media
- Videos & DVDs
- In-Text Citation
- Works Quoted in Another Source
- No Author, No Date etc.
- Works Cited List & Sample Paper
- Annotated Bibliography
- Powerpoint Presentations
Annotated Bibliography Template
- MLA Annotated Bibliography Template
This sample annotated bibliography shows you the structure you should use to write an MLA annotated bibliography and gives examples of evaluative and summary annotations.
It can be used as a template to set up your assignment.
What is an Annotated Bibliography?
Useful Links for Annotated Bibliographies
- Annotated Bibliographies Overview of purpose and form of annotated bibliographies from the Purdue OWL.
- Annotated Bibliography Sample Sample annotations in an MLA and an APA annotated bibliography. From the Purdue OWL.
- Annotated Bibliography Breakdown An example of an MLA annotated bibliography. From the Purdue OWL.
An annotated bibliography is a list of citations for various books, articles, and other sources on a topic. The annotated bibliography looks like a Works Cited page but includes an annotation after each source cited. An annotation is a short summary and/or critical evaluation of a source. Annotated bibliographies can be part of a larger research project, or can be a stand-alone report in itself.
Types of Annotations
A summary annotation describes the source by answering the following questions: who wrote the document, what the document discusses, when and where was the document written, why was the document produced, and how was it provided to the public. The focus is on description.
An evaluative annotation includes a summary as listed above but also critically assesses the work for accuracy, relevance, and quality. Evaluative annotations can help you learn about your topic, develop a thesis statement, decide if a specific source will be useful for your assignment, and determine if there is enough valid information available to complete your project. The focus is on description and evaluation.
Writing an Evaluative Annotation
- Cite the source using MLA style.
- Describe the main ideas, arguments, themes, theses, or methodology, and identify the intended audience.
- Explain the author’s expertise, point of view, and any bias he/she may have.
- Compare to other sources on the same topic that you have also cited to show similarities and differences.
- Explain why each source is useful for your research topic and how it relates to your topic.
- Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each source.
- Identify the observations or conclusions of the author.
Basic Tips on Writing and Formatting
- Each annotation should be one paragraph, between three to six sentences long (about 150- 200 words).
- Start with the same format as a regular Works Cited list.
- All lines should be double-spaced. Do not add an extra line between the citations.
- If your list of citations is especially long, you can organize it by topic.
- Try to be objective, and give explanations if you state any opinions.
- Use the third person (e.g., he, she, the author) instead of the first person (e.g., I, my, me)
Sample Evaluative Annotation
London, Herbert. “Five Myths of the Television Age.” Television Quarterly , vol. 10, no. 1, Mar. 1982, pp. 81-69. Herbert London, the Dean of Journalism at New York University and author of several books and articles, explains how television contradicts five commonly believed ideas. He uses specific examples of events seen on television, such as the assassination of John Kennedy, to illustrate his points. His examples have been selected to contradict such truisms as: “seeing is believing”; “a picture is worth a thousand words”; and “satisfaction is its own reward.” London uses logical arguments to support his ideas which are his personal opinion. He does not refer to any previous works on the topic. London’s style and vocabulary would make the article of interest to any reader. The article clearly illustrates London’s points, but does not explore their implications leaving the reader with many unanswered questions.
"How to Write Annotated Bibliographies." Memorial University Libraries , www.library.mun.ca/researchtools/guides/writing/annotated_bibl/. Accessed 29 June 2016.
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How to Cite a Book in MLA Format
Introduction: How to Cite a Book in MLA Format
Modern Language Association (MLA) is the most common style used when citing sources and writing papers within the liberal arts and humanities. Therefore, the basics of this format is essential for almost any writer. Though there are many sources to consider citing, this Instructable will simply show you the basics by learning the process in which to cite a printed book.
- A writing utensil and piece of paper, or a computer with Word
Estimated Completion Time:
- Less than 5 minutes
For this Instructable, the book being used is The Wedding by Julie Garwood and the citation will be on a Word document.
Step 1: Write the Author's Name
The required information can usually be found on the first few pages of the book. When writing the author's name for citation, the last name must appear before the first name, separated by a comma. Also, a period must follow the author's name in order to separate this piece of information from the next.
If the author's name is unknown, skip to Step 2.
If there is more than one author, the author whose last name is first alphabetically will be written first. Also, the second author's name will be written normally, with the first name followed by the last name.
Step 2: Write the Title of the Book (In Italics)
If Step 1 was skipped, this piece of information will begin your citation.
Italicize the title and end with a period.
Step 3: Write the City of Publication
The city of publication can be found on the first few pages of the book. This piece of information must be followed by a period.
If the city is not listed in your book, skip to Step 4.
Step 4: Write the Name of the Publisher and the Year of Publication
This information can also be found on the first few pages. The name of the publisher should come before the year of publication, and the information should be separated by a comma and end with a period.
Usually, the year of publication will have the copyright symbol by it and the name of the publishing company is repeated multiple times.
Step 5: Write the Medium of Publication
The medium of publication is considered the form in which the source has been written. For instance, anything physical would be considered "print," whereas anything online would be considered "web."
This piece of information must be followed by a period.
Step 6: Adding Other Citations
If you are citing more books, make sure to place the citations in alphabetical order by last name. Also, if a citation drops down to the next line, the following lines must be indented.
You should now have a correct citation for a printed book! One option to ensure you have all the correct information is to enter the information into an online citation machine that automatically creates a citation. However, such tools can result in errors.
Step 7: Additional Information!
Being able to cite a printed book is just a small glimpse into the MLA world. Among printed works, there are journals, newspapers, magazines, etc. The use of the web encompasses many more digital resources. Each type of resource utilizes its own MLA format.
In order to learn more about citing such sources, Purdue OWL provides a great basis for understanding MLA formatting. Moreover, the website allows readers to explore APA formatting.
If you would like to simply find a reliable, automatic citation machine, Citation Machine offers both styles of formatting in a user-friendly setup.
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- Chicago 17th
- Chicago 16th
- RefWorks Transition
- Citation Generators
- Citation Styles by Discipline
- Citation Management Programs
Welcome to FSU Libraries' Citation Guide! In this guide you will find resources for MLA, APA and Chicago styles of citation. In addition, resources and tutorials for various citation management programs such as Zotero, Mendeley, and EndNote Basic are available in this guide.
Citation & Scholarship
- Give credit where credit is due. (It's the right thing to do.)
- Enhance the credibility of your argument with supporting evidence.
- Point out the dialog you are having with other scholars and their ideas.
- Provide your reader with additional sources for further reading.
- Avoid plagiarism: unfairly taking personal credit for other authors' ideas.
Correctly citing work is the means by which researchers and writers can avoid plagiarizing the work of others. If you have more questions about plagiarism, please visit our Plagiarism Research Guide .
Citation Styles & Citation Management Programs
There are thousands of citation styles to choose from -- so how should you know which to select? Oftentimes, your instructor will assign one for you; other times, you may have the option to pick one for yourself based on the citation conventions in your field of study. Here are three of the most widely used citation styles:
- APA Style Homepage
- The MLA Style Center
- The Chicago Manual of Style Online
For more information on these citation styles, please select the corresponding links located in the left-hand column of this guide. For more information on other citation styles, visit the Citation Styles by Disciplines page.
To help you keep track of the sources you cite and create citations in the above mentioned styles as well as many others, you can use a citation management program, like one of the following!
For more information on these programs and how to get started using them, please see the Citation Management Programs page of this guide.
Florida State Universities’ access to the state-wide RefWorks subscription ended on December 31, 2020. As of this writing (January 2021), users are able to access their RefWorks accounts to transfer information out, however we do not know how long this functionality will be available for since FSU Libraries no longer supports this platform. We encourage you to migrate your resources to another citation manager such as those covered in this guide.
The decision to cancel the RefWorks subscription was based on tightening budgets and the availability of high quality, free or low cost alternatives. Instructions on transferring data from RefWorks to Zotero, Mendeley, or EndNote are available. See the RefWorks Transition page of this Guide for more info.
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How do I cite a commentator’s handwritten notes on a work?
Cite a commentator’s handwritten notes by citing the unique copy of the work where they appear. Often, that unique copy will be an object in an archive. For example, Susan Sontag’s annotated copy of Theodor Adorno’s Minima Moralia is housed in a library collection. The collection is the container of the work, as shown:
Adorno, Theodor W. Minima Moralia: Reflections from the Damaged Life . Translated by E. F. N. Jephcott, New Left Books, 1974, Susan Sontag Papers, UCLA Library Special Collections, Charles E. Young Research Library, collection 612, box 212.
Specify in your prose whether you are quoting the published text of the work or the commentator’s markings on it.
Learn more about citing materials in a physical archive on the MLA Style Center .
Analyzing Text Data
- Overview of Text Analysis and Text Mining
- Text Analysis Methods
- Library Databases
- Social Media
- Open Source
- Language Corpora
- Web Scraping
- Software for Text Analysis
More resources for citing data, using citation tools, library services: citation tools consultation.
Properly acknowledging where data comes from is helpful for both the people who create the data and those who use it in scientific research.
For people who use the data, citing it means they can prove how they did their research and make it easier for other scientists to find and use the same data. It also makes the research more clear and helps improve the quality of the data. Plus, citing data encourages others to use it for their own research.
For people who make the data, citing it gives them the credit they deserve. It makes it easier for others to find their work, and it sets up some clear rules for recognizing data as an important part of scientific work. Additionally, citing data allows us to keep track of how influential the data is in the scientific community.
Citing data is very similar to citing journal articles, and many style manuals (APA, Chicago, MLA) offer guidance. At minimum, every data citation should include the following:
- Persistent Identifier (e.g. DOI)
- Producer or Distributor (often the name of the repository managing the data, e.g. ICPSR or NCBI)
Persistent Identifiers are generally issued by the repository holding the data and include such identifiers as: Digital Object Identifier (DOI), Globally Unique Identifier (GUID), Archival Resource Key (ARK), Uniform Resource Name (URN), or any identifiers generally based on the Handel System. URLs are not persistent identifiers but are okay to use in cases when no persistent identifier is provided.
Citation from ICPSR
Barnes, Samuel H. Italian Mass Election Survey, 1968. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1992-02-16. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR07953.v1
Schneider, Barbara, and Waite, Linda J. The 500 Family Study [1998-2000: United States]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-06-03. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04549.v1
Federal Judicial Center. Judicial District Data Book, 1983: [United States]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2006-01-18. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR08439.v1
ABC News. (2007). ABC News Education Poll, February 1990 . (ICPSR version) [data file and codebook]. Radnor, PA: Chilton Research Services [producer]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor]. doi:10.3886/ICPSR09440.v1
ABC News. 2007. ABC News Education Poll, February 1990 . ICPSR version. Radnor, PA: Chilton Research Services. Distributed by Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. doi:10.3886/ICPSR09440.v1.
ABC News. ABC News Education Poll, February 1990 . ICPSR version. Radnor, PA: Chilton Research Services [producer]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2007-01-26. Web. 11 Mar 2015. doi:10.3886/ICPSR09440.v1
This information has been adapted from the IASSIST Quick Guide to Data Citation and the MSU How to Cite Data Research Guide .
- APA Style: Data Set References A guide to data set citation in APA style.
- Citations in Chicago Style from the Library of Congress Examples of citations in Chicago style from the Library of Congress.
- ICPSR Citing Data A guide to data citation from the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR).
- MSU Libraries: How to Cite Data A comprehensive guide to data citation from Michigan State University Libraries.
- Quick Guide to Data Citation from IASSIST A guide to data citation from the International Association for Social Science Information Services & Technology (IASSIST).
Most citation tools, such as RefWorks, Zotero, and Mendeley, do not currently have a template or "item type" for data citation. However, you can create one!
- Copy and paste the information from a recommended citation into a new Zotero item with the type "Document"
- Otherwise, use the "Document" item type to add the components of the citation
See the Citation Tools LibGuide for more information.
- Citation Tools
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How to Do In‐text Citations in MLA
Last Updated: December 8, 2022 Fact Checked
This article was co-authored by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Jennifer Mueller is a wikiHow Content Creator. She specializes in reviewing, fact-checking, and evaluating wikiHow's content to ensure thoroughness and accuracy. Jennifer holds a JD from Indiana University Maurer School of Law in 2006. There are 11 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 131,261 times. Learn more...
The Modern Language Association (MLA) citation style calls for a Works Cited page at the end of your paper along with parenthetical citations in-text. Place an in-text citation at the end of every sentence in which you quote or paraphrase information or ideas from another source. The basic format for an MLA in-text citation is the author's last name followed by the page number or page range where the quoted or paraphrased information appears. However, there are some special circumstances where you may have to deviate from this format.  X Trustworthy Source Purdue Online Writing Lab Trusted resource for writing and citation guidelines Go to source
Using Author-Page Number Format
- For example: Louis Armstrong easily reached difficult notes that stymied other trumpet players (Bergreen 258).
Tip: If you include the name of the author in the body of your paper, you don't need to include it again in the parenthetical citation.
- For example: Record deals are typically negotiated by lawyers and studio executives, not by the artists themselves (R. Stewart 17).
- For example: With the explosion of streaming music, record deals had to evolve to incorporate this new method of distribution (Hall and Oates 24).
- For example: In the age of digital music, individual songs have become more important than record sales (McCartney et. al. 37).
- For example: Record label fears that digital music would bring about their end were overblown (Urban 12, 18, 29-32).
Citing Non-Print Sources
- If you're citing a movie, the first item in your Works Cited entry may be the director of the movie or it may be the title of the movie itself. For example, suppose you want to cite the movie Raiders of the Lost Ark, directed by Steven Spielberg. If the first item is the name of the director, your in-text citation might be "(Spielberg)." If the first item is the name of the movie, your in-text citation might be "( Raiders )."
- Include either the author's last name in parentheses, or the first item that appears in your Works Cited entry.
- For example, the sentence "In Spielberg's movie Raiders of the Lost Ark , a humble professor reveals a taste for adventure" would not need a parenthetical citation at the end.
Tip: If you're citing a website, don't include URLs in the body of your paper. If you have to reference the website specifically, use an abbreviation of the name of the website, such as CNN.com.
- For example: As adventurous as he was, snakes were Indiana Jones's Achilles heel – so of course he would fall into a tomb covered in snakes (Spielberg 01:18:43-01:27:32).
Addressing Special Circumstances
- For example: Marx and Engels viewed history as a series of class struggles (79; ch. 1).
- For example: Developmental psychologists originally believed small children would not benefit from computer usage (Murray "Too Soon" 38). However, later studies showed playing video games led to better small motor skill development (Murray "Hand-Eye Development" 17).
Tip: Format titles the same way they are formatted in your Works Cited entry. Generally, titles of books are italicized, while titles of shorter articles are placed in double quotation marks.
- For example: Small children can interact with tablets or touch-screen devices better than with desktop computers that require the use of a keyboard and a mouse (Murray 17; Smith 37).
- For example, if you included the author's last name and page number in the first citation, you could use page numbers only in recurring citations.
- If the source is not paginated, you may not be able to simplify the citation any further.
- For example: Ezekiel described four creatures, each with the faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle ( New Jerusalem Bible , Ezek. 1.5-10).
- For example: Lennon argued that all problems of the world could be solved if they were approached with love (qtd. in Starr 22).
- Generally, your in-text citation goes at the end of the sentence, inside the closing punctuation. However, if you have a blockquote, the citation goes at the end of the blockquote, outside the closing punctuation. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
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- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_in_text_citations_the_basics.html
- ↑ https://owl.excelsior.edu/citation-and-documentation/mla-style/mla-in-text-citations/
- ↑ https://owl.excelsior.edu/citation-and-documentation/mla-style/mla-in-text-citations/two-authors-mla-text-citations/
- ↑ https://owl.excelsior.edu/citation-and-documentation/mla-style/mla-in-text-citations/three-authors-mla-text-citations/
- ↑ https://guides.libraries.psu.edu/mlacitation/intext
- ↑ https://irsc.libguides.com/mla/intextexamples
- ↑ https://libguides.eastern.edu/c.php?g=554085&p=3807322
- ↑ https://towson.libguides.com/mlastyle/in-text
- ↑ https://library.nic.bc.ca/c.php?g=705605&p=5032741
- ↑ https://libguides.liberty.edu/c.php?g=1181878&p=8651008
- ↑ https://research.wou.edu/mla/mla-indirectquote
About This Article
To do in-text citations in MLA, provide the last name of the author and the page number the citation was pulled from in parentheses. If you mention the author’s last name within the sentence, simply include the page number from the book or article in parentheses at the end of the sentence. Alternatively, if you need to cite multiple authors, list the last name of each author along with the page number. When citing from internet sources, use the same format unless the source doesn’t have a page number, in which case you would use the name of the webpage. For more tips, like how to cite an indirect source in MLA, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No
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