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Free CSE Citation Generator

Generate accurate CSE citations for books, websites, journals and more, with MyBib!

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🤔 What is a CSE Citation Generator?

A CSE citation generator is an online tool that creates citations in the Council of Science Editors (CSE) citation style. It does this automatically by taking in an identifier for a document, such as a website URL, book ISBN, or journal DOI, and then formatting the citation correctly using the remaining details.

🤓 What is the CSE citation style?

The CSE citation style is a citation style created by the Council of Science Editors, a non-profit organization. They publish the CSE style guidelines in the CSE Scientific Style and Format Manual , now on the 8th edition.

There are three ways to correctly cite sources in the CSE style. They should not be mixed together (format all citations the same way).

  • Name-Year (N-Y): Also known as author-date, the author name and publication year are surrounded with parenthesis and placed next to the cited text as an in-text citation. The reference list at the end of the article is ordered alphabetically by the author's last name.
  • Citation-Name (C-N): Superscripted numbers (example: ¹) are placed next to cited text as an in-text citation. The reference list is still sorted alphabetically by the author's last name, but the corresponding in-text citation number is prepended to each reference to connect both of them together.
  • Citation-Sequence (C-S): Similar to Citation-Name, superscripted numbers are used next to cited text and are also prepended to the author's name in the reference list, but the reference list is sorted by the citation number in ascending order instead of the author's last name.

👩‍🎓 Who uses a CSE Citation Generator?

The CSE style is used broadly across the sciences--especially biology, where it originated. If you are studying the sciences, or you are writing to be published in an CSE publication (such as Science Editor ), then you will likely need to cite your sources using the CSE style.

🙌 Why should I use a CSE Citation Generator?

Every academic field, not just the sciences, will recommend using a tool to record references to others' work in your writing. A citation generator like MyBib can record this data, and can also automatically create an accurate bibliography from it, with the necessary in-text citations too.

⚙️ How do I use MyBib's CSE Citation Generator?

MyBib's CSE citation generator was designed to be accurate and easy to use (also it's FREE!). Follow these steps:

  • Search for the article, website, or document you want to cite using the search box at the top of the page.
  • Look through the list of results found and choose the one that you referenced in your work.
  • Make sure the details are all correct, and correct any that aren't. Then click Generate!

The generator will produce a formatted CSE citation that can be copied and pasted directly into your document, or saved to MyBib as part of your overall reference list (which can be downloaded fully later!).

MyBib supports the following for CSE style:

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Daniel is a qualified librarian, former teacher, and citation expert. He has been contributing to MyBib since 2018.

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Research Help

Cse style guide.

CSE style is the citation style recommended by the Council of Science Editors for use in biology and other sciences.

The current 8th edition of Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers is available:

  • In print at the Biddeford Campus Library

There are three different methods of CSE Style:

  • citation-sequence
  • citation-name

In-text citations and the order of end references are formatted differently with each method.

General Formatting 

  • Capitalize the titles of journals as they appear in the publication. Books, chapters and articles, use sentence case.
  • Do not list the author’s full first name, only their initial(s). No commas separate the author’s last name and first initial(s) 
  • The references page can be titled “References”, “Cited References”, “Literature Cited”, or “Bibliography” 
  • When creating a citation for a source with 1-10 authors, list all authors. For a source with 11+ authors, list the first 10 followed by “et al.”  

In-Text Citations

In the name-year system, parenthetical in-text citations will consist of the author’s last name and year of publication. In the case of two authors, place both names in the parenthesis separated by and. If a source has three or more authors, list only the first author’s name followed by et al.

Based on the literature, when designing an effective kinase hinge binder, “one to three H-bonds are required to gain sufficient potency at a given kinase” (Sharma and Gupta 2022).

Appears in references section as:

Sharma, V, Gupta, M. 2022. Designing of kinase hinge binders: A medicinal chemistry perspective. Chem Biol Drug Des. 100(6):968-980.

Citation-Sequence

In the Citation-Sequence system, use superscript numbers within the text. In your references cited page number your citations in order that they appear in your paper.

Data suggests that female patients being treated following in-hospital cardiac arrest show slightly higher rates of survival than men 1 .

1. DiLibero, J, Misto, K. Outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest: A review of the evidence. Crit. Care Nurs Clin. North Am. 2021 Sep;33(3): 343-356.

Citation-Name

In the Citation-Name system, complete the list of end references for your paper before adding the superscript numbers in your text. For instance: if the first source cited in your paper is a work by Zimmerman and there are 43 sources cited in your paper, Zimmerman will be number 43.

Hypoxia tumor cells are highly resistant to cancer therapies 67 , however research has found success with a multimodal therapy approach12.

Appears in References section as:

12. Graham, K, Unger, E. Overcoming tumor hypoxia as a barrier to radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy in cancer treatment. Int. J. Nanomedicine. 2918 Oct;13:6049-6058.

67. Wang, J-J, Lei, K-F, Han, F. Tumor microenvironment: recent advances in various cancer treatments. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2018 Jun;22(12):3855-3864

Cited References

List the references to sources that you have cited within the text alphabetically by author under the heading “References”, “Cited References”, “Literature Cited”, or “Bibliography”. You can list references that you consulted but did not cite for additional reading or other purposes under a separate heading such as “Additional References” or “Supplemental References”.

Print Journal Article

See section 29.3.7.1 of the CSE Manual.

Meise CJ, Johnson DL, Stehlik LL, Manderson J, Shaheen P. 2003. Growth rates of juvenile Winter Flounder under varying environmental conditions. Trans Am Fish Soc. 132(2):225-345.

Online Journal Article

See section 29.3.7.13 of the CSE Manual.

Setälä H, Sun ZJ, Zheng JQ, Lu C, Cui MM, Han SJ. 2023. Loss of soil carbon and nitrogen indicates climate change-induced alterations in a temperate forest ecosystem. Ecological Indicators. [accessed 2023 July 20]:148. https://www-sciencedirect-com.une.idm.oclc.org/science/article/pii/S1470160X23001978?via%3Dihub. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2023.110055

Online Encyclopedia Article

Wagner S, Johanna T. 2016. Pregnancy. In: Gale encyclopedia of medicine [database on the Internet]. 5th ed. Vol. 2. Farmington Hills (MI): Gale. [accessed 2023 Jul 13]. (Gale Virtual Reference Library). p. 260-792. http://go.galegroup.com/ps/start.do?p=GVRL.

See section 29.3.7.2 of the CSE Manual.

McCormac JS, Kennedy G. 2004. Birds of Ohio. 2nd ed. Auburn (WA): Lone Pine.

Rollin, BE. 1998. The unheeded cry: animal consciousness, animal pain, and science [Internet]. 3rd ed. Ames (IA): The Iowa State University Press. [accessed 2021 August 27]. http://www.netlibrary.com.

Book Chapter

See section 29.3.7.2.10 of the CSE Manual.

McDaniel TK, Valdivia RH. 2005. Cellular microbiology. 2nd ed. Washington (DC): ASM Press. Chapter 2, New tools for virulence gene discovery; p. 473-488.

It can often be difficult to locate all the required elements of a citation on a webpage. Work with the information provided; if an author or other element is not listed, leave that element out and do not create placeholders.

Include citation elements in this order:

Title of Homepage. Date of publication. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; [date updated; date accessed]. Notes.

Whale Shark. 2023. Washington (DC): Oceana; [accessed 2023 July 27]. https://oceana.org/marine-life/whale-shark/.

Conference Paper

See section 29.3.7.3 of the CSE Manual.

Lee DJ, Bates D, Dromey C, Xu X, Antani S. c2003. An imaging system correlating lip shapes with tongue contact patterns for speech pathology research. In: Krol M, Mitra S, Lee DJ, editors. CBMS 2003. Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems; New York. Los Alamitos (CA): IEEE Computer Society. p. 307–313.

Dissertation or Thesis

See section 29.3.7.5 of the CSE Manual.

Brann, C. 2018. Drosophila glypicans Dally and dally-Like control injury induced allodynia [thesis]. [Biddeford (ME)]: University of New England. [Accessed 2023 July 20]. https://dune.une.edu/theses/164/

Technical Report

See section 29.3.7.4 of the CSE Manual.

Gimble JM. 2009. Circadian biology and sleep: Missing links in obesity and metabolism. Baton Rogue (LA): Louisiana State University System. Report No.: W81XWH-09-1-0289. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA.

Figures & Images

See section 30.2 of the CSE Manual

Talbot P . 2011. Mesocricetus auratus, blood cell, oocyte, cumulus cell [recorded image]. La Jolla (CA): Cell Image Library. http://www.cellimagelibrary.org/images/18042.  

Citation-Sequence & Citation-Name

See Section 29.3.7.1 of the CSE Manual.

Justen H, Delmore KE. The genetics of bird migration. Current Biology. 22 Oct;32(20): R1144-R1149.

See Section 29.3.7.13 of the CSE Manual.

Xiaojie W, Jinling X, Yixin Y. Response of fish to ocean warming and acidification. Acta Ecologica Sinica. 2022 Jan [accessed 2023 July 24];42(2):433-441. https://www.ecologica.cn/stxb/article/abstract/stxb202006081486. doi: 10.5846/stxb202006081486

Angell B. Behavioral therapy. In: Franklin C, editor. Oxford research encyclopedia of social work. New York (NY): Oxford University Press; 2013 [accessed 2023 July 24]. https://doi-org.une.idm.oclc.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199975839.013.30

See Section 29.3.7.2 of the CSE Manual.

Lemons DS. A student’s guide to entropy. New York (NY): Cambridge University Press; 2013.

Chambers JA. Field guide to global health & disaster medicine. Philadelphia (PA): Elsevier; 2022 [accessed 2023 July 24]. https://www-clinicalkey-com.une.idm.oclc.org/#!/browse/book/3-s2.0-C20200000599.

See Section 29.3.7.2.10 of the CSE Manual.

Voight ML, Tippett SR. Plyometric exercise in rehabilitation. In: Prentice WE, editor. Rehabilitation techniques for sports medicine and athletic training. Thorofare (NJ): SLACK Incorporated; 2015. 285-310.

Title of Homepage. Edition. Place of Publication: publisher; date of publication; date updated]. Notes.

Example: ECOS letter on U.S. DOJ SEP policy. 2022. Washington (DC): Enviormental Council of the States; [accessed 2023 July 24]. https://www.ecos.org/documents/ecos-letter-on-u-s-doj-sep-policy/.

See Section 29.3.7.3 of the CSE Manual.

Mahdavi K, Culshaw R, Boucher J, editors. Current developments in mathematical biology. Conference on Mathematical Biology and Dynamical Systems; Tyler, TX. University of Texas at Tyler.

See Section 29.3.7.5 of the CSE Manual.

Sullivan SM. Identifying complex adaptive systems using quantitative approaches at a midsized biotechnology firm [dissertation]. Biddeford (ME): University of New England; 2022.

See Section 29.3.7.4 of the CSE Manual.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder. Atlanta (GA): Center for Disease Control and Prevention; 2019. Report No.2019-133.

Winslow T. Spine anatomy [illustration]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute. [Accessed 2023 Aug 4]. https://visualsonline.cancer.go v/details.cfm?imageid=12201 .    

Questions & Help

If you have questions on this, or another, topic, contact a librarian for help!

MERRIMACK COLLEGE MCQUADE LIBRARY

How to cite sources.

  • MLA (8th Edition)
  • APA (7th edition)
  • Chicago (CMS)

Scientific Style and Format

Cse format basics, references examples, scientific writing.

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The current 7th edition of the Council of Science Editors' (CSE) Scientific Style and Format book was published in 2006.  Prior to 2000, this citation style was known as CBE (Council of Biology Editors) .  Be sure to always use the most current edition, or the one preferred by your course instructor.

The CSE Scientific Style offers three main styles of formatting in-text citations:

  • Citation-sequence system
  • Citation-name system
  • Name-year system

See the manual for details of the advantages and disadvantages of each system, and how reference lists are formatted for each system.

  • CSE (CBE) Citation Guide From Ohio State University Libraries - Examples of citations and formatting.
  • Reference Links from the CSE Additional information and resources for researchers in the sciences. An online version of the text is NOT available from this website.
  • Documenting Sources - CSE Style Diana Hacker provides an explanation of MLA style with instructions and examples on how to create in-text citations and reference lists, in addition to providing sample papers.

CSE(Council of Science Editors) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources in the sciences, including Biology

In addition to the examples to the left, see these sections of the Scientific Style and Format guide for how to cite other sources in CSE style:

  • Maps (Section 29.3.7.9, pg. 545-7)
  • Audiovisuals (Section 29.3.7.11, pg. 548-52)
  • Personal Communications (Section 29.3.7.15.3, pg. 568)
  • Legal Materials (Section 29.3.7.10, pg. 547)

For a more detailed explanation of how to use CSE style, see the Scientific Style and Format text.

Based on CSE Scientific Style and Format, 7th Edition, 2006

*Use one of the following headings:

"References" "Cited References" "Literature Cited" "Bibliography"

Citation-sequence and citation-name styles

Name-year style.

cite cse style

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Citing Sources: CSE Style

What is cse style.

CSE (Council of Science Editors) Style is widely used in scientific disciplines, particularly in the natural and physical sciences. The CSE manual describes three systems of documentation. All three systems use a reference list at the end of the paper with complete source information. The Name-Year system uses parenthetical citations consisting of the author's last name and year of publication; the Citation-Sequence and Citation-Name systems both use numbered references in the text to refer to the reference list at the end. In Citation-Sequence, the reference list is presented and numbered in the order the sources appear in the text, while in Citation-Name, the reference list is numbered alphabetically by author's last name.

Official Guidance from the CSE

  • Quick Guide to Scientific Style and Format From University of Chicago Press, the publishers of the CSE Manual.

Online CSE Name-Year Style Guides

  • Citation Guide: CSE Name-Year System Guide to using parenthetical references in CSE Style, from the Writing Across the Curriculum Clearinghouse
  • Cite Your Sources: CSE Name-Year From the University of Guelph -- see also their several videos on the guide
  • The Writer's Handbook: CSE Documention Style Quick guide to both Name-Year and Citation-Sequence/Citation-Name systems, from the Writing Center at University of Wisconsin

Online CSE Citation-Name/Citation-Sequence Style Guides

  • Citation Guide: CSE Citation-Sequence System Guide to using numbered references in CSE Style, from the Writing Across the Curriculum Clearinghouse
  • Cite Your Sources: CSE CItation-Name From the University of Guelph; see also their several videos on the guide.
  • The Writer's Handbook: CSE Documentation Style Quick guide to both Name-Year and Citation-Sequence/Citation-Name systems, from the Writing Center at University of Wisconsin

Books on CSE Style

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CSE Quick Citation Guide

Cse citation style.

  • Format In-Text and End References
  • Format End References
  • In-Text Citations
  • Formatting End References

Scientific Style and Format presents three systems for referring to references (also known as citations) within the text of a journal article, book, or other scientific publication:

  • citation–sequence
  • name–year
  • citation–name 

These abbreviated references are called in-text references. They refer to a list of references at the end of the document.

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CSE Citation-Sequence and CSE Citation-Name

In both CSE citation systems described here, numbers in a sentence refer to sources listed at the end of the document. These two systems differ only in how sources are numbered in the reference list: sequentially (citation-sequence) or alphabetically by author’s name (citation-name).

In-text references

Format in-text references.

The style advocated by CSE suggests that numbers appear in superscript, and appear before punctuation marks (commas or periods).

Example from The CSE Manual:

Traumatic life events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are endemic among American civilians 1.

However, many scientific journals format these numbers differently, using square brackets or parentheses, or putting superscript numbers after the period.

Example from Communicative & Integrative Biology (2011) :

The most fundamental specialization of the eusocial insects is the division of colony members into two castes, workers (functionally sterile individuals) and reproductives.1

Example from Current Opinion in Cell Biology (2012):

The classical cadherin system connects cadherins to the actin cytoskeleton via b-catenin and a-catenin to maintain tissue integrity in metazoans [1].

Example from mBio (2012) :

Although xylem is considered a nutrient-limiting, low-oxygen environment (1), R. solanacearum is well adapted to it, growing to cell densities of 108 to 109 CFU/g stem while still remaining limited to xylem (2).

For consistency, the examples that follow have been reformatted to match CSE’s preferred style (superscripted numerals before punctuation).

Number in-text references

  • In the citation-sequence system, sources are numbered by order of reference so that the first reference cited in the paper is 1, the second 2, and so on.
  • In citation-name, the sources are numbered alphabetically so that 1 refers to the first source in an alphabetical list, 2 refers to the second source in that list, and so on.

When possible, put numbers immediately after the relevant word or phrase rather than at the end of a sentence.

Cite multiple sources in one sentence

If the numbers are not in a continuous sequence, use commas (with no spaces) between numbers. If you have more than two numbers in a continuous sequence, use the first and last number of the sequence joined by a hyphen.

Example from A new model for caste development in social wasps by UW-Madison Professor Robert Jeanne (Entomology) and postdoc Sainath Suryanarayanan (Community and Environmental Sociology):

For the non-dimorphic polistines such as Polistes, Ropalidia and others, the long-standing view is that differences in the quantity of nourishment received during the larval stage act as a “nutritional switch” to bias development toward one caste or the other 7,8,11-14.

Example from Cadherin complexity: recent insights into cadherin superfamily function in C. elegans by UW-Madison graduate student Timothy Loveless (Cellular and Molecular Biology) and Professor Jeff Hardin (Zoology):

Basolateral foci of HMP-1 and DLG-1 accumulate despite unperturbed localization of LET-413/Scribble 19, which normally excludes AJ components from basolateral surfaces 23,24.

Cite one source in multiple sentences

Once you have assigned a source a number, use that same number every time you cite it.

Example from Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Synthesized with Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization by UW-Madison Biochemistry postdoc Matthew J. Allen and Professors Ronald J. Raines and Laura L. Kiessling:

Moreover, the use of ROMP is advantageous because it can yield polymers of well-defined length 6. To synthesize the target polymers 8a and 8b we employed the ruthenium initiator (H2IMes)(3-Br-py)2(Cl)2RudCHPh. Its rate of initiation relative to propagation affords polymers of well-defined average lengths 6,8.

Example from The Role of Secretion Systems and Small Molecules in Soft-Rot Enterobacteriaceae Pathogenicity by UW-Madison Professor Amy Charkowski (Plant Pathology) et al.

Once associated with an insect, some isolates of Pectobacterium carotovorum can infect and persist in D. melanogaster and activate an immune response 8,9. The protein Evf (Erwinia virulence factor), present only in insect-associated strains, promotes the persistence of bacteria in the insect midgut. Evf synthesis is regulated by SlyA (Hor), which also regulates plant virulence genes 1,9.

Cite sources in tables and figures

Avoid using superscripted numerals in figures where they might be misconstrued as exponents. Instead, use superscripted letters like a,b for tables and figures. List them sequentially after all the text citations.

Quote or excerpt a source

Although CSE provides rules for how to quote or excerpt sources, in practice almost no scientists publishing in journals that use CSE documentation choose to quote sources. Instead, these authors paraphrase or simply cite authors.

When you quote or excerpt a source, include an in-text reference to help your reader see what source you are quoting from. The seventh edition of the CSE Manual does not provide specific rules for identifying the page number or other location information for that source.

Cite a work cited by your source (secondary citation)

Secondary citations refer to material that you have not seen in its original form but rather have obtained from another document that cited the original source. In the 2006 edition of the CSE Manual, secondary citations are not listed as a valid form of citation. Instead, find and cite the original source.

End references and the reference list

The goal of your reference list is to help your reader identify each numbered source quickly and clearly. CSE has standardized the information to be provided for ease and predictability of reading.

What to call your reference list

“Reference list” is CSE’s generic term for the list of sources at the end of your document. Your list should be given a more formal title: References or Cited References . If you used some documents as sources but did not cite them in your paper, list them alphabetically by author under the heading Additional References.

Format your end references

Otegui MS, Kiessling LL, Batzli J.
The fat-soluble vitamins: handbook of lipid research 2.
In vitro and in vivo reconstitution of the cadherin-catenin-actin complex from Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2010 Aug 17;107(33):14591-6.
Livestock Prod Sci. Biochem Mol Biol Educ. J Dairy Sci.
Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2012;50:425-49. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2011 Jul;24(7):773-86.

Examples of end references

References for books follow the order Author(s). Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date. Extent.

1 Allen C, Prior P, Hayward AC. Bacterial wilt: the disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. St. Paul (MN): APS Press; 2005. 508 p.

[A book’s extent in number of pages (“508 p.” in the example above) is optional but provides useful information.]

Book chapter

References for chapters or other parts of a book follow the order Author(s). Chapter title. In: Editor(s). Book title. Place of publication: publisher; year. Page numbers for that chapter.

2 Otegui MS. Endosperm: development and molecular biology. In: Olson OA, editor. Endosperm cell walls: formation, composition, and functions. Heidelberg (Germany): Springer-Verlag; 2007. p. 159-178. 3 Allen, C. Bacteria, bioterrorism, and the geranium ladies of Guatemala. In: Cabezas AL, Reese E, Waller M, editors. Wages of empire: neoliberal policies, repression, and women’s poverty. Boulder (CO): Paradigm Press; 2007. p. 169-177.

Journal article

References for journal articles follow the order Author(s). Article title. Abbreviated journal title. Date;volume(issue):pages.

To save space, CSE suggests that writers abbreviate the titles of journals in according to the ISO 4 standard, which you can read about at ISSN . You can also search ISSN’s List of Title Word Abbreviations.

4 Wang Y, Zhu J, DeLuca HF. Where is the vitamin D receptor? Arch Biochem Biophys. 2012 Jul 1;523(1):123-33. 5 Powell JM, Wattiaux MA, Broderick GA. Evaluation of milk urea nitrogen as a management tool to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy farms. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94(9):4690-4694 6 Flores-Cruz Z, Allen C. Necessity of OxyR for the hydrogen peroxide stress response and full virulence in Ralstonia solanacearum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77(18):6426-6432.

Reference list information for articles found online adds a medium designator—[Internet], including the brackets—at the end of the title of the journal, as well as a citation date and a URL. The CSE Manual does not explicitly require this information if the online content is identical to the print content.

7 Werling BP, Lowenstein DM, Straub CS, Gratton C. Multi-predator effects produced by functionally distinct species vary with prey density. J Insect Sci [Internet]. 2012 [cited 12 Sep 2013]; 12(30). Available from: insectscience.org/12.30 8 Bennett AB, Gratton C. Floral diversity increases beneficial arthropod richness and decreases variability in arthropod community composition. Ecol Appl [Internet]. 2013 [cited 12 Sep 2013];23(1):86-95. Available from: http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/gratton/files/2013/03/Ecological-Applications.pdf

Internet resource

9 Williamson RC. Deciduous tree galls [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin-Madison; 2004 Apr 25 [cited 2013 Sep 12]. Available from http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/pddc/files/Fact_Sheets/FC_PDF/Deciduous_Tree_Galls.pdf 10 ASAP: systematic annotation package for community analysis of genomes [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin-Madison; c2013 [cited 2013 Sep 12]. Available from http://www.genome.wisc.edu/tools/asap.htm 11 Stem Cell Research Oversight Committee. University of Wisconsin-Madison policy for multisite research studies using human pluripotent stem cells [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin-Madison; 2009 [cited 2013 Sep 12]. Available from http://www.grad.wisc.edu/admin/committees/scro/documents/MultisiteresearchpolicyFinal.pdf

Government document

12 Working Group on Diversity in the Biomedical Research Workforce (US). Draft report diversity in the biomedical research workforce [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2012 Jun 13 [cited 2013 Sep 12]. Available from http://acd.od.nih.gov/Diversity%20in%20the%20Biomedical%20Research%20Workforce%20Report.pdf

Dissertation

13 Oliver SS. Context dependent protein interpretation of the histone language [dissertation]. University of Wisconsin-Madison; 2012. 238 p.

Conference presentation or lecture

If a conference paper is subsequently published, either in the proceedings of the conference or in a journal, cite as a chapter in a book or as an article in a journal. Otherwise, cite as follows.

14 Vierstra R. Atomic perspectives on phytochrome photoactivation and signaling. Paper presented at: Steenbock 35. Proceedings of the 35th Steenbock Symposium on Advances in Biomolecular NMR; 2011 June 26-28; Madison, WI.

References for this page

Formatted in Citation-Name style. All examples on this page are taken from publications by UW-Madison professors, postdocs, and graduate students. Note that CSE doesn’t call for hyperlinks.

1 Allen C, Bent A, Charkowski AO. Underexplored niches in research on plant pathogenic bacteria . Plant Physiol [Internet]. [Cited 20 June 2013.] 2009;150(4):1631-1637. Available from http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/150/4/1631.full 2 Bennett AB, Gratton C. Measuring natural pest suppression at different spatial scales affects the importance of local variables . Environ Entomol. 2012;41(5):1077-85. 3 Bennett AB, Gratton C. Floral diversity increases beneficial arthropod richness and decreases variability in arthropod community composition. Ecol Appl. 2013;23(1):86-95. 4 Charkowski A, Blanco C, Condemine G, Expert D, Franza T, Hayes C, Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N, Lopez Solanilla E, Low D, Moleleki L, et al. The role of secretion systems and small molecules in soft-rot enterobacteriaceae pathogenicity . Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2012;50:425-49. 5 Dreyer J, Hoekman D, Gratton C. Lake-derived midges increase abundance of shoreline terrestrial arthropods via multiple trophic pathways. Oikos [Internet]. [Cited 20 June 2013.] 2012;121:252-258. Available from http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/gratton/files/2012/04/Dreyer-et-al.-2012-Lake%E2%80%90derived-midges-increase-abundance-of-shorelin.pdf 6 Gratton C, Vander Zanden MJ. Flux of aquatic insect productivity to land: comparison of lentic and lotic ecosystems . Ecology 2009;90(10):2689-2699. 7 Lyon A, Bell MM, Croll NS, Jackson R, Gratton C. Maculate conceptions: power, process, and creativity in participatory research . Rural Sociology [Internet]. 2010 [cited 20 Jun 2013];75(4):538-559. Available from http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/gratton/files/2012/01/Lyons-et-al-2010-Rural-Soc-Maculate-conceptions.pdf 8 Lyon A, Bell MM, Gratton C, Jackson R. Farming without a recipe: Wisconsin graziers and new directions for agricultural science. J Rural St [Internet]. 2011 [cited 20 June 2013];27:384-393. Available from http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/gratton/files/2012/01/Lyon_Farmingworecipe2011.pdf 9 Mattupalli C, Genger RK, Charkowski AO. Evaluating incidence of Helminthosporium solani and Colletotrichum coccodes on asymptomatic organic potatoes and screening potato lines for resistance to silver scurf . Am J Potato Res [Internet]. 2013 [cited 20 June 2013]. Available from http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs12230-013-9314-3.pdf 10 Thomas DL. Utilization and potential of estimates of genetic value from an industry perspective. Sheep & Goat [Internet]. 2012;27:13-15. Available from http://www.sheepusa.org/user_files/file_1014.pdf 11 Wang Y, DeLuca HF. Is the vitamin d receptor found in muscle? Endocrinology. 2011;152(2):354-63. 12 Wang Y, Borchert ML, Deluca HF. Identification of the vitamin D receptor in various cells of the mouse kidney . Kidney Int. 2012;81(10):993-1001. 13 Wang Y, Marling SJ, Zhu JG, Severson KS, DeLuca HF. Development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice requires vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 May 29;109(22):8501-4. 14 Wang Y, Zhu J, DeLuca HF. Where is the vitamin D receptor? Arch Biochem Biophys. 2012;523(1):123-33.

cite cse style

Council of Science Editors Documentation

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CSE Table of Contents

Citation-Sequence and Citation-Name

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Citing Your Sources: CSE (Council of Science Editors) Style

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Boston University Libraries SEARCH

  • BU Libraries Search (BULS) This link opens in a new window Boston University Libraries Search provides a single place to search for academic material provided by the BU Libraries, including books, journals, video and sound recordings as well as online material from a variety of sources.

Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab)

cite cse style

The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue. Students, members of the community, and users worldwide will find information to assist with many writing projects.

Scientific Style and Format: the CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers

Scientific Style and Format Style Manual Committee, Council of Science Editors. 8th ed. Cambridge University Press, 2014 Location: Science & Engineering Library T11.S386 2014 

See Chapter 30:  Citations and References pages 617-676  Citing electronic sources pages 665-669

the Citation-Sequence system (see page 619-622) the Name-Year system (see pages 619-620)

The following examples use the Name-Year system.

The in-text citation includes the last name of the author(s) and the year of publication of the document enclosed in parentheses.in-text citation: (Sawin 2004)

The reference list is included at the end of the document. Reference list entries are arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the author, editor, or other individual or entity.Names are formatted as Last, Initials.reference list entry: Sawin, JL. 2004. Mainstreaming renewable energy in the 21st century. Washington, DC. Worldwatch Institute. 76 p.

General format: Author/editor. Year. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher. #pages. Example: Sorensen, B. 2004. Renewable energy : its physics, engineering, use, environmental impacts, economy, and planning aspects. 3rd ed. Boston : Elsevier Academic Press. 928 p.

Chapter or other part of a book

General format: Author of selection. Year. Title of selection. In: Author/editor of book. Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: publisher. Pages of selection. Example: Singleton P, Sainsbury D. 2001. Dictionary of microbiology and molecular biology. 3rd ed. New York: J Wiley. Plasmid; p 593-4.

Conference proceedings

General format: Editor. Year. Title of publication or conference. Name of conference; dates of conference; place of conference. Place of publication: publisher. Total number of pages. Example: Dubois DM, editor. 2004. Computing anticipatory systems. CASYS 2003 – Sixth International Conference; 2003 August 11-16; Liege, Belgium. Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics. 602 p.

Conference papers

General format: Author of the paper. Date of publication. Title of the paper. Connective phrase [In]: editor of the proceedings. Title of the publication, or name of conference, or both; dates of the conference; place of the conference. Place of publication: publisher. Paper pages. Example: Rossler OE. 2004. Nonlinear dynamics, artificial cognition and galactic export. In: Dubois DM, editor. Computing anticipatory systems. CASYS 2003 – Sixth International Conference; 2003 August 11-16; Liege, Belgium. Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics. p 47-67.

Journal article

General format: Author. Year (or Date). Title of article. Title of journal. Volume and issue number. Page numbers. URL in angle brackets. Date accessed. Example:  Bisagni C, Mirandola, C. 2005. Experimental and numer ical investigation of crash behavior of composite helicopter cruciform elements. Journal of the American Helicopter Society 50(1): 107-116. Example: Cavalcanti A. 2003. Assembly automation with evolutionary nanorobots and sensor-based control applied to nanomedicine. IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology.  2(2): 82 – 87.  {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.bu.edu/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1204819} Accessed April 7, 2020

General format:  Author. Title [medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of Publication [Date of update/Date of citation]. Availability. Example:  Animal Welfare Information Center [Internet]. Beltsville (MD): National Agricultural Library (US); [updated April 14, 2005; cited April 7, 2020]. Available from: http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/.

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Citation Styles

  • Chicago Style

What is CSE?

Citing your sources in cse style, reference list citations for common source types, cse manual in the library.

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  • A documentation style for writing and formatting scientific research papers, including citing sources
  • Created by the Council of Science Editors
  • Scientific Style and Format contains comprehensive and explanations for proper scientific communication and style guidelines
  • CSE offers three style options for in-text citations: Citation-Sequence System, Name-Year System, and Citation-Name System
  • Official CSE Quick Guide
  • Printable CSE Quick Guide From Missouri S&T
  • ZoteroBib ZoteroBib is a free service that helps you quickly create a bibliography in any citation style.

How to cite in CSE

1. Citation-Sequence System

  • Use a superscript number at the end of a sentence to acknowledge that you are using another author's words or ideas in the text of your research paper.
  • Number citations in the order they appear in the text.
  • If you cite the same source again later in your paper, use the number you assigned originally; each source should be associated with one and only one number.

Reference List:

  • Include a reference list at the end of your paper. The list should contain a full citation for each in-text citation referenced within your paper.
  • Each full citation should include the specific publication information required by the Council of Science Editor rules. This allows your reader to find the sources, if desired.
  • Arrange the end references in numerical order according to the order they appear in the paper.

2. Citation-Name System

  • Arrange citations in alphabetical order by the first word of the citation (usually author's last name). Then, number the sources sequentially.
  • Use the number assigned to the source in the reference list.

3. Name-Year System

  • Example: (Smith 2019)
  • Example: (Smith and Jones 2019)
  • Example: (Smith et al. 2019)
  • Example: (Smith 2013, 2019)
  • Example: (Smith 2019a, 2019b)
  • Example: (Smith J 2019; Smith M 2019)
  • Do not number the reference list. Arrange the end references alphabetically by the author ’ s last name.
  • In the reference list, multiple sources by the same author should be listed chronologically, earliest first.

Citation - sequence and citation - name:

Basic format:

Author(s). Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date.

Schott J, Priest J. Leading antenatal classes: a practical guide. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Books for Midwives; 2002.

Name - year :

Author(s). Date. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher.

Schott J, Priest J. 2002. Leading antenatal classes: a practical guide. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Books for Midwives.

Newspaper Articles

Citation - Sequence and Citation - Name:

Author(s). Title of article. Title of newspaper (edition). Date; section:beginning page of article (column no.).

Weiss R. Study shows problems in cloning people: researchers find replicating primates will be harder than other mammals.

     Washington Post (Home Ed.). 2003 Apr 11;Sect. A:12 (col. 1).

Name - Year:

Author(s). Date. Title of article. Title of newspaper (edition). Section:beginning page of article (column no.).

Weiss R. 2003 Apr 11. Study shows problems in cloning people: researchers find replicating primates will be harder than other

     mammals. Washington Post (Home Ed.). Sect. A:12 (col. 1).

Journal Articles

Author(s). Article Title. Journal title. Date;volume(issue):location.

Smart N. A practical guide to exercise training for heart failure patients. J. Card Fail. 2003;9(1):49 - 58.

Author(s). Date. Article Title. Journal title. Volume(issue):location.

Smart N. 2003. A practical guide to exercise training for heart failure patients. J. Card Fail. 9(1):49 - 58.

Title of Homepage. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date of publication [date updated; date accessed]. URL.

APSnet: plant pathology. St. Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; c1994 - 2005 [accessed 2005 Jun 20].

     http://www.apsnet.org/.

Title of Homepage. Date of publication. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; [date updated; date accessed]. URL.

APS net : plant pathology. c1994 - 2005 . St. Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; [accessed 2005 Jun 20].

Author(s). Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date of publication [date update; date accessed]. URL.

Griffiths AJF, Miller JH, Suzuki DT, Lewontin RC, Gelbart WM. Introduction to genetic analysis. 7th ed. New York (NY):

      W. H. Freeman & Co.; c2000 [accessed 2005 May 31]. http://www.ncbi .nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?call=bv.View.. Show TOC &rid=iga.TOC.

Name - Year :

Author(s). Date of publication. Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; [date updated; date accessed]. URL.

Griffiths AJF, Miller JH, Suzuki DT, Lewontin RC, Gelbart WM. c2000. Introduction to genetic analy sis. 7th ed. New York (NY):

     W.H. Freeman & Co.; [accessed 2005 May 31]. http://www.ncbi .nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?call=bv.View.. Show TOC &rid=iga.TOC.

Online Journal Articles

Citation - Sequence and Citation-Name:

Author(s). Title of article. Title of journal (edition). Date of publication [date updated; date accessed];volume(issue): location. URL. doi.

Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Beard S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown D. Mumps outbreaks across Eng land and Wales in 2004:

     observational study. BMJ. 2005 [accessed 2005 May 31];330(7 500):1119 - 1120. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/ reprint/330/7500 /1119.

     doi: 10.1136/bmj.330.7500.1119.

Author(s). Date of publication. Title of article. Title of journal (edition). [date updated; date accessed];volume(issue): location. URL. doi.

Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Beard S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown D. 2005. Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004:

     observational study. BMJ. [accessed 2005 May 31];330 (7500):1119 - 1120. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/ reprint/330/750 0/1119.

     doi: 10.1136 /bmj.330.7500.1119.

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Cse quick citation guide.

  • CSE Citation Systems
  • In Text References
  • N-Y System: Articles
  • N-Y System: Books & Websites
  • C-S and C-N System: Articles
  • C-S and C-N System: Books & Websites

Name-Year (N-Y) System In Text References

In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks.

Name-Year (N-Y) system  (end references are listed in alphabetic order)

In text example : By contrast, the several antisera that have been raised against Sp1, a defined RNA polymerase II transcription factor (Kadonaga 1986), stain exclusively the nucleus...

Note : If you mention the author in the running text of your paper, include only the year in the parenthetical citation:

Example : This conclusion is supported by Rubin and Smith (1990), who found that...

Multiple authors :  If two authors, list both. For more than two authors, list the first author then et al.

Example : In the classic experiment (Gass and Varonis 1984) showed that....

Example : Recent research (Munro et al. 2006) has shown that...

No author : Use the title (for long titles use the first few words followed by an elipsis): 

Example : Top fields of study for international students are business and engineering, followed by physical and life sciences, math and computer science, and social sciences (Open Doors 2010).

No date : For online sources if the publication year cannot be determined use the year of access. For print sources use [date unknown]:

Example : Claims were made (Smith [date unknown]) with regards to...

CItation Sequence (C-S) and Citation Name (C-N) Systems In Text References

Citation-Sequence (C-S) System  (end references are listed in the order they are referred to in the text).

​ In text example : Modern scientific nomenclature really began with Linnaeus in botany 1 , but other disciplines 2,3  were not many years behind in developing various systems 4-7  for nomenclature and symbolization.

Citation-Name (C-N) System  (end references are listed in alphabetic order).

In text example : Modern scientific nomenclature really began with Linnaeus in botany 4 , but other disciplines 1,5  were not many years behind in developing various systems 2-3,6,10  for nomenclature and symbolization.

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Citation Styles: APA, MLA, Chicago, & Beyond!: CSE

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Books on CSE

How to cite in cse style.

What is CSE Style?

CSE stands for Council of Science Editors and is commonly used when writing scientifically. CSE style includes three major systems for organizing your references: citation-sequence, citation-name, and name-year. These systems indicate how your in-text citations look and how your reference list is organized. The system most commonly used in Environmental Studies classes at W&J is name-year.

In the Name-Year system, in-text citations share the authors name and the date of publication and the cited reference list is organized alphabetically. 

CSE uses abbreviated journal titles which can be overwhelming for first-time users. We encourage you to ask a librarian for help.

Examples of CSE Style

In CSE style, keep in mind these general rules:

  • When listing authors, spell out the last name but use initials for first and middle names. Do not use a comma between the last name and initials.
  • List out up to 10 authors. At 11 or more, use the first ten names followed by et al. 
  • For titles, capitalize only the first word and proper nouns. 
  • Any Journal Title longer than one word should be abbreviated. 
  • Anytime you are citing an online source you must add the [accessed date] and URL.

Online CSE Citation Style Resources

  • Scientific Style & Format Quick Guide This is the official CSE site.
  • CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Use this complimentary tool to quickly identify or confirm journal titles and abbreviations for publications indexed by CAS since 1907, including serial and non-serial scientific and technical publications.
  • Science and Engineering Journal Abbreviation Search Tool
  • National Library of Medicine Journal Search Tool
  • Web of Science Journal Search Tool Click on the starting letter of your publication to navigate to the correct page than use Ctrl + F (PC) or Cmmd +F (Mac) to search for the publication.
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BibGuru CSE Citation Generator

Cite websites, books, articles, ...

BibGuru CSE Citation Generator citation generator

In-text citations in CSE

Cse reference list - name-year system, citation examples - name-year system, cse reference list - citation-sequence and citation-name system, citation examples - citation-sequence and citation-name system.

  • Helpful resources

The ultimate guide to citing in CSE

CSE style was developed by the Council of Science Editors (CSE), a US-based nonprofit organization that supports editorial practice among scientific writers. The CSE publishes a style guide for scientific papers: The CSE Manual . CSE style originated in the 1960s and is currently used in many fields of study in both the life sciences and physical sciences.

If you are not sure which citation style to use in your paper, ask your instructor. There are many different citation styles and using the style your instructor or institution has established correctly can have a positive impact on your grade.

The CSE Manual, 8th edition, is the basis of this guide. This guide focuses on crediting sources and aims at answering all of your questions about citing in CSE. But you don’t have to worry about getting your citations right with the BibGuru citation generator. We have created BibGuru to help you focus on the content of your work instead of worrying about how to get your reference list done correctly.

APA book cover

I want to cite a ...

The CSE style has three systems to cite sources in-text:

  • Name-Year (N-Y) system: The author’s surname and year of the publication are placed in parentheses in the text e.g. (Rode 2012). The reference list is ordered alphabetically by author name.
  • Citation-Name (C-N) system: Superscript numbers are used to identify in-text citations. In the alphabetized reference list, each numeral corresponds with a unique reference.
  • Citation-Sequence (C-S) system: Superscript numbers are used to identify in-text citations. In the reference list, sources are numbered sequentially by the order in which they appear in the text (this differs from the C-N system because they might not be in alphabetical order by author).

These abbreviated references are called in-text references. They refer to a list of full references at the end of the document.

Which of the three citation systems above you use will determine the order of references at the end of your document. These end references essentially have the same format in all three systems. One exception is the placement of the date of publication in the name-year system. Ask your instructor which of the three systems to use in case you are unsure.

See below the format and examples for the most popular reference types in the name-year system:

CSE Name-Year explainer image

  • Dissertations and Theses

For the end reference, list authors in the order in which they appear in the original text, followed by the year of publication. Journal titles are generally abbreviated. Each element is separated by a period, and the location (usually the page range for the article) is preceded by a colon.

FORMAT Reference list entry format

Author(s). Date. Article title. Journal title. Volume(issue):location.

FORMAT Reference list entry format for an online journal article

Author(s) of article. Date of publication. Title of article. Title of journal (edition). [date updated; date accessed];Volume(issue):location. Notes.

EXAMPLE Journal article with a DOI

(Christopher 2022)

Reference list:

Christopher MM. 2022. Comprehensive analysis of retracted journal articles in the field of veterinary medicine and animal health. BMC Vet Res. 18(1):73. doi:10.1186/s12917-022-03167-x.

For articles with 2 authors, names are separated by a comma in the end reference but by “and” in the in-text reference.

EXAMPLE Journal article with two authors

(McCauley and Christiansen 2019)
McCauley SM, Christiansen MH. 2019. Language learning as language use: A cross-linguistic model of child language development. Psychol Rev. 126(1):1–51. doi:10.1037/rev0000126.

For articles with 3 to 10 authors, list all authors in the end reference; in the in-text reference, list only the first, followed by “et al.” When there are more than 10 authors, list the first 10 in the end reference, followed by “et al.”

EXAMPLE Journal article with four authors

(Warren et al. 2018)
Warren R, Price J, Graham E, Forstenhaeusler N, VanDerWal J. 2018. The projected effect on insects, vertebrates, and plants of limiting global warming to 1.5°C rather than 2°C. Science. 360(6390):791–795. doi:10.1126/science.aar3646.

The basic format for books is as follows:

FORMAT Book

Author(s). Date. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher. Extent. Notes.

Extent can include information about pagination or number of volumes and is considered optional. Notes can include information of interest to the reader, such as the language of publications other than English, and is also considered optional.

For books with 2 authors, names are separated by a comma in the end reference and by “and” in the in-text reference.

EXAMPLE Book with two authors

(Auerbach and Kotlikoff 1998)
Auerbach AJ, Kotlikoff LJ. 1998. Macroeconomics: An integrated approach. 2nd ed. London, England: MIT Press.

For books with 3 to 10 authors, list all authors in the end reference. In the in-text reference, list only the first, followed by “et al.” For books with more than 10 authors, list the first 10 in the end reference, followed by “et al.”

EXAMPLE Book with 6 authors

(Clayton et al. 2021)
Clayton D, Jackson TD, Stone N, Thomas A, Woodfolk A, Yoon N. 2021. Blackout. UK: HarperCollins.

EXAMPLE Book with an editor and multiple authors

(Raab et al. 2015)
Raab M, Lobinger B, Hoffmann SO, Pizzera A, Laborde S, editors. 2015. Performance psychology: Perception, action, cognition, and emotion. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

EXAMPLE Doctoral thesis

(Pradhan 2021)
Pradhan S. 2021. Impacts of road construction on landsliding in Nepal [doctoral thesis]. Durham University. http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/14069/.

Website references follow the same general principles as printed references. In addition, a date of update/revision (if available), access date, and URL need to be provided. The format for a website reference looks like this:

FORMAT Website

Title of Homepage. Date of publication. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; [date updated; date accessed]. Notes.

For the in-text reference, include only the first word or two of the title (enough to distinguish it from other titles in the reference list), followed by an ellipsis.

EXAMPLE Website

WWF - endangered species conservation. 2022. World Wildlife Fund. [accessed 2022 May 27]. https://www.worldwildlife.org/.

The format for a blog article is as follows:

FORMAT Blog post

Author’s name. Date of publication. Title of post [descriptive word]. Title of blog. [accessed date]. URL.

EXAMPLE Blog post

(Liegl 2021)
Liegl J. 2021. Communicating with humanity. Several people are typing. [accessed 2022 Feb 22]. https://slack.com/blog/collaboration/communicating-with-humanity.

An example of an CSE Name-Year reference page made with BibGuru's CSE citation generator:

cse page example image

How to use Bibguru for CSE citations

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The citation-sequence and citation-name systems are identical except for the order of references. In both systems, numbers in the text refer to references in the reference list.

In the citation-sequence system , the end references are listed in the order in which they appear in the text. Once a reference is numbered, the same number is used for all following in-text citations in the same document, e.g. if Meyer is the first mentioned in-text, their work will be number 1 in the end references and also in all following in-text references.

In the citation-name system , references in the reference list are listed alphabetically by author. Multiple works by one author are listed alphabetically by title. The end references are numbered in alphabetical order and the number assigned to an author in the reference list is then used for the in-text citations, regardless of the order in which they appear in the text. So, if a work by Meyer is number 43 in the reference list, each in-text reference to Meyer will also be number 43.

See below for the format and examples of the most popular reference types in the citation-sequence and citation-name systems:

CSE Citation-Sequence and Citation-Name explainer image

Authors are listed in the order in which they appear in the original text, followed by a period. Journal titles are generally abbreviated.

Author(s). Article title. Journal title. Date;volume(issue):location.
Author(s) of article. Title of article. Title of journal (edition). Date of publication [date updated; date accessed];volume(issue):location. Notes.
2. Christopher MM. Comprehensive analysis of retracted journal articles in the field of veterinary medicine and animal health. BMC veterinary research. 2022;18(1):73. doi:10.1186/s12917-022-03167-x

For articles with more than 1 author, names are separated by a comma.

3. McCauley SM, Christiansen MH. Language learning as language use: A cross-linguistic model of child language development. Psychological review. 2019;126(1):1–51. doi:10.1037/rev0000126

For articles with more than 10 authors, the first 10 are listed, followed by “et al.”

4. Warren R, Price J, Graham E, Forstenhaeusler N, VanDerWal J. The projected effect on insects, vertebrates, and plants of limiting global warming to 1.5°C rather than 2°C. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2018;360(6390):791–795. doi:10.1126/science.aar3646

This is the standard format for a book citation:

Author(s). Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date. Extent. Notes.

For books with more than 1 author, names are separated by a comma.

5. Auerbach AJ, Kotlikoff LJ. Macroeconomics: An integrated approach. 2nd ed. London, England: MIT Press; 1998.

When there are more than 10 authors, list the first 10 followed by “et al.”

6. Raab M, Lobinger B, Hoffmann SO, Pizzera A, Laborde S, editors. Performance psychology: Perception, action, cognition, and emotion. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2015.
7. Pradhan S. Impacts of road construction on landsliding in Nepal [doctoral thesis]. Durham University; 2021. http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/14069/.

Website references follow the same general principles as for printed references. In addition, a date of update/revision (if available), access date, and URL need to be provided. The format for a website reference looks like this:

Title of Homepage. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date of publication [date updated; date accessed]. Notes.
8. WWF - endangered species conservation. World Wildlife Fund. 2022 [accessed 2022 May 27]. https://www.worldwildlife.org/
Author’s name. Title of post [descriptive word]. Title of blog. Date of publication. [accessed date]. URL.
8. Liegl J. Communicating with humanity. Several people are typing. 2021 Jul 2. [accessed 2022 Feb 22]. https://slack.com/blog/collaboration/communicating-with-humanity.

An example of an CSE Citation-Name reference page made with BibGuru's CSE citation generator:

cse page example image

While all the specific rules and variations of CSE citation style might sound very complicated, you don't need to worry about getting them wrong with BibGuru. Use our CSE citation maker to create the fastest and most accurate CSE citations possible.

Ditch the frustrations for stress-free citations

Helpful resources, from our blog.

What is Bloom's taxonomy?

CSE stands for Council of Science Editors, formerly known as Council of Biology Editors, CBE. It is a US-based non-profit organization supporting editorial practice among scientific writers. The CSE was established in 1957 by the National Science Foundation and the American Institute of Biological Sciences. The CSE publishes a style guide for scientific papers, the CSE Manual.

The Council of Science Editors (CSE), a US-based non-profit organization supporting editorial practice among scientific writers publishes a style guide for scientific papers: The CSE Manual. The style is used in many fields of study including the life sciences and physical sciences.

The CSE style has three systems to cite sources. The Name-Year system uses in-text citations. In the Citation-Name system and the Citation-Sequence system, superscript numbers are used in-text to identify citations, corresponding with references in the reference list. Those are similar to footnotes but different in that they are not listed separately but integrated into the text.

Interviews and other forms of unpublished personal communications (for example emails) are not included in the reference list in the CSE style. Instead, they should be cited in parentheses within the text of your paper.

The reference list (or bibliography) at the end of your CSE paper can be titled "References" or "Cited References". The arrangement of those references depends on which of the three style systems you picked for the citations of your paper.

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Books on CSE Citation

cite cse style

The CSE style originated in the 1960s, when it was known as the Council of Biology Editors (CBE) style. It was intended to provide style and format guidelines for editors of peer-reviewed biology journals. Over the decades, its scope grew to include many fields of scientific research in both the life sciences and physical sciences. In 2000, the organization became known as the Council of Science Editors (CSE). The style then became known as the CSE style. 

In a reference list prepared in CSE style:

  • journal titles are abbreviated, but no periods are used in the abbreviation. (eg. J Exp Biol)
  • author initials (without periods) are used instead of the author’s given names
  • The last author name within a reference is connected to the others by a comma instead of using the word “and” or an ampersand (“&”).
  • references are formatted using a “hanging” indent.

CSE style allows you to select from one of three systems to cite sources:

  • Citation-Name: Uses superscript numerals to identify in-text citations. In the alphabetized reference list, each numeral corresponds with a unique reference.
  • Citation-Sequence: Uses superscript numerals to identify in-text citations. In the reference list, sources are numbered sequentially by the order in which they appear in the text (so they may not be in alphabetical order by author).
  • Name-Year: Uses parenthetical in-text citations that include author name and the year of publication. The reference list is ordered alphabetically by author name. 

In-text Citation with CSE

The Name-Year system is recommended by many professors in the Dalhousie Department of Biology, but if you're not sure which system to use, be sure to check.

Author's Last Name, Publication Year

(McToad  2010)

All of these pieces must match the corresponding reference list entry exactly!

Example in-text citations, from fictional authors and sources:

Research has shown that the demographic of the fly is a key determining factor in the robustness of its flavour (Frog 1998) .

You could also place part of the citation in the text as follows:

As mentioned in Frog's seminal article (1998) , the demographic of the fly is a key determining factor in the robustness of its flavour.

In this example, the author's name is mentioned in the text itself; therefore the name need not be repeated in the bracketed citation.

Each in-text citation must be associated with an item in a comprehensive list of references at the end of your paper.  Pay attention to your formatting when constructing your reference list. While CSE is not as particular as other citation styles, losing points on an assignment for poorly formatted citations is easily avoided. 

The References Page:

Documents using the CSE style of citation must contain a "References" page at the end of the text. The following are some examples of how to cite commonly used references:

Frog RA. 1998. Expert's guide to artisanal fly cuisine. 2nd ed. Halifax (NS): Imaginary Publishing Inc.

Book, journal and website titles are in sentence case!

Journal Article

Frog RA. 1997. The biology of delicious fly cuisine: enzymes and their mechanisms of actions. Eur J Biochem. 130:(4)435-445.

Journal names are abbreviated!

Ribbit TF. 1998. The life and legacy of Ribbit Frog: a culinary biography. New London (CT): Frog and Toad's Center for Special Collections and Archives; [accessed 2015 Aug 18] . http://www.frogtoadsc.org/Biography.aspx#.UE8foVF76So.

Make sure to include the date accessed!

  • Dalhousie CSE Citation Style Quickguide Downloadable PDF document containing more in-depth information on CSE citations and a variety of information resources.
  • CSE Citation Video Tutorial More in-depth exploration of how to cite a document using CSE Citation Style.
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Brief guide to CSE citation style

Formatting in different styles can impact how a paper is received.

What is CSE?

CSE stands for the Council of Science Editors; this citation style was formerly referred to as CBE, after the Council of Biology Editors (prior to their change of name in 1999). CSE formatting is used almost exclusively for scientific papers.

In-text citations

CSE privileges the author’s last name and date of publication. If you are citing a work by multiple authors, write out the word “and” (as opposed to “&”) to separate the names. Use “et al.” if citing a work by more than two authors, and identify the title if including a source with no author.

  • Book with one author: (Ross 2005)
  • Book with two authors: (Eliot and Smith 2006)
  • Journal article with multiple authors: (Thomas et al. 2007)
  • Website: (The Ecology of Organisms [updated 2009])

Bibliographical citations in CSE

Works cited pages will always be referred to as “bibliographies.” List each bibliographical entry in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author. You do not need to double-space the entries or include an indent. Make sure, however, to check with your professor or publisher for their specific requirements.

  • Book: Massey LD. The Bengal tiger. Sacramento (CA): University of California Press; 1997. 122 p.
  • Edited Book: Williams SL, Thompson SE, Francis CO, editors. Microbiology: uncovering the world beneath the microscope. Washington (DC): Johns Hopkins Press; 1994. 238 p.
  • Chapter in a Book: Ludden JA. Cephalopods. In: Kiley CM, Self SJ, Sowa JA, editors. Oceanic creatures. 2nd ed. Lincoln (NE): Nebraska State University Press; 2009. p 60-110.
  • Article from a Scholarly Journal: Cox J, Engstrom RT. Influence of the spatial pattern of conserved lands on the persistence of a large population of red-cockaded woodpeckers. Biol Conserv. 2001; 100(1):137-150.
  • Special Note: “Journal titles must be abbreviated using CSE style citations. Rules for journal abbreviation are complex and the correct abbreviation is not always obvious; a list of journals and their abbreviations may be found at the ISI Web of Science website. In addition, resources for journal abbreviations by discipline can be found in Scientific Style and Format in Appendix 29.1(p. 569). In the example below, the abbreviated form of the journal title Biological Conservation is used” (CSE/CBE style: print sources [updated 2010]).
  • Website: Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) [Internet]. [updated 2007 Feb 27]. Columbus (OH): Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry; [cited 2007 Jul 24]. Available from http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/forestry/health/eab.htm

Sources and further information

CSE style guide and other resources [Internet]. [updated 2011 Feb 10]. Columbus (OH): Ohio State University Libraries; [cited 2011 Sept 15].

Available from http://library.osu.edu/help/research-strategies/cite-references/cse/cse-style-guide-other-resources/CSE/CBE style: print sources (citation-sequence system) [Internet]. [updated 2010 Sept 28]. Chapel Hill (NC): University of North Carolina.

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Scientific Style (CSE) Citation Examples

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Sample end references page

Basic format, citing faqs, cse scientific style guide.

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  • Sample references page
  • Begin end references on a new page
  • Label and center the page name: References
  • Citations: highlight entire citation and press Ctrl/t to indent the 2nd and following lines
  • Double space between single-spaced citations
  • Authors : List authors in the order in which they appear in the original text. Don't include author's title, e.g., Dr., Ph.D. Multiple works by the same author listed in chronological order.
  • No author:  List citation by title, then date. Ignore "a", "an", and "the" at the beginning of a title when alphabetizing
  • Group authors: When organizations serve as authors, drop "The" in an organizational name for the purposes of alphabetizing, as "American Chemical Society" not "The American Chemical Society".
  • No date: use [date unknown]
  • Abbreviate months to the first 3 letters of the English name for the month, without a period. (p. 586, CSE Manual) 
  • Citations that begin with a number: Write out the number for alphabetizing the references list.
  • CSE - treat particles as part of the surname and retain author's original capitalization, e.g., de la Salle KL, van de Kamp J. Alphabetize by the particle.
  • CSE Citation FAQ

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CSE Citation Style

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CSE In-Text Citation Options Tabbed

  • CSE In-Text Systems
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In-Text Reference Systems in CSE

(CSE 8th; 29.2)

The CSE citations style allows for the use of one of three possible in-text reference systems: 1) Name-Year , 2) Citation-Sequence  and 3) Citation-Name . Each system has benefits and limitations and you should consider each prior to selection.

Name-Year (CSE 8th; 29.2.1.2):

In-text citations using the Name-Year style are set off from the text body with parentheses and include an author surname followed by a space and the year of publication.  Examples of several common variations are provided below.  Consult the CSE style guide for additional variants:

Single Author:

Format: (Surname Year)

Example: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet (Smith 1776).

Two Authors (CSE 8th; 29.2.1.2.4):

Format: (Surname1 "and" Surname2 Year)

Example: At vero eos et accusam et justo duo dolores et ea rebum (Laurel and Hardy 1931).

More Than Two Authors (CSE 8th; 29.2.1.2.4):

Format: (Surname1 "et al." Year)

Example: Duis autem vel eum iriure dolor (Peart et al. 1980).

Citation-Sequence (CSE 8th; 29.2.1.1):

In the Citation-Sequence style, In-Text citations are indicated using superscripted numbers that increase based on the order they are added to the text. The first reference encountered in the text would be numbered "1", the new reference would be "2", etc.

End References (aka the bibliography) are numbered and listed sequentially based on this order of appearance in the text.

Citation-Name (CSE 8th; 29.2.1.3):

The Citation-Name style is probably the least used of the three CSE In-Text citation options.  In this style, after the complete list of End References (aka the bibliography) is finalized, this list is alphabetized by first author surname and then numbered sequentially.

In-Text citations are then indicated throughout the text body using superscripted numbers corresponding to this alphabetized list.

In-Text Formatting and Placement

(CSE 8th; 29.2.4)

What follows are basic style and placement guidelines for the Name-Year, Citation-Sequence and Citation-Name in-text citation systems. For additional examples, please refer to Chapter 29.3 of CSE 8th .

Name-Year System:

In-text citations using the Name-Year style should be placed within parentheses and "on the line" (i.e. in line with the text body and not super- or sub-scripted).

Name-Year style In-text citations should be the same font size as the surrounding text.

Citations should be placed as close to the the element cited as reasonably possible. This allows the reader to form a more unambiguous connection between a fact or concept and the cited source material.

Citation-Sequence and Citation-Name Styles (CSE 8th; 29.2.1.1):

Citation-Sequence and Citation-Name style in-text citation numbers should be super-scripted and in a slightly smaller font size.

As with the Name-Year in-text style, numbered citations should be placed as close to the the element cited as reasonably possible. This allows the reader to form a more unambiguous connection between a fact or concept and the cited source material.

Superscripted numbers should be placed AFTER commas and ending punctuation (i.e. periods, question marks and exclamation points), but BEFORE colons and semicolons.

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  • Citing sources

Citation Styles Guide | Examples for All Major Styles

Published on June 24, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on November 7, 2022.

A citation style is a set of guidelines on how to cite sources in your academic writing . You always need a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize a source to avoid plagiarism . How you present these citations depends on the style you follow. Scribbr’s citation generator can help!

Different styles are set by different universities, academic associations, and publishers, often published in an official handbook with in-depth instructions and examples.

There are many different citation styles, but they typically use one of three basic approaches: parenthetical citations , numerical citations, or note citations.

Parenthetical citations

  • Chicago (Turabian) author-date

CSE name-year

Numerical citations

CSE citation-name or citation-sequence

Note citations

  • Chicago (Turabian) notes and bibliography

Table of contents

Types of citation: parenthetical, note, numerical, which citation style should i use, parenthetical citation styles, numerical citation styles, note citation styles, frequently asked questions about citation styles.

The clearest identifying characteristic of any citation style is how the citations in the text are presented. There are three main approaches:

  • Parenthetical citations: You include identifying details of the source in parentheses in the text—usually the author’s last name and the publication date, plus a page number if relevant ( author-date ). Sometimes the publication date is omitted ( author-page ).
  • Numerical citations: You include a number in brackets or in superscript, which corresponds to an entry in your numbered reference list.
  • Note citations: You include a full citation in a footnote or endnote, which is indicated in the text with a superscript number or symbol.

Citation styles also differ in terms of how you format the reference list or bibliography entries themselves (e.g., capitalization, order of information, use of italics). And many style guides also provide guidance on more general issues like text formatting, punctuation, and numbers.

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

In most cases, your university, department, or instructor will tell you which citation style you need to follow in your writing. If you’re not sure, it’s best to consult your institution’s guidelines or ask someone. If you’re submitting to a journal, they will usually require a specific style.

Sometimes, the choice of citation style may be left up to you. In those cases, you can base your decision on which citation styles are commonly used in your field. Try reading other articles from your discipline to see how they cite their sources, or consult the table below.

The American Anthropological Association (AAA) recommends citing your sources using Chicago author-date style . AAA style doesn’t have its own separate rules. This style is used in the field of anthropology.

APA Style is defined by the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association . It was designed for use in psychology, but today it’s widely used across various disciplines, especially in the social sciences.

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The citation style of the American Political Science Association (APSA) is used mainly in the field of political science.

The citation style of the American Sociological Association (ASA) is used primarily in the discipline of sociology.

Chicago author-date

Chicago author-date style is one of the two citation styles presented in the Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition). It’s used mainly in the sciences and social sciences.

The citation style of the Council of Science Editors (CSE) is used in various scientific disciplines. It includes multiple options for citing your sources, including the name-year system.

Harvard style is often used in the field of economics. It is also very widely used across disciplines in UK universities. There are various versions of Harvard style defined by different universities—it’s not a style with one definitive style guide.

Check out Scribbr’s Harvard Reference Generator

MLA style is the official style of the Modern Language Association, defined in the MLA Handbook (9th edition). It’s widely used across various humanities disciplines. Unlike most parenthetical citation styles, it’s author-page rather than author-date.

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The American Chemical Society (ACS) provides guidelines for a citation style using numbers in superscript or italics in the text, corresponding to entries in a numbered reference list at the end. It is used in chemistry.

The American Medical Association ( AMA ) provides guidelines for a numerical citation style using superscript numbers in the text, which correspond to entries in a numbered reference list. It is used in the field of medicine.

CSE style includes multiple options for citing your sources, including the citation-name and citation-sequence systems. Your references are listed alphabetically in the citation-name system; in the citation-sequence system, they appear in the order in which you cited them.

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ( IEEE ) provides guidelines for citing your sources with IEEE in-text citations that consist of numbers enclosed in brackets, corresponding to entries in a numbered reference list. This style is used in various engineering and IT disciplines.

The National Library of Medicine (NLM) citation style is defined in Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2nd edition).

Vancouver style is also used in various medical disciplines. As with Harvard style, a lot of institutions and publications have their own versions of Vancouver—it doesn’t have one fixed style guide.

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The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation is the main style guide for legal citations in the US. It’s widely used in law, and also when legal materials need to be cited in other disciplines.

Chicago notes and bibliography

Chicago notes and bibliography is one of the two citation styles presented in the Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition). It’s used mainly in the humanities.

The Oxford University Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities ( OSCOLA ) is the main legal citation style in the UK (similar to Bluebook for the US).

There are many different citation styles used across different academic disciplines, but they fall into three basic approaches to citation:

  • Parenthetical citations : Including identifying details of the source in parentheses —usually the author’s last name and the publication date, plus a page number if available ( author-date ). The publication date is occasionally omitted ( author-page ).
  • Numerical citations: Including a number in brackets or superscript, corresponding to an entry in your numbered reference list.
  • Note citations: Including a full citation in a footnote or endnote , which is indicated in the text with a superscript number or symbol.

Check if your university or course guidelines specify which citation style to use. If the choice is left up to you, consider which style is most commonly used in your field.

  • APA Style is the most popular citation style, widely used in the social and behavioral sciences.
  • MLA style is the second most popular, used mainly in the humanities.
  • Chicago notes and bibliography style is also popular in the humanities, especially history.
  • Chicago author-date style tends to be used in the sciences.

Other more specialized styles exist for certain fields, such as Bluebook and OSCOLA for law.

The most important thing is to choose one style and use it consistently throughout your text.

A scientific citation style is a system of source citation that is used in scientific disciplines. Some commonly used scientific citation styles are:

  • Chicago author-date , CSE , and Harvard , used across various sciences
  • ACS , used in chemistry
  • AMA , NLM , and Vancouver , used in medicine and related disciplines
  • AAA , APA , and ASA , commonly used in the social sciences

APA format is widely used by professionals, researchers, and students in the social and behavioral sciences, including fields like education, psychology, and business.

Be sure to check the guidelines of your university or the journal you want to be published in to double-check which style you should be using.

MLA Style  is the second most used citation style (after APA ). It is mainly used by students and researchers in humanities fields such as literature, languages, and philosophy.

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Caulfield, J. (2022, November 07). Citation Styles Guide | Examples for All Major Styles. Scribbr. Retrieved November 29, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/citation-styles/

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  1. Free CSE Citation Generator [Updated for 2023]

    Updated for 2023 Generate accurate CSE citations for books, websites, journals and more, with MyBib! 🤔 What is a CSE Citation Generator? A CSE citation generator is an online tool that creates citations in the Council of Science Editors (CSE) citation style.

  2. CSE Style Guide

    CSE style is the citation style recommended by the Council of Science Editors for use in biology and other sciences. The current 8th edition of Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers is available: In print at the Biddeford Campus Library Online Overview There are three different methods of CSE Style:

  3. CSE

    CSE (Council of Science Editors) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources in the sciences, including Biology In addition to the examples to the left, see these sections of the Scientific Style and Format guide for how to cite other sources in CSE style: Maps (Section 29.3.7.9, pg. 545-7)

  4. Library Guides: CSE Quick Citation Guide: CSE Citation Systems

    CSE style describes three systems for references; use the style which is commonly used in your discipline: Name-Year (N-Y) system Uses the surname of the author and the year of publication within the text to refer to the end references End references are then listed alphabetically by author and then by year.

  5. PDF CSE Citation Style Quick Guide 7th Edition

    CSE Citation Style - Quick Guide 7th Edition This guide outlines how to cite some of the more common information sources in the Council of Science Editor's (CSE) Style Name-Year system. For a comprehensive listing, please consult: Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 7th edition

  6. Citing Sources: CSE Style

    CSE (Council of Science Editors) Style is widely used in scientific disciplines, particularly in the natural and physical sciences. The CSE manual describes three systems of documentation. All three systems use a reference list at the end of the paper with complete source information.

  7. LibGuides: CSE Quick Citation Guide: CSE Quick Citation Style

    The CSE citation style is frequently used in the Natural Sciences (Biology, Chemistry, Geology, Mathematics, Physics). CSE Quick Citation Style CSE Citation Style Citation-Sequence and Citation-Name Format In-Text and End References Format End References Name-Year In-Text Citations Formatting End References CSE Citation Style

  8. CSE Citation-Sequence and CSE Citation-Name

    CSE Citation-Sequence and CSE Citation-Name In both CSE citation systems described here, numbers in a sentence refer to sources listed at the end of the document. These two systems differ only in how sources are numbered in the reference list: sequentially (citation-sequence) or alphabetically by author's name (citation-name). In-text references

  9. Citing Your Sources: CSE (Council of Science Editors) Style

    CSE citation style has two parts: in-text citation and a reference list. The in-text citation includes the last name of the author (s) and the year of publication of the document enclosed in parentheses.in-text citation: (Sawin 2004) The reference list is included at the end of the document.

  10. CSE Style

    Scientific Style and Format contains comprehensive and explanations for proper scientific communication and style guidelines. CSE offers three style options for in-text citations: Citation-Sequence System, Name-Year System, and Citation-Name System. ZoteroBib is a free service that helps you quickly create a bibliography in any citation style.

  11. Library Guides: CSE Quick Citation Guide: In Text References

    In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Citation-Sequence (C-S) System (end references are listed in the order they are referred to in the text). In text example: Modern scientific nomenclature really began with Linnaeus in botany 1, but other disciplines 2,3 were not many years behind in developing various systems 4-7 for ...

  12. Citation Styles: APA, MLA, Chicago, & Beyond!: CSE

    CSE style includes three major systems for organizing your references: citation-sequence, citation-name, and name-year. These systems indicate how your in-text citations look and how your reference list is organized. The system most commonly used in Environmental Studies classes at W&J is name-year.

  13. Free CSE citation generator [2023 Update]

    The CSE style has three systems to cite sources in-text: Name-Year (N-Y) system: The author's surname and year of the publication are placed in parentheses in the text e.g. (Rode 2012). The reference list is ordered alphabetically by author name. Citation-Name (C-N) system: Superscript numbers are used to identify in-text citations.

  14. Web pages

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  15. Research Guides: Scientific Style (CSE) Citation Examples: Home

    Find how to cite articles, books (+ chapters, textbooks, lab manuals) magazines/newspapers, videos, conference papers, web pages, in text parentheticals, & author names. Single-space citations with a hanging indent (ctrl+t). Double-space between entries. What's in this guide, CSE Scientific style guide, More guides

  16. LibGuides: Citation Style Guide: CSE 8th Edition

    CSE style allows you to select from one of three systems to cite sources: Citation-Name: Uses superscript numerals to identify in-text citations. In the alphabetized reference list, each numeral corresponds with a unique reference. Citation-Sequence: Uses superscript numerals to identify in-text citations.

  17. Brief guide to CSE citation style

    Brief guide to CSE citation style Formatting in different styles can impact how a paper is received. What is CSE? CSE stands for the Council of Science Editors; this citation style was formerly referred to as CBE, after the Council of Biology Editors (prior to their change of name in 1999).

  18. References

    Find how to cite articles, books (+ chapters, textbooks, lab manuals) magazines/newspapers, videos, conference papers, web pages, in text parentheticals, & author names. Single-space citations with a hanging indent (ctrl+t). Double-space between entries.

  19. How to Cite Your Resources: CSE Style

    CSE Style Writing Center UW Madison Council of Science Editors Documentation Style The Council of Science Editors (CSE) offers three systems of documentation. In all three systems, a reference list at the end of the paper provides all the information your reader needs to track down your sources.

  20. Research Guides: CSE Citation Style: In-Text Citations

    The first reference encountered in the text would be numbered "1", the new reference would be "2", etc. End References (aka the bibliography) are numbered and listed sequentially based on this order of appearance in the text. Citation-Name (CSE 8th; 29.2.1.3): The Citation-Name style is probably the least used of the three CSE In-Text citation ...

  21. CSE Citation Style (General)

    What is CSE Style? Each discipline uses a different citation style. In Biology, the most commonly used style is CSE. CSE uses three different formats: citation-sequence, citation-name, and name-year -- you will want to check with your professor to see which format they prefer. Citation-sequence: Citations are included in a numbered list at the end of the paper, in the order in which they ...

  22. Citation Styles Guide

    CSE name-year. The citation style of the Council of Science Editors (CSE) is used in various scientific disciplines. It includes multiple options for citing your sources, including the name-year system. CSE name-year reference entry: Graham JR. 2019. The structure and stratigraphical relations of the Lough Nafooey Group, South Mayo.

  23. CSE Citation Generator & Examples

    Published February 12, 2021. Updated August 10, 2021. To cite in the Council of Science Editors (CSE) style, it is helpful to know basic information about your source, including author name(s), the title of the source and/or article, date published, and page numbers (if applicable).