What Is a Case Study?
When you’re performing research as part of your job or for a school assignment, you’ll probably come across case studies that help you to learn more about the topic at hand. But what is a case study and why are they helpful? Read on to learn all about case studies.
At face value, a case study is a deep dive into a topic. Case studies can be found in many fields, particularly across the social sciences and medicine. When you conduct a case study, you create a body of research based on an inquiry and related data from analysis of a group, individual or controlled research environment.
As a researcher, you can benefit from the analysis of case studies similar to inquiries you’re currently studying. Researchers often rely on case studies to answer questions that basic information and standard diagnostics cannot address.
Study a Pattern
One of the main objectives of a case study is to find a pattern that answers whatever the initial inquiry seeks to find. This might be a question about why college students are prone to certain eating habits or what mental health problems afflict house fire survivors. The researcher then collects data, either through observation or data research, and starts connecting the dots to find underlying behaviors or impacts of the sample group’s behavior.
During the study period, the researcher gathers evidence to back the observed patterns and future claims that’ll be derived from the data. Since case studies are usually presented in the professional environment, it’s not enough to simply have a theory and observational notes to back up a claim. Instead, the researcher must provide evidence to support the body of study and the resulting conclusions.
As the study progresses, the researcher develops a solid case to present to peers or a governing body. Case study presentation is important because it legitimizes the body of research and opens the findings to a broader analysis that may end up drawing a conclusion that’s more true to the data than what one or two researchers might establish. The presentation might be formal or casual, depending on the case study itself.
Once the body of research is established, it’s time to draw conclusions from the case study. As with all social sciences studies, conclusions from one researcher shouldn’t necessarily be taken as gospel, but they’re helpful for advancing the body of knowledge in a given field. For that purpose, they’re an invaluable way of gathering new material and presenting ideas that others in the field can learn from and expand upon.
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Welcome to your biz management blogspot, erp case studies on cadbury and hershley’s.
ERP IMPLEMENTATION CASE STUDIES-SUCCESS & FAILURES
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is business management software—usually a suite of integrated applications—that a company can use to store and manage data from every stage of business, including
- Product planning, cost and development
- Marketing and sales
- Inventory management
- Shipping and payment
Functions of ERP
- ERP provides an integrated real-time view of core business processes, using common databases maintained by a database management system. ERP systems track business resources— cash, raw materials, production capacity—and the status of business commitments: orders, purchase orders, and payroll.
- The applications that make up the system share data across the various departments (manufacturing, purchasing, sales, accounting, etc.) that entered the data.
- ERP facilitates information flow between all business functions, and manages connections to outside stakeholders.
ERP Implementation Success(CADBURY)
- Cadbury is a British multinational confectionery company owned by Mondelēz International.
- It is the second largest confectionery brand in the world after Wrigley’s.
- Founder: John Cadbury
- Founded in: 1824, Birmingham, United Kingdom Cadbury over the years.
Currently, Cadbury India operates in four categories viz. Chocolate Confectionery, Milk Food Drinks, Candy and Gum category. In the Chocolate Confectionery business, Cadbury has maintained its undisputed leadership over the years.
Cadbury turns out, in recent years, Kraft implemented SAP ERP 6.0 (System Analysis and Program Development) in what SAP called one of its largest global ERP implementations. Kraft credited ERP with reducing operational costs. 11,000 employees were sending data to the company’s SAP solution and it was linked to 1,750 applications by 2008. That same year, Kraft aslo added SAP’s master data management solution, NetWeaver, with an eye toward integrating legacy systems. Cadbury was left with a glut of chocolate products at the start of the year, after the installation of a new SAP-based enterprise resource planning (ERP) system led to an excess of chocolate bars building up at the end of 2005. The new U.K. computer system is part of a five-year IT transformation project, called “Probe”, aimed at integrating the Cadbury Schweppes’ supply chain, purchasing, manufacturing, distribution, sales and marketing systems on a global, SAP-based ERP platform. Cadbury Schweppes is aiming for an ultimate savings from the Probe project, but its implementation has been far from smooth. The project was beset by problems and delays when it was first introduced in Australia in 2002.
Benefits of ERP
- Cadbury was on a fast paced growth and could not continue with the existing systems and the pace was too slow due to added inefficiencies. ERP added efficiency and guided the led all the issues fast paced growth.
- The implementation of ERP brought in a new way of warehouse management system and brought in structure to branch offices and the depots.
- While implementing the ERP systems, the company has built it upon the past strengths of the company thereby not losing out on its competitive
- The initial implementation took time and then the successive implementations took lesser time and cost and there is a huge advantage in saving cost while in the implementation phase itself. • The reaction from competition does not matter in this because this is not a change that was advertised to the market. This is an internal process restructuring and was a welcome change within the company which badly needed the change. • The company also has built in a robust regular feedback system to monitor the changes and check if they go according to the initial plan. The entire implementation is cross functional and hence it is important that there is a high increase in the efficiency. • The ERP vendor was also selected from among the best in class vendors which helped the process occur in a streamlined fashion and avoided any possible chances of hiccups during the initial implementation phase. • The system has also been deployed up to the vendors. They have a portal called vendor connect where they can see their inventory movement and make plans accordingly. Hence the restructuring happens not only internally but also across to the supplier which will add on to the benefits that are accrued. • It was considered at low cost and high result implementation which by itself highlights the success and the benefit
ERP Implementation Failures(HERSHEY’S)
- Hershey’s is the largest chocolate manufacturer in North America.
- Its headquarters are in Hershey, Pennsylvania, which is also home to Hershey’s Chocolate World.
- Chocolate Business was started by Mr. Milton S. Hershey in 1876
- The Hershey Company was established in 1894
- Hershey’s products are sold in about sixty countries worldwide. Hershey’s cocoa add from 1918
- Hershey’s sales are roughly 80% chocolate and 20% non-chocolate.
- Hershey’s Competitors include Mars, Nestle, Russell Stover, Palmer and Nabisco Hershey’s Chocolate World at Pennsylvania. Hershey’s Kisses Advertisement
To enhance company’s competitiveness and Customer Service .During late1996, the management of Hershey gave its approval to a project named Enterprise21 . For this Hershey selected SAP’s R/3 ERP software, Manugistics SCM software and Seibel’s CRM software and IBM Global Service so as to manage integration among these three systems. Overall Project Cost was US $10 Million . The recommended implementation time for the project was 4 yrs. and Hershey demanded for 2.5 yrs.. Hershey decided to go with Big Bang Approach instead of phased approach.
Impact of ERP Failure
- Problems pertaining to order fulfillment, processing and shipping started to arise; Hershey would not be able to meet its committed date of delivery • Several of Hershey’s distributors who had ordered the products could not supply them to the retailers in time, and hence lost their credibility in the market • Product inventory started to pile up and by the end of September 2000; the inventories were 25% more than the inventories during the previous year• After Hershey’s announcement in the market about problems due to malfunctioning of the newly installed computer systems, Hershey’s stock price plunged by 8% on a single day. • Hershey’s failure to implement the ERP software on time cost the company US $150 million in sales. Profits for the third quarter 1999 dropped by19% and sales declined by l2%, in its 1999 annual report. Impact of ERP Failure
Reasons of Failure
- Over-squeezing implementation schedules • Big Bang Approach instead of Phased Approach • Mistake of sacrificing systems testing for the sake of expediency • Cutover Activities and Go-Live was scheduled in Hershey’s busiest business periods.
Learning from Failure
An ERP implementation project should not be forced into an unreasonable timeline. Over-squeezing implementation schedules is a sure-fire way to overlook critical issues. Testing phases are safety nets that should never be compromised. The First Lesson
Never schedule cutover during busy seasons. Even in a best-case implementation scenario, companies should still expect steep learning curves and operational performance dips. By timing cutover during slow business periods, the company gives itself more slack time to iron out systems kinks. It also gives employees more time to learn the new business processes and systems. In many cases, it is even advisable to reduce orders in and around the cutover period. This tactic is aimed at minimizing exposure to damages caused by potentially undetected errors and less-than-perfectly- trained users. The Second Lesson
“There is no doubt that 1999 was a most difficult and disappointing year for Hershey Foods Corporation. While the year got off to a slow start due to excessive retail inventories, we fully expected a strong finish in the second half of the year. Instead, the implementation of the final phase of the Corporation’s enterprise-wide information system created problems in the areas of customers service, warehousing and order fulfillment. These difficulties were exacerbated by our growth in recent years which had resulted in shipping capacity constraints. As a result, Hershey’s sales and earnings fell well short of expectation for the year.” – Kenneth L Wolfe (Chairman & CEO, Hershey Foods Corporation, in 1999)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enterprise_resource_planning http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/E/ERP.html http://www.itbusinessedge.com/cm/blogs/lawson/kraft- cadbury-deal-means-major-erp-integration-work/?cs=38891
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2017, Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations
To the best of our knowledge, extant definitions of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) success are not comprehensive, and they do not address all of the most relevant dimensions of this complex issue. Consequently, current ERP success models may lead to deceptive evaluations. Through a rigorous logical shift starting from IS failure, and diverging from classical project management approaches, this paper attempts to define ERP success by means of four factors: Process, Correspondence, Interaction, and Expectation. Results formally integrates the literature gaps and enable the future definition of appropriate measurement items that could steer management practices towards a sounder approach to ERP success.
2000, International Journal of Enterprise Information Systems
While it is true that successful implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system is a task of Herculean proportions, it is not impossible. If your organization is to reap the benefits of ERP, it must first develop a plan for success. But " prepare to see your organization reengineered, your staff disrupted, and your productivity drop before the payoff is realized. " 1 Implementing ERP must be viewed and undertaken as a new business endeavor and a team mission, not just a software installation. Companies must involve all employees, and unconditionally and completely sell them on the concept of ERP for it to be a success. 2 A successful implementation means involving, supervising, recognizing, and retaining those who have worked or will work closely with the system. Without a team attitude and total backing by everyone involved, an ERP implementation will end in less than an ideal situation. 3 This was the situation for a soft drink bottler that tried to cut corners and did not recognize the importance of the people so heavily involved and depended on.
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2000, Communications of the ACM
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Implementing Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) projects in many organizations are faced with failure concept in recent years. Researchers focused to implement ERP projects successfully by proposing the success model. However, through these attentions to get ERP benefits, the ERP failure measurement model is required. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop the instruments for ERP post-implementation failure measurement model. To achieve this outcome, the study firstly evaluates the suitability of Technology-Organization-Environment framework for the proposed conceptual model. Constructs were used for this model included two formative and six reflective constructs. A questionnaire was developed to test the validity and reliability of instrument items. A survey was conducted among Iranian industries to collect data and data analyzed by Smart PLS software. The results indicated that all instruments items included 37 critical risk factors (CRFs) as measurement were acceptable fo...
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This study aims to highlight on the effect of Enterprise Resource Planning System. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system consists of different sets of software that are used to integrate the business functions in a company or organization. Given that these solutions provide an integrated solution to the needs of an organization, these systems are in high demand by all organizations. The full potential of these systems can only be realized only if they are successfully implemented. However, the implementation process is costly and time consuming, and thus requires careful planning and organization. If successfully implemented, ERP systems provide many benefits to those organizations that adopt them. On the other hand, if the implementation process is not successful, the venture can prove costly. By examining the existing literature on this topic, this paper focuses on how ERP systems can be successfully implemented in organization and the critical success factors. The information provided in this paper may be used to guide organizations in the implementation of ERP systems.
Mohammad Anisur Rahman
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Frank Agyemang Duah
Organizations worldwide invest in enterprise system software to gain access to integration of transactions-oriented data and business process throughout the organization. From the vendor perspective Enterprise Resource Planning software is the enabler of the current dynamic business environment. It must be noted that this is the expectation of implementers. For this reason researchers have focus attention on the effective implementation of the ERP. The core researches have been on ERP implementation i.e. factors affecting ERP implementation i.e. critical success factor, risks and failures. In the area of promise and performance of ERP the focus is more on educational sector. This paper seeks to take a study on the promise and performance in terms budget and time of ERP software in large organizations in Sweden. In order to answer the research questions, we conducted an empirical study of manufacturing companies in Sweden that were using ERP. Companies were identified by examining th...
1999, Software, IEEE
Jorge Luis Romero
2000, JOURNAL OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
The presented study tried to examine the implication of ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) that has been investigated recently by different scholars. The study aimed to propose an inexpensive model for implementing ERP. To achieve the purpose, the experimentally established factors known as critical success factors (CSFs) were described and classified in the review of the literature. Therefore, the result of the study can be viewed as the proposal of an inexpensive model of CSF in implementing ERP. Related tables and appendices were included for each subject matter so that the readers could get familiar with them easier. Also, they can aid scholars for further studies. A comprehensive bibliography with a full description of the cited materials was also included in this study.
2016, International Journal of Business Information Systems
2003, European Journal of Operational Research
... A case study of a largely successful ERP implementation is presented and discussed in terms of these key factors. ... 4. Critical factors for successful ERP implementation. Implementing an ERP system is not an inexpensive or risk-free venture. ...
Presentation: ERP Case Study on Hersheys vs. Cadbury
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This article was written by Elizabeth Quirk on January 17, 2017
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Liz is a leading enterprise technology writer covering Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Business Process Management (BPM) and Talent Management Suites (TMS) at Solutions Review. She writes to bridge the gap between consumer and technical expert to help readers understand what they're looking for. Liz attended Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts, where she obtained her Bachelor of Arts Degree in English and Communications. You can reach her at [email protected]
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