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What is a problem?

It is an opportunity for improvement.

It is a situation you want to change.

All of the Above.

None of the Above.

What is the “Old Man Principle” in Root Cause Analysis?

One-man team output

Other probable root causes not explored

No validation of root cause if true & current

The 8D Methodology is developed by:

Toyota Company

Ford Company

Hyundai Company

8D Methodology is comprised of how many steps?

The Ishikawa Diagram is also known as the

Fishbone Diagram

5 Why's Diagram

Pareto Chart

None of the above.

The Ishikawa Diagram and the 5 Why’s Analysis are important tools in what step of 8D Methodology:

Describe the Problem

Establish the Team

Select & Validate Corrective Actions

Define & Verify Root Causes

It is an immediate action to eliminate non-conformity.

Corrective Action

Preventive Action

It is an action to eliminate a potential nonconformity to prevent occurrence.

It is an action to eliminate nonconformity to prevent recurrence.

It is the last step of the 8D Methodology on which you publicize your achievements and share your knowledge and learning.

Recognize the Team

Prevent Recurrence

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8D Problem Solving

  • 8 discipline problem solving
  • problem solving

Vishwadeep Khatri

Asked by Vishwadeep Khatri , November 10, 2017


DMAIC - is a data driven incremental process improvement methodology in the Six Sigma philosophy. It is acronym which stands for D - Define M - Measure A - Analyse I - Improve C - Control 8D Problem Solving - is a team oriented problem solving approach which is widely used in the automotive industries. As the name suggests it has 8 steps D1 - form the team D2 - describe the problem D3 - Interim Containment Action D4 - Root Cause Analysis D5 - Verify Permanent Corrective Action D6 - Implement Permanent Corrective Action D7 - Prevent Recurrence D8 - Closure and Team Celebration

An application oriented question on the topic along with responses can be seen below. The best answer was provided by Karthik Marimuthu on 13th November 2017. 

Vishwadeep Khatri

Q 43. While DMAIC is a more popular approach as compared to 8D Problem Solving, would you prefer to use 8D over DMAIC in some situations? Why/ Why not? 

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Karthik marimuthu.

What is DMAIC?

While the acronym gives an accurate summary of the process, it is only the beginning. The Six Sigma process improvement methodology encompasses much more than an acronym can describe. The heart of DMAIC is making continuous improvements to an existing process through objective problem solving.

Process is the focal point of DMAIC. The methodology seeks to improve the quality of a product or service by concentrating not on the output but on the process that created the output. The idea is that concentrating on processes leads to more effective and permanent solutions.

When to use DMAIC

DMAIC is used by a project team that is attempting to improve an existing process. DMAIC provides structure because each phase of the process contains tasks and tools that will lead the team to find an eventual solution. While DMAIC may be sequential, it is not strictly linear. The process encourages project teams to backtrack to previous steps if more information is needed.

The phases of DMAIC

The phases or stages of DMAIC include:

Define  – The project begins by creating a team charter to identify team members, select the process the team will be improving and clearly define the objective of the project. The project team will then identify the CTQ's  to help measure the impact the problem has on the customer. This phase is completed when the team creates a process map that includes the Process inputs & outputs.

Measure  – This phase includes creating and executing a data collection plan that provides reliable and significant data. The data indicates how the process is performing and helps identify the villain in the Six Sigma narrative – variance . After this point, the project team’s efforts focus on eliminating or reducing variance as much as possible.

Analyze  – Once process performance has been quantified, the analyze phase helps identify possible causes of the problems. A sub-process map can help identify the problems in the process and tools such as ANOVA and regression analysis can help narrow these problems to root causes . In this phase, the team is able to quantify the financial benefit of solving the problem.

Improve  – Once the problem’s root cause is brought to light, the improve phase focuses on finding a permanent solution to the problem. This is where the project team’s creativity comes into play in finding an answer to a longstanding process problem. The team then tests a proposed solution in a pilot program to test if the solution is effective and financially viable.

Control  – In this phase, the project team documents the new solution that they have created so that it can be passed on to process owners. The project team then implements the solution according to the timeline and key milestones they have developed. Once the solution has been implemented, the project team monitors it for several months and if it meets performance expectations turns it over to the process owner.

The 8D problem solving process is a detailed, team oriented approach to solving critical problems in the production process. The goals of this method are to find the root cause of a problem, develop containment actions to protect customers and take corrective action to prevent similar problems in the future.

The strength of the 8D process lies in its structure, discipline and methodology. 8D uses a composite methodology, utilizing best practices from various existing approaches. It is a problem solving method that drives systemic change, improving an entire process in order to avoid not only the problem at hand but also other issues that may stem from a systemic failure.


D0: Prepare and Plan for the 8D

Proper planning will always translate to a better start. Thus, before 8D analysis begins, it is always a good idea to ask an expert first for their impressions. After receiving feedback, the following criterion should be applied prior to forming a team:

Collect information on the symptoms

Use a Symptoms Checklist to ask the correct questions

Identify the need for an Emergency Response Action (ERA), which protects the customer from further exposure to the undesired symptoms

D1: Form a Team

A Cross Functional Team (CFT) is made up of members from many disciplines. Quality-One takes this principle one step further by having two levels of CFT:

·          A Core Team uses data-driven approaches (Inductive or Convergent Techniques)

       The Core Team Structure should involve three people on the respective subjects: product, process and data

·          SME Team comprised of members who brainstorm, study and observe (Deductive or Divergent Techniques)

        Additional Subject Matter Experts are brought in at various times to assist with brainstorming, data collection and analysis

Teams require proper preparation. Setting the ground rules is paramount. Implementation of disciplines like checklists, forms and techniques will ensure steady progress.  8D must always have two key members: a Leader and a Champion / Sponsor:

·          The Leader is the person who knows the 8D process and can lead the team through it (although not always the most knowledgeable about the problem being studied)

·          The Champion or Sponsor is the one person who can affect change by agreeing with the findings and can provide final approval on such changes

D2: Describe the Problem

The 8D method’s initial focus is to properly describe the problem utilizing the known data and placing it into specific categories for future comparisons. The “Is” data supports the facts whereas the “Is Not” data does not. As the “Is Not” data is collected, many possible reasons for failure are able to be eliminated. This approach utilizes the following tools:

·          5 Why  or Repeated Why (Inductive tool)

·          Problem Statement

·          Affinity Diagram (Deductive tool)

·          Fishbone/Ishikawa Diagram (Deductive tool)

·          Is / Is Not (Inductive tool)

·          Problem Description

D3: Interim Containment Action

In the interim, before the permanent corrective action has been determined, an action to protect the customer can be taken. The Interim Containment Action (ICA) is temporary and is typically removed after the Permanent Correct Action (PCA) is taken.

·          Verification of effectiveness of the ICA is always recommended to prevent any additional customer dissatisfaction calls

D4:  Root Cause Analysis (RCA) and Escape Point

The root cause must be identified to take permanent action to eliminate it. The root cause definition requires that it can be turned on or off, at will. Activities in D4 include:

·          Comparative Analysis listing differences and changes between “Is” and “Is Not”

·          Development of Root Cause Theories based on remaining items

·          Verification of the Root Cause through data collection

·          Review Process Flow Diagram for location of the root cause

·          Determine Escape Point, which is the closest point in the process where the root cause could have been found but was not

D5: Permanent Corrective Action (PCA)

The PCA is directed toward the root cause and removes / changes the conditions of the product or process that was responsible for the problem. Activities in D5 include:

·          Establish the Acceptance Criteria which include Mandatory Requirements and Wants

·          Perform a Risk Assessment /  Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)  on the PCA choices

·          Based on risk assessment, make a balanced choice for PCA

·          Select control-point improvement for the Escape Point

·          Verification of Effectiveness for both the PCA and the Escape Point are required

D6: Implement and Validate the Permanent Corrective Action

To successfully implement a permanent change, proper planning is essential. A project plan should encompass: communication, steps to complete, measurement of success and lessons learned. Activities in D6 include:

·          Develop Project Plan for Implementation

·          Communicate the plan to all stakeholders

·          Validation of improvements using measurement

D7: Prevent Recurrence

D7 affords the opportunity to preserve and share the knowledge, preventing problems on similar products, processes, locations or families. Updating documents and procedures / work instructions are expected at this step to improve future use. Activities in D7 include:

·          Review Similar Products and Processes for problem prevention

·          Develop / Update Procedures and Work Instructions for Systems Prevention

·          Capture Standard Work / Practice and reuse

·          Assure FMEA updates have been completed

·          Assure Control Plans have been updated

D8: Closure and Team Celebration

Teams require feedback to allow for satisfactory closure. Recognizing both team and individual efforts and allowing the team to see the previous and new state solidifies the value of the 8D process. Activities in D8 include:

·          Archive the 8D Documents for future reference

·          Document Lessons Learned on how to make problem solving better

·          Before and After Comparison of issue


The 8D problem solving process is typically required when:

·          Safety or Regulatory issues has been discovered

·          Customer complaints are received

·          Warranty Concerns have indicated greater-than-expected failure rates

·          Internal rejects, waste, scrap, poor performance or test failures are present at unacceptable levels

The 8D method is sometimes preferable over DMAIC due to its focus on Interim Containment Action. Whenever there is a need an action to be taken to protect the Customer from rejections in the future. Also, if the scope for use of statistical tools is limited, 8D is easier to understand and explain to people who are new to problem solving.   

As i work in the Automobile field, we are widely  using the 8D method for taking an immediate action for the Problems occurred  & providing an appropriate solution. Though DMAIC will be an ideal methodology to solve the problems in the longer term, 8D is preferred over it for simplicity, quick-fix and easy engagement sometimes. 

Which is Best?  8D or DMAIC?

·          Both processes can generate huge improvements for an organization.

·          Anything is better than nothing.

·          Pick one approach or the other or select from one of the many other structured problem-solving approaches that focus on data collection, data analysis, and prevention of recurrence.

·          Stick with the same approach throughout a corporation to build a common understanding of the process and terminology throughout the organization.

·          If necessary, alter the process to meet your organization’s needs, but don’t cut out any of the steps in either process – they are critical to getting to the root cause of a problem.

Arunesh Ramalingam

Anirudh Kund

Anirudh Kund

The 8D process was created during the Second World War by U.S. government, referring to it as Military Standard 1520: “Corrective action and disposition system for nonconforming material”. It was later applied by the Ford Motor Company in the 1960's and 1970's.

8D has become a standard in the automotive industries that require a structured problem solving process, which is used to identify, correct and eliminate problems on fast reaction to customer complaints .   It is a discrete process - Start to Finish - A reactive approach that tends to only surface when correcting a problem that has already occurred.

In mid of 1980s, applications of the Six Sigma methods enabled many organizations to sustain their competitiveness by integrating their knowledge of the process with statistics, engineering and project management. Motorola was the first company who launched a Six Sigma project using DMAIC methodology in the mid-1980s. Initially Six Sigma was applied in manufacturing but today it is accepted in healthcare, finance and service. Six Sigma/DMAIC   is a project-driven management approach intended to improve products, services and processes by reducing defects. It is a business strategy that focuses on improving customer requirements, business systems, productivity and financial performance. Utilizing analytical tools to measure quality and eliminate variances in processes allows to producing near perfect products and services that will satisfy customers. It is continuous Improvement Process.

Both are strong methods for solving problems. Both provide a consistent, structured approach, and both provide a common language so project status can be easily communicated throughout an organization.

DMAIC structure does not speak about interim containment actions , where as 8D structure particularly mentions containment as a separate step. The interim containment actions are especially relevant if you act reactively, and if your customer is already affected by the problem you are trying to solve .

Comparison of Scope:

Another important difference is the applied tools and their link to the models. While 8D only offer a structure, DMAIC offer a complete toolbox for each phase. The tools offered in the DMAIC structure is a mix of concepts and statistical tools for e.g. analysis and optimization. DMAIC is not only serving as a structure, but is often part of a data driven culture and mindset and can be used as a tool for facilitating the change to become a fact orientated company.

Based on importance and urgency both the methods can be used.

So, to the question regarding the use of either 8D or DMAIC, the best answer would be; use the structure requested by the customer .Organization like Ford is very particular about the 8D Problem solving methodology, If the customer   asks to use 8D methodology, to satisfy him ,it is best to go with 8D .If customer has no specific request, the DMAIC maybe be the preferred structure as it also combines the tools and data driven mindset.

Kavitha Sundar

Q 43.  While DMAIC is a more popular approach as compared to 8D Problem Solving, would you prefer to use 8D over DMAIC in some situations? Why/ Why not? 

In 1987, Henry ford used this approach called 8D, which is about 8 disciplines followed process and product improvements.   He also believed strongly that this 8D approach is very useful to solve ‘n’ number of problems in industries especially like automotive. This approach was originated from TOPS program in Ford company. TOPS stands for “Team Oriented Problem Solving” program. It is a systematic / structured / scientific way of approach in problem solving by identifying the root causes, developing some clear cut solutions for root causes identified and the implementation of the corrective actions identified.

8D is used when the problem is recurring, major or critical & Chronic. It depends on the complexity of the problem. It is also used in companies’ basis the customer’s requirements.

8D is not effective if the root causes are known, solution is known, when the problem is not recurring, when the problem solving requires only one person’s effort, when the process has to select the best solution from the list of solutions or alternatives.

When to use 8D ?

This approach is typically required when

1.     When the safety / regulatory issues occurred

2.     Warranty / guarantee rejections

3.     Customer complaints

4.     Internal rejects / errors, wastes at unacceptable limits.

8D Preparatory phase / Pre 8 D:

As part of preparatory phase, it is important for one to understand what the problem is. Should have a deeper insight before proceeding any type of approach to solve the issue. The following should be gathered.

What type of problem whether chronic / Recurring / critical?

What is the impact?

If recurring, what the problem last time? And what was implemented as solution?

Was the action taken permanent?

Does the problem require a team work with DMAIC ./ 8D approach?

8D Approach:

8D Approach Vs. DMAIC Approach:



There are no major differences exists in reality. Only difference as per the steps are step 3 of the 8D approach “ Interim containment action”. No comparative exists in DMAIC step as well allow the escape errors to reach the customer till we find the root cause and fix it in DMAIC.

Interim containment is a typical band aid approach / solution for the bleeding problem to calm the customer. This addresses the symptoms for time being and not the root cause. But still it is worth doing if the problem is bigger enough.

A vendor gets 100 complaints of AC / day. For a customer who has bought a Air conditioner, should be satisfied with the cooling temperature of the room. If this is not done, immediately the vendor is called for and the checks been done to improve the cooling effect at   the customer’s place. Then the vendor goes into the root cause identification and solution identification approaches. Hence the quick band aid approach is better than doing nothing.

Again it depends on the project team or company to select the approach which has to used in problem solving.

R Rajesh

It is a problem-solving Six Sigma methodology that does improve your process with lesser variation by having right optimised solution .

8D Problem Solving:

It is a problem solving technique which has 8 steps excluding the planning step. It is objective is to identify, correct, and eliminate recurring problems, and it is useful in product and process improvement.    

The 8 steps numbered as D0, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7 and D8.

          D0: Plan—Plan for solving the problem and determine the prerequisites.         D1: Use a team—Establish a team of people with product/process knowledge.         D2: Define and describe the problem—Specify the problem by identifying in quantifiable terms the who,     what, where, when, why, how, and how many (5W2H) for the problem.         D3: Develop interim containment plan; implement and verify interim actions—Define and implement containment    actions to isolate the problem from any customer.         D4: Determine, identify, and verify root causes and escape points—Identify all applicable causes that could explain why the problem occurred. Also identify why the problem was not noticed at the time it occurred.          D5: Choose and verify permanent corrections (PCs) for problem/nonconformity—Through preproduction programs,  quantitatively confirm that the selected correction will resolve the problem for the customer.         D6: Implement and validate corrective actions—Define and implement the best corrective actions.         D7: Take preventive measures—Modify the management systems, operation systems, practices, and procedures to      prevent recurrence of this and all similar problems.        D8: Congratulate your team—Recognize the collective efforts of the team. 

Similarities between DMAIC and 8 D Problem Solving

Differences between DMAIC and 8 D Problem Solving

When do we use 8D Problem Solving and not DMAIC ?

1.        When there is a quick fix to be done for the problem at hand that needs RCA and a correction then use 8D problem solvin

When do we use DMAIC   and not 8D Problem Solving ?

Quite a few things to be considered as when we go for DMAIC . Some essential points mentioned here

1.        When you do not know root cause   , solution for a problem and it requires deeper thinking or analysis

2.        When this problem has been existing for quite some time

3.        When you have time to address the problem with proper statistical measures comparing

4.        Once you have fixed/addressed the problem using techniques like 8D problem solving and want to ensure that you want to put a better process

Below is the table showing steps followed in each problem solving techniques

If we analyze the steps in both the process, there is only one major difference.

In 8D process step D3 “Interim Containment Action” is not done in a DMAIC process.

In this step an interim solution is provided for the symptoms of the problem, this solution is temporary. Which reduces the impact of the problem to the customer for the time being.

I would prefer to always use DMAIC process in problem solving. If the problem is huge and gives big impact on the customer, we can separately provide a fire fighting solution and stop the impact for short time. But management should be aware that the solution provided is not a permanent solution so they should continue problem solving with DMAIC process.

Usha S

8D is an 8-Step PDCA with focus on fast/immediate action and DMAIC is a five-step PDCA intended for improvements that are necessary but do not require immediate action.   Both the structures are in many ways identical and serve the same purpose of problem solving as shown in the below picture.


However, the differences that separate the structures are     1. Interim containment actions -  8D has a separte step while in DMAIC no actions related to interim containement are mentioned,     2. Tools offered in each phase - 8D only offer a structure and DMAIC offers a mix of concepts and statistical tools apart from the stucture.     3. International Standards - 8D is not covered by any standards and DMAIC is supported by international standards such as ISO13053-1 and ISO13053-2.        

When deciding which structure to use, the table below can be used as a guideline, depending on the company’s requirements. Scope                                                                 8D    DMAIC Provides project structure                              Yes    Yes Provides containment action evaluation     Yes    No Provides concepts and tools                          No    Yes Data driven                                                        No    Yes ISO standards available                                  No    Yes

Whie DMAIC structure provides a wider scope combining the tools and data driven mindset, at times, 8D will be preferred, especially when the customer is already affected by the problem, is bleeding, and has a serious business problem.  At such time, we need to adopt band-aid approach to address the problem rather than address the root cause.  However, it is important to complete the rest of the 8D process and remove the “band-aid” once the root cause is found and addressed or initiate six sigma projects when the issue is difficult to solve.

Shrinivas Vampathi

8D Problem Solving Methodology or system is also another kind of a system that helps solving problems.

DMAIC is a very good system maybe with some more additions or refinement required,.

I believe the 8D is also already incorporated in DMAIC.

Hence I feel it is also good enough that we use DMAIC itself.

Now since this comparison question has come up, ....

8D is also a detailed problem solving system, it uses several techniques such as 5 Whys, Fault tree, fish bone, etc..

DMAIC also uses the above techniques. But DMAIC does it with a more systematic manner by using D M A I C flow. 

DMAIC definitely needs more refinement by incorporating more elements but still, it is wonderful methodology to find right solutions to problems.


Quite often, the use of a methodology is indirectly and perhaps unintentionally governed by its history and the original purpose for which the approach was created. Such is the case with Six Sigma and 8D also.

According to Eileen Beachell, one of those involved in documenting the 8D approach originally at Ford, “the 8Ds are a well-defined linear logic methodology to address chronic problems with the purpose of changing the management procedures that allowed the problem to occur in the first place”.

On the other hand, Bill Smith evolved Six Sigma at Motorola, from a study of the relationship between manufacturing defects and field reliability, which resulted in a thrust to improve process capability to the point that no more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities would be created when combined with their respective design specifications. The method of course involved use of statistical tools.

The one key difference between these two methodologies in spite of other similarities is the “Implementation and Verification of Interim Containment” in 8D which is not part of the Six Sigma Methodology.

In certain problem-solving situations, there could be some really burning problem and a need for some very quick, yet considered action on this, which should involve multiple skill inputs and multiple stakeholder representation. The action should also include damage control in addition to a permanent solution. There may not be sufficient time to form a cross-functional team, train key people in Six Sigma, go through the DMAIC phases, complete tollgate reviews, run a well-controlled and monitored pilot and complete a full-fledged Six Sigma Project.

In such cases, the 8D approach may be easier to follow, arrest the adverse impacts of the problem, resolve the issue quickly and keep stakeholders satisfied. It need not be necessarily better than the Six Sigma approach, but in this situation, may be that little bit easier to do. A smaller team could be formed quickly within the closest circle of influence and contribution. S the team members are already familiar with one another and with the process also, they can get cracking as a team pretty quickly. To begin with, the problem could be described in detail and a quick correction could be implemented to begin with. This would satisfy the stakeholders for the time being as the adverse impacts of the problem have been contained. Then this team could do a thorough analysis of all potential root causes, identify the relevant ones, identify likely escape routes, design and implement corrective actions and preventive actions.

Additionally, the last scenario of the enhanced Kano Model is the “Reverse” trend. In this, customers who are out to prove their capability in demanding product features that cannot be provided get dissatisfied if their requirements are fulfilled. Something similar to this can happen in implementing Six Sigma in certain organizations. The completeness of the “Six Sigma” approach, the structure in every phase, the need to be aware of and use some basic statistics and sometimes its sheer success and its popularity can occasionally create some irritation in people. They may not really want to be involved in a Six Sigma Project and would be interested in other alternative structured improvement approaches. Such people may be satisfied with the 8D approach, which does have some positives that the Six Sigma approach also has.

Vastupal Vashisth

Vastupal Vashisth

Both DMAIC and 8D are structured and step by step problem solving methods  although DMAIC given by MOTOROLA and 8 D given by Ford.  As name suggests 8D problem solving approach has 8 steps and DMAIC has five steps to solve the problem. 8D has following steps:

D0 is prepare and plan for 8D.

D1: Form a team

D2: Describe the problem

D3:Interim Containment Action

D4:RCA and escape point

D5: permanent corrective action

D6:implement and validate permanent countermeasure action

D7: prevent reoccurence

D8:closure and team celebration 

On the other hand DMAIC has define,  measure,  analyse, improve and control. 

In some situations I would like to go for 8D over DMAIC because 8D problem solving is a detailed,  team oriented approach to solving critical problems I  the production process.  It is design to find out root cause of the problem devise a short term fix and implement a long term solution to prevent reoccurring problems.  When it is clear that our products is defective give and is not going to satisfy customer,  an 8D is an excellent step to improve quality and reliability. 

There are various situations where 8D is applicable,  as it is reactive approach that tends to only surface when correcting a problem that has already occurred.  In this type of situation where problem has already occurs we will not go by DMAIC as it is time consuming by DMAIC and lengthy and we can resolve it by 8 D directly in very simple steps.  On the other hand DMAIC is continous effort based not only on current and known but identify all sources of variation that are significance to cost and Quality and for future prospects of the organisation to sustain in the market. 

Because 8D problem solving works only defects so we will go with this in case of defects because it has already occurred and reached to customer and we can do control by doing this but on the other hand in case of variation data set,  projects about future plans 8D is not good to go,  there we should go by DMAIC because it uses statistical tool in a very precise and controlled way to identifying all circumstances to sustain in the market. 

So situations where once a problem area is identified to work on,  we should prefer 8D as it had a tendency to be more focused and narrowed because it is usually very effective problem solving tool where we need focus on some particular issue.  

In some situations we should not use 8d because it does provide a swt of statistical tools and an order in which to apply them as DMAIC does so well.  DMAIC really wraps a tight methodology and discipline around it.  It provides a more disciplined management approach to prioritise and solve the project with all methodology and tools. 

For example a steel company is supplying steel coil to car manufacturers and car Manufacturing company found some defect at steel level so at that time steel company can resolve it by doing 8D method rather than doing DMAIC because problem already happened and can be controlled by identifying all details related to coil and it's processing history in the plant and taking permanent countermeasure after identifying root cause and close the matter but on the other hand DMAIC is continous effort and in this case no need to do Dmaic beause of time frame and less data available. 

There are situation where we should not go for 8D because biggest downside of 8D is it step 3 implement and verify interim  containment which gives you a false sense that the problem is solved and you can go for the next problem.  It is quick and dirty band-aid approach to addressing the symptoms of a problem not the root cause. It means to stop only bleeding g,  then it's upto team to complete the rest of 8D steps including remove bandaid after found out root cause. But the reality is we don't know how serious enough a business problem is so we can not go  by 8D here,  solve it by using Dmaic. 

So we can go for 8D problem solving process in case of safety or regulatory issues,  when customer complaints are recieved, and warranty concerns are greater than expected one and internal rejects,  waste,  scarp. 

Venugopal R

Venugopal R

The 8D problem solving approach, apart from its 8 disciplines was modified with a starting discipline, D0, as ‘Plan’. A tabulated comparison between 8D disciplines and the DMAIC approach are as below:


While the above table has attempted to compare these approaches, we may summarize as below:

  • 8D problem solving techniques are a structured approach to problem solving developed by Ford Motor Company in the 1980s.
  • 8D methodology gives the impression that a problem, predominantly chronic, exists in the organization, with a risk of the problem being passed on to customer.
  • The above point explains the focus by the D3, which calls for developing an interim containment plan and D4, which calls for identifying and verifying ‘escape points’.
  • The Six Sigma DMAIC is a relatively new expression that has become popular in 1990s.
  • In principle, DMAIC takes on from the PDCA thought process, but driven as a rigorous, result oriented methodology.
  • We can point out several similarities between 8D and DMAIC…... while 8D is associated more with solving existing problems that may already be adversely impacting customer, DMAIC is more associated with not just problems, but also opportunities for improving the process profoundly.
  • 8D includes a containment action, which is not prominent in DMAIC.. It doesn’t mean that containment is not relevant when a problem is being resolved through DMAIC, but it does not figure in the DMAIC phases, since DMAIC focuses more strategically on a permanent process improvement. The regular Quality management System is expected to address the actions such as Containment and Escape points.
  • Apart from ‘problem solving’, DMAIC would also address improvement opportunities which may not be pain point for the customer. (hence no containment for such cases). However, these opportunities may focus on improving the internal efficiency of the organization’s operations.
  • DMAIC is more powerful on the “Measure Phase”, where it expects “baseline” sigma measurements, study of process variability, and establishes a measurement method that is maintained throughout the project. While the metrics need to be addressed in the 8D approach as well, it is not expressed so powerfully.
  • 8D has included a discipline “Congratulate the team”, which is not explicit in DMAIC. However, DMAIC is an approach that is part of the tactical component of Six Sigma, a larger company wide program, which has Strategic, Tactical and Cultural components. Well defined reward programs are part of the overall program.

To conclude, use 8D as a regular team based, problem solving approach at floor level. While doing so, we would come across certain problems that would require a higer level thinking and intense change at a process or design level. These may be taken up as a Six Sigma project using DMAIC approach. DMAIC shall also be used for other improvement opportunity, which are identified as part of the Strategic Business Objectives.


8 disciplines of problem solving is a systematic approach of problem solving. Which encompasses establishing team, describing the problem, containment action identification, root cause identification, corrective action identification, and validation of corrective action, prevention of recurrence, verifying the solution and congratulating the team. 8D will be handy in situations that needs immediate attention, like critical customer complaints. 8D also can come in handy in situation where a six sigma project solution need to be validated or piloted, as validating interim containment action is key aspect of 8D.

Rajesh Chakrabarty

The Eight Disciplines (8D) model is an approach towards solving problems in existing processes, through identification, Correction, Elimination of recurrent problems. Thus like DMAIC, the 8D model is useful in product and process improvement.

The 8D model helps to establish a permanent corrective action based on statistical analysis of the root causes. The 8 Disciplines are:

D1- Use a Team- Define team with people who have knowledge of the process / Product to be improved.

D2- Define the problem- elaborate on the problem in quantifiable terms like what, where, when, why, who, How and How many (5W2H)

D3- develop interim Containment plan; Implement and verify the interim Actions- The objective is to ensure that the customers do not experience the impact of the problem, till the permanent solution is not defined.

D4- Determine , Identify and verify Root Causes and escape points - deduce the root cause for the problem and identify how the problem was not detected earlier – Usage of 5 Whys and Cause and Effect diagrams are used in common.

D5- Choose and verify permanent corrections (PCs) for the problem- Quantitative confirmation that the problems will not recur needs to be done through preproduction programmes or checkpoints in a process.

D6- Implement and Validate the Corrective actions that have evolved from earlier disciplines- select and implement the best action.

D7- Take Preventive measures – make changes to the process/ operational flowif required to prevent the occurrence of the problem in concern or any related problems

D8- Congratulate your team- Recognize and reward the efforts of the team- Incentivise them or make them famous in the organization

More or less, the D8 problem solving approach is similar to the DMAIC methodology as both have the Define, Analyse and Improve Stage. However there are differences when we look at both the approaches subjectively, as per the requirement and ability of the organisation-

The 2 most obvious difference is that;

1)       Six Sigma DMAIC uses a circular strategy (PDSA) whereas 8Ds follows a linear approach for a detected problem- with a defined beginning and ending.

2)       Most Six sigma programs do not have defined logic in the beginning- Organizations use the six sigma methodology to reduce or eliminate defects that is outside of customer specification in any process. Six sigma training programs cover tests of hypothesis and there is always a focus on enumerative statistics. 8D method does not require this as it is more focussed on addressing specific failures that allowed any problem to occur in the first place.

Thus, 8D is a “Structured” problem fixing technique, whereas 6Sigma is an analytical and data driven approach to improve process capability and focusses on minimising variation in a process to reduce or eliminate the defects per million opportunities.

Consequently, many of the six sigma practitioners will agree to use 8D over DMAIC in the following situation:

-           Keeping in mind that 8D is a specific problem solving methodology whereas six sigma uses various problem solving approaches to improve process capability, 8D can be a part of the DMAIC approach as it can be used as a tool to improve output of a process.

-           It will make sense to use the 8D when improving the process is of high priority and there is lack of substantial time as is required by DMAIC process.

-           The above is pragmatically correct all the more when the existing process is not matured at level 04.

-           Training Requirements for Six sigma project is high, at times the training for stakeholders and implementers, in traditional six sigma implementations can take many weeks – this is not feasible in most of the organisations.

-           Primarily, six sigma is an option for larger corporate organisations as most of the training and information available is geared towards that sector. Also, given the overwhelming focus on statistics and big data, which is very difficult for smaller organizations or start-ups to assimilate, It becomes a painstaking exercise. Hence, the 8D seems to be the appropriate approach for immediate problems in the process that are of utmost importance to these small enterprises- Eventually which can look at the bigger picture and evolve into a 6 Sigma organizational program.

Otherwise, The 6 Sigma option is preferred over the 8D approach wherever the environment is conducive to the approach , as mentioned in the note above, with total involvement of the top management of the organization. The advantage of 6Sigma over 8D is that 6 Sigma has been rolled out in many large companies like Motorola and has driven positive change where the customers have benefited along with the employees and other stakeholders- Thus it is a PROVEN SUCCESS

And most importantly ,for any organisation, DMAIC and DMADV processes are specifically designed for SUSTAINABLE solutions- Which visionary would choose anything else???

Though DMAIC is much powerful problem solving technique but still 8D problem solving technique may also be useful in certain situations, especially when we need some quick-fix solution before arriving at the final or say permanent solution. As compared to DMAIC, one of the fundamental difference of 8D technique is that it has an Interim Containment step, which is kind of band-aid approach useful to give some immediate relief, but still root cause analysis would be required to find a permanent solution. In certain situations, when the business problem is serious enough, it is justified to go for band-aid approach to stop the bleeding, then work on finding the root cause and remove the band-aid after implementing the permanent solution. But one should be cautious with 8D approach because sometimes this Interim Containment step can give a false sense of finding the solution and moving on to the next problem.

Sumanta Das

Neeraj kalaskar.

“Hi guys, this was quite a tricky question compelling us to think thoroughly before writing any response. Almost all of us got the understanding of both 8D and DMAIC very clearly and same can be seen in majority of the answers. The key in the question was would you prefer 8D over DMAIC in some situations and why?.

The most relevant and best three answers were from Arunesh, Kavitha Sunder and Karthik Marimuthu. 

Karthik tried and explained both concepts nicely and also addressed the key part as to when to use 8D over DMAIC. Hence he bags the honour of giving the best answer for this question.”

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Global 8D (G8D) Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ's)

Posted by Graham Cripps on Thu, Jul 02, 2015 @ 10:59 AM

Global 8D (G8D) -  Frequently asked questions (FAQ's)!

The latest in our series of FAQ's answered by our Subject Specialist, Graham Cripps

If the answer to your question is not shown here why not use our ' Ask Us A Question ' Form to get an answer from our Subject Specialists!

"When I am asked for an 8D by my customer is it just the  8D Form  they want?"

The short answer is NO, however you may not have got to the root cause in the time they give you to provide the 8D.

The G8D Form is a means of recording and reporting the problem solving effort. At  D0  you should have implemented an Emergency Response Action (ERA) which must protect your customer from the effects of the problem. This is what the customer needs to see as quickly as possible.

Don't forget, other than the initial effect (or symptom) of the problem, the ERA can also introduce an effect in itself e.g. a supply constraint, so make sure these are included as part of your ERA.

Finally, you should always confirm understanding with your customer.

Download Your G8D Problem Solving Workbook

"Do I need to use Global 8D for every problem I encounter?"

I need to answer this in two parts:

1. When to use a full Global 8D - there are some simple rules to follow. G8D should be applied to those problems that have:

  • a  definition of the symptom(s ), that is the symptom has been quantified
  • identified the customer(s) and affected parties who experienced, or are experiencing, the symptom(s)
  • measurements to quantify the symptom(s) and demonstrate that a performance gap exists  and / or  that the priority (severity, urgency, growth) of the symptom warrants initiation of the process
  • an unknown cause
  • management commitment to dedicating the necessary resources to fix the problem at  Root Cause Level  and to prevent recurrence
  • a problem symptom complexity that exceeds the abillity of one person to solve the problem

2. The problem solving process is all about getting to root cause, eliminating the root cause and then fixing the reason why the problemm occurred in the first place. It matters not what process you use but I would suggest that the Global 8D steps offer everything a determined problem solver could want. You will clearly define the problem, protect your customer, get to root cause and make sure it stays fixed by addressing what allowed it to occur in the first place.

Download Your Global 8D Assessing Questions

"Is Global 8D the only problem solving tool to use?"

There are many tools and techniques available but I have found that there are two approaches that have served me well.

1. Global 8D is applied to those bigger problems that have:

  • a  definition of the symptom(s ), that is the symptomhas been quantified

2. The 5 WHY's (5Y's) is the other very useful tool. However I would recommend that you follow these basic steps:

  • define the problem by describing 'What is wrong with what?'
  • protect the customer (internal or external)
  • describe the problem fully (what? when? where? and how big?, using real data)
  • brainstorm all of the possible causes of the problem (not of the effect or symptom!)
  • arrange on a fishbone diagram
  • Use 5Y's to drill down to root cause level
  • develop causal theories that can describe how the root cause(s) results in the problem and the effect
  • test and verify potential root causes to get to verified root cause
  • determine and implement the 'best' permanent corrective action(s)
  • make it the new way of running the process

"How will Global 8D help my business?"

If you have ever said, or heard said "The last time we had this problem we did this" or "Why does this problem keep coming back?", then you did not get the problem solved!

Global 8D has the discipline to ensure that not only is the problem solved at root cause but what allowed the problem to happen is also fixed (the root cause of the root cause)

It's true to say that Global 8D should not be used for every problem. In fact something like only 5% of problems warrant the full use of this problem solving methodology. 

Other methods are available but again, I would recommend using the same steps as G8D for all problems to ensure you ask all the right questions at the right time and fix the problem at root cause permanently. 

Download Your Problem Solving Case Study

"Do I need to have a team trained for Global 8D?"

Yes but there are many ways of achieving this, from a standard instructor led programme to self-tutoring using available materials. The best way, in my opinion, is to have a  Problem Solving Application Workshop  run, which will deal with and resolve a live problem whilst training the team how to use the tools and techniques of Global 8D.

Global 8D Application Support Workshop

Topics: root cause analysis , Global 8D , G8D , Interim Containment Action , Permenant Corrective Action , Is/Is Not , problem prevention , Problem Desciption , 8D , 8D benefits , Problem solving , Continuous Improvement , ICA , decision making

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Root Cause Analysis and the 8D Problem Solving Bootcamp

Four rca approaches for permanent and effective corrective actions | includes fmea, vsm and seven basic quality tools.

Course Summary

 In this course I will cover four broad strategies or approaches for Root Cause Analysis (RCA) and problem-solving:   1. Five Why's   2. Cause and Effect Diagram   3. A3 Problem Solving Approach   4. Eight Disciplines or 8D Problem Solving Approach   Depending upon the complexity of the problem you can choose one of these approaches.  While taking these approaches, there are many tools and techniques which could be applied. I will cover many such tools, for example:   1. Seven Basic Quality Tools (Cause and Effect Analysis, Flow Chart, Check Sheet, Pareto Chart, Scatter Plot, Control Charts and Histograms)   2. Descriptive Statistics (Mean, Mode, Median, Range and Standard Deviation)   3. Graphs and Charts (Box and Whisker Plot, Individual Value Plot, Bar Chart, Pie Chart, Bubble Chart, Matrix Plot, and Time Series)   4. Value Stream Mapping   5. Tools for D1 (Establish the Team): Team Roles, Team Stages, Conflict Management and Negative Team Behaviours   6. Tools for D2 (Describe the Problem): 5W2H, SIPOC, Gemba Walk and Stakeholder Analysis   7. Tools for D3 (Interim Containment): Identification and Traceability   8. Tools for D4 (Root Cause Analysis): Brainstorming, Nominal Group Technique and Affinity Diagram   9. Tools for D5 (Develop CA): Poka-yoke, Force Field Analysis, Control Plan and Benefit-Cost Analysis   10. Tools for D6 (Implement CA): Gantt Chart, RACI Matrix, Reports and Dashboard   11. Tools for D7 (Prevent Recurrence): FMEA

Course Curriculum

1. introduction.

  • Download Section 1 Slides Start
  • 1a Introduction to RCA Preview
  • 1b RCA Common Approaches Start
  • 1c Problem Solving Start
  • Quiz - Introduction to RCA Start

Technique #1: Five Whys

  • Download Section 2 Slides and Templates Start
  • 2a Five Whys Intro Start
  • 2b Five Whys Start
  • 2c Five Whys Demo Preview
  • Quiz - Five Whys Start

Technique #2: Cause and Effect Analysis

  • Download Section 3 Slides and Resources Start
  • 3a Fishbone Diagram Theory Start
  • 3b Fishbone Diagram Excel SigmaXL Start
  • 3c Fishbone Diagram Minitab Workspace Start
  • Quiz - Cause and Effect Analysis Start

Technique #3: A3 Problem Solving Approach

  • Download Section 4 Slides and A3 Templates Start
  • 4a1 A3 Problem Solving Part 1 Start
  • 4a2 A3 Problem Solving Part 2 Start
  • 4b Is Is not analysis Start
  • 4c1 Cause and Effects Analysis Start
  • 4c2a Flow Chart Start
  • 4c2b Flow Chart Demonstration Start
  • 4c3a Check sheet Start
  • 4c3b Check sheet Demonstration Start
  • 4c4a Pareto Chart Start
  • 4c4b Pareto Chart Demonstration Start
  • 4c5a Scatter Plot Start
  • 4c5b Scatter Plot Demonstration Start
  • 4c6a Control Charts Part 1 Start
  • 4c6b Control Charts Part 2 Start
  • 4c6c Control Charts Part 3 Start
  • 4c6d Control Charts Demo 1 Start
  • 4c6e Control Charts Demo 2 Start
  • 4c6f Control Charts Demo 3 Start
  • 4c7a Histogram Start
  • 4c7b Histogram Demo Start
  • Quiz 1 - A3 Problem Solving Start
  • 4d1 Graphs and Chart Introduction Start
  • 4d2 Central Tendency Measurement Start
  • 4d3 Dispersion Measurement Start
  • 4d4 Descriptive Statistics Demo Start
  • 4d5 Box and Whisker Plot Start
  • 4d6 Box and Whisker Plot Demo Start
  • 4d7 Individual Value Plot with Demo Start
  • 4d8 Bar Charts Start
  • 4d9 Bar Charts Demo Start
  • 4d10 Pie Charts Start
  • 4d11 Bubble Charts Start
  • 4d12 Bubble Charts Demo Start
  • 4d13 Matrix Plot with Demo Start
  • 4d14 Time Series Start
  • 4d15 Time Series Demo Start
  • Quiz 2- A3 Problem Solving Start
  • 4e1 Value Stream Map Introduction Preview
  • 4e2 VSM - Times Start
  • 4e3 VSM - Demo Start
  • Quiz 3 - A3 Problem Solving Start

Technique #4: 8D Problem Solving Approach

  • 5-00a-Eight D History Start
  • 5-00b-Eight D Introduction Start
  • 5-00c Problem vs Symptoms Start
  • 5-00d When to use 8D Start
  • 5-0a D0 Preparation Start
  • 5-1a D1 Selecting the Team Start
  • 5-1b D1 Team Roles Start
  • 5-1c D1 Team Stages Start
  • 5-1d D1 Team Conflicts Start
  • 5-1e D1 Negative Team Dynamics - 1 Preview
  • 5-1f D1 Negative Team Dynamics - 2 Start
  • 5-1g D1 Team Action Log Start
  • Quiz 1 - 8D Problem Solving Start
  • 5-2a D2 Define the Problem Start
  • 5-2b D2 5W2H Start
  • 5-2c D2 SIPOC Start
  • 5-2d D2 Gemba Walk Start
  • 5-2e D2 Stakeholder Analysis Start
  • 5-3a D3 Interim Containment Start
  • 5-3b D3 Identification Traceability Start
  • 5-4a D4 RCA Start
  • 5-4b D4 Typical Root Causes Start
  • 5-4c D4 RCA Tools Start
  • 5-4d D4 Brainstorming Start
  • 5-4e D4 NGT Start
  • 5-4f D4 Affinity Diagram Start
  • Quiz 2 - 8D Problem Solving Start
  • 5-5a D5 Develop Permanent CAs Start
  • 5-5b D5 Poka Yoke Start
  • 5-5c D5 Force Field Analysis Start
  • 5-5d D5 Control Plan Start
  • 5-5e D5 Benefit Cost Analysis Start
  • 5-6a D6 Implement CA Start
  • 5-6b D6 Gantt Chart Start
  • 5-6c D6 Gantt Chart Demo Start
  • 5-6d D6 RACI Matrix Start
  • 5-6e D6 RACI Matrix Demo Start
  • Quiz 3 - 8D Problem Solving Start
  • 5-7a D7 Prevent Recurrence Start
  • 5-7b D7 FMEA Intro Start
  • 5-7c D7 FMEA Demo Start
  • 5-8a D8 Recognize Team Start
  • Summary and 8D Template Start
  • Quiz 4 - 8D Problem Solving Start

8d problem solving quiz

Sandeep Kumar

Sandeep Kumar has more than 35 years of Quality Management experience. He has worked as Quality Manager/Director on a number of projects, including Power, Oil and Gas and Infrastructure projects.

In addition, he provides consulting services to implement Lean Six Sigma to improve performance. 

His areas of specialization include Quality Assurance, ISO 9001:2015, Lean, Six Sigma, Risk Management, QMS Audits, Supplier Quality Surveillance, Supplier Pre-qualification, Construction Quality, Mechanical Inspection and Quality Training.

Professional Qualifications:

His professional qualification/certifications include: 

• ASQ-CSSBB, Certified Six Sigma Black Belt • ASQ-CMQ/OE Certified Manager of Quality/Organizational Excellence • PMI-PMP Certified Project Management Professional

• IRCA Registered Lead Auditor (QMS-2015)

• IIA-CIA Certified Internal Auditor • ASQ-CSSGB, Certified Six Sigma Green Belt

• ASQ-CQA Certified Quality Auditor

• ASQ-CQE Certified Quality Engineer

Course Pricing

$ 19.99 usd.


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Disciplined problem solving and 8d - elearning, course overview.

Disciplined problem solving and 8D is a systematic approach which focuses on the causes of problems as opposed to simply addressing their symptoms! The methodology is structured into eight disciplines (8Ds), emphasizing a cross-functional team synergy let by a qualified facilitator and the use of tried-and-tested quality tools and techniques.

By the end of this interactive course and workshop participants will understand the array of ‘disciplined’ problem solving tools (including ‘human factors’) and be able to facilitate and document value-adding problem-solving exercises using the Eight Disciplines (8D) in conformity with customer-specific requirements.

This course meets in full the requirements of the now superseded AS13000 standard and the requirements of RM13000 ~ “8D Problem Solving Reference Manual, RM13000”

Assessment of learning is achieved through Quizzes, Tests and Exercises and a Case Study.

a downloadable ( pdf ) Delegate Workbook is included

The e-Learning course is intended for Champions/Sponsors, Facilitators and Team Leaders who must respond to customer requests for corrective action using the 8D process and communicate progress using the 8D Problem Solving Form.

course duration is between 16 and 24 hours

Particular emphasis is placed on empowering, as well as qualifying, the individuals who will be facilitating 8D workshops – the 8D Practitioners (aka Facilitators).

Apart from these nominated 8D Practitioners all persons participating in cross-functional problem-solving teams will benefit from attending this course.

Course details

8D standards and guidance

RM13000 Problem Solving Methods

AS13000:2014 – Problem Solving Requirements for Suppliers

ARP9136:2016 – Aerospace Series - Root Cause Analysis and Problem Solving (9S Methodology)

The course is delivered over two consecutive days with continual assessment and feedback provided by the tutors.

Course structure

Understanding and describing different types of problems

Defining what is wrong with what

Finding the causes of problems

Proving root causes

Creating and deploying corrective action [prevention – detection – avoidance]

Overview of the 8D method

8D related terminology

8D prioritization calculator

Explanation and illustration of the 8D steps [objective, actions and essentials]

Extended team exercises

Disciplined problem-solving participants – facilitator and team members

Quiz: Traits of a good facilitator

Team exercise: Delivering an ‘ice-breaker’ – but why?

Overview of ‘disciplined’ problem solving

Problems related to levels of staff!

Quiz: 8D related terminology [source: AS13000:2014]

Defining a problem

Clarifying and describing problems

Data collection – Check sheets & Data Forms

Creating an explicit problem statement

Exercise: The problem, the effect and the goal

Example : Clarifying and describing problems

Exercise: Defining ‘good’ product/service (toast & coffee)

Customer satisfaction (aka VOC) issues

Determining VOC and ‘stratification’

Exercise: Stratification analysis (Pizza delivery)

Example : Stratification analysis (Pizza delivery)

Kano Model – Customer satisfaction analysis tool

Exercise: VOC, Stratification and Kano

Getting started – essential ‘structured questions’

Survey: Problem solving tools

Defining problems – ‘IS – IS NOT’ questioning

‘IS – IS NOT’ questioning matrix

‘IS – IS NOT’ questions and recorded answers

Exercise: the burned toast problem

Measles Chart

Defect Concentration Diagram

Workmanship and Visual Inspection ‘difficulties’

Understanding the causes of problems

The three types of causes

Exercise: Understanding the three types of causes

Domestic example of the “5-WHYS” method

Keep the team asking why – the “5-WHYS” method

Beware ‘operator error’ answers!

IAQG’s human factors (root causes)

Details of the IAQG’s human factors (root causes)

Exercise: Why did the toast burn?

Manufacturing example of 5-WHYs method

Exercise: Coolant leaking from a machine tool

ISHIKAWA diagram – aka Fishbone diagram

The “6Ms” method cause – different perspectives

Example : The burned toast problem

ISHIKAWA diagram – different ‘perspectives’

Understanding ‘logic paths’ and Boolean operators

Understanding the ‘Swiss cheese’ model

Example: The car won’t start!

Exercise: multiple ‘logic paths’ of failures

Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Boolean operators

Example : The car won’t start!

Value Stream Mapping (VSM)

Finding root causes from different ‘sources’

Searching for root causes (possible/plausible/probable)

Verifying the root cause – the “therefore test”

Exercise: Root cause verification using the “therefore test”

Verifying the root cause – “Occam’s Razor”

Verifying the root cause – “Sherlock Holmes quotation”

Proving root cause – “Sense/Voting” & “IS – IS NOT test”

Exercise: Burned toast ~ using ‘IS – IS NOT’ questions

Creating and deploying corrective action

Problems ~ Corrective action ~ Goal/Target statement

Example : Problem and Goal Statements

Fixing the problem – permanently!

Determining corrective actions – Brainstorming

Determining corrective actions

Classify causes and their corrective actions

Mistake-proofing strategies

Exercise: Determining/classifying corrective actions

Tools to assist corrective action determination

Six Hats Thinking

Impact & Effort Matrix

Consider risks and make a choice

Exercise: Impact-effort matrix

8D Problem Solving

Problem solving/documenting using the 8D method

Outline of the 8D steps

Exercise: Summary of the 8D steps – match the ‘Ds’

Exercise: Preforming an 8D triage

8D comparisons with other methodologies

8D timelines (AS13100-specific)

8D reporting form [AS13000]

8D reporting form [AESQ]

8D steps – objective, actions and essentials & illustration

D0 Implement immediate containment and prepare for 8D

D0 – Objective

D0 – Actions


D0 – Essentials

D1 Form the team

D1 – Objective

Cross-functional team and Facilitator

D1 – Actions

D1 – Essentials

D2 Define the problem

D2 – Objective

Make use of the actual product or photographs

D2 – Actions

D2 – Essentials

D3 Develop containment actions

D3 – Objective

D3 – Actions

D3 – Essentials

D4 Identify and verify root causes

D4 – Objective

D4 – Actions

D4 – Essentials

Identification of the most probably root cause

Illustration – PROCESS root causes

Illustration – SYSTEM root causes

D5 Identify corrective action

D5 – Objective

D5 – Actions

Illustration – corrective actions aimed at the PROCESS

Illustration – corrective actions aimed at the SYSTEM

D5 – Essentials

D6 Implement corrective action

D6 – Objective

D6 – Actions

Illustration – PROCESS deployment and test

Illustration – SYSTEM deployment and test

D6 – Essentials

D7 Define and plan preventive action

D7 – Objective

D7 – Actions

D7 – Essentials

D8 Recognize the team

D8 – Objective

D8 – Actions

D8 – Essentials

Exercise – 8D assessment

Undertake an 8D assessment of the Case Study “The Missing Rivets”

Immediately download your Training Certificate ( pdf )

Feel free to re-do and of the Quizzes and Exercises

Qualifications & benefits

Students successfully completing this e-Learning course, and successfully undertaking the quizzes and exercises can immediately download ( pdf ) their training certificate containing the TEC logo and confirming their 8D Practitioner status.

Students who successfully complete the course will –

be confident in knowing that disciplined problem solving abilities meet the requirements for competency mandated by AS13000 (Appendix C)

be better equipped to maintain on-going compliance with AS13000 and 'customer-specific' requirements relating to the AESQ Problem Solving Template

identify weaknesses in their organization’s QMS documented problem solving process – and be able to address shortcomings

be confident in facilitating a cross-functional team to undertake problem solving using the 8D methodology

be equipped to train colleagues to be confident participants in 8D problem solving teams

be able to accrue IRCA CPD points because of the highly structured nature of this course

Their organization will –

be confident that their newly qualified AS13000 8D Practitioner will have appropriate knowledge/skills and can demonstrate competence

be able to demonstrate conformity to all elements of AS13000 to customers

know that the outcomes of their 8D problem solving activities will be correctly documented in the AESQ Problem Solving Template which will meet the expectations of aeroengine manufacturers

  • TEC is C & G Provider accredited
  • TEC is SC21 Strategic Partner accredited

Buy Disciplined Problem Solving and 8D - eLearning

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8D Problem Solving Method - eLearning (English)

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